Rubrics are scoring guides consisting of specific predetermined criteria used in making academic judgements in evaluating students work (Mertler, 2001). Two types of rubric are described in literature, a holistic rubric where an overall score is given without reference to individual components and an analytic rubric where component or individual parts of the assignment are scored followed by summing up to get a total score (Mertler, 2001). A few rubrics used to assess mind maps have been described in literature (D’Antoni et al., 2009; Evrekli et al., 2010). These authors’ adapted methods originally used to score concept maps, which are top to down diagrams presenting information in node link node for- mat with linking descriptive propositions (West et al., 2002; Tergan et al., 2006). Both concept and mind maps promote active, meaningful learning at the meta- cognitive level and differ only in their structure and organisation of information (D’Antoni et al., 2009). Concepts maps have been scored using structural and relational analytical methods (Daley & Torre, 2010; Kassab & Hussain, 2010; Hung & Lin, 2015; West et al., 2002). The structural method assigns a value to hierarchal structure, concept-concept link and cross link. Relational methods, on the other hand are based on the quality of individual links taking into account the structure of the concept map. The structural methods have been shown to be sensitive to changes in students evolving knowledge (West et al., 2002).
detailed information on the availability and use of study materials, giving students practical tasks to perform, such as posting discussion board messages. This introductory unit is considered crucial in setting expectations and tone, clarifying procedures, thus aiming to reduce or eliminate learner confusion and/or frustration. It draws together and gives some focus for information from other areas of the university, e.g. the library services generally and specifically in relation to distance learners, which may be a very important topic for those returning to education after a period away. It also helps to help create expectations of active, rather than passive learning.
In relation, in a wider context of educations, the number of evidences that reported PBL to be less effective (Matthews, 2004; Anderson, 2007) were quite balanced with the studies that reported more effective in constructing students’ knowledge of procedures or applications (Capon and Kuhn, 2004; Dehkordi and Heydarnejad, 2008). When compared to Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive domain, PBL appeared to be effective in promoting students’ learning at higher cognitive level at application and evaluation, but not in understanding level (Alcazar and Fitzgerald, 2005). A systematic review in medical field supported that students in PBL approach gained slightly less factual knowledge of concepts and principles (Dochy et al. 2003). There was no convincing evidence to support PBL instructional approach improved students’ knowledge and clinical performance (Colliver, 2000). Given the knowledge as a whole structure of concepts, principles, and procedures; the systematic evidence on the effectiveness of PBL appeared to be equivocal according to these structures (Gijbel et al. 2005).
In the third trial of group III respondents, the learning modules were designed to be more informative, an explanation of the concept of PBL was given in a more significant portion. As a result, students quickly follow PBL learning procedures. The results of this trial raise several fundamental questions: 1) how many modules are prepared as guidelines for students, so students can easily follow all PBL-basedlearning sessions. This situation is in line with the findings of Jones et al. (2013) who found many students who were pre-established and needed a lot of guidance for their projects; 2) how long it takes for PBL orientation to students so that students really understand and follow PBL-basedlearning processes correctly. These questions are in line with the results of Schneider's (2014) study which also raises open debate about 1) how many guidelines are needed in PBL; 2) potential students experience confusion if there is not enough initial learning framework; 3) students who do not have relevant and adequate initial knowledge tend to lag behind.
One of the significant characteristics of PBL method is that students contribute to each other’s learning concertedly by forming small heterogeneous groups, under the guidance of the teacher, for a common target. In order for a small-group activity to be a cooperative learning, students should make an effort to optimize both their own learning and the learning of the students in the group (Boud & Feletti, 1991; Kaptan & Korkmaz, 2001; Mc Donnell, O’Connor & Seery, 2007; Akınoğlu & Eren, 2013). Compared to traditional methods, teaching students in groups has a more positive effect on students’ academic achievements and eagerness to learn (Springer, Stanne & Donovan, 1999). Students studying in accordance with the scenarios which form the basis of the PBL method learn the prominent concepts of the lesson in a better way and they also acquire cooperative study skills and real life experience (Dahlgren & Öberg, 2001).
Comparison of students’ scores in final course exam, simi- lar root questions, showed that scores of students in PBL group was significantly higher than those of LBL group. In other words in general health course the score of PBL group (16.02 ±2.03) was higher than LBL group (14.47 ±2.03 and 14.25 ±1.72) (Table 1). The percentage of cor- rect responses to 10 same root questions in three groups indicated that the percentage of correct responses in PBL were significantly higher than that of LBL.
Some significant positive and negative responses and feedbacks are presented in the following Table 6. From our closed observation based on the conducted survey, it is found that the students’ achievement is very much depending on numbers of factors such as: i) prior background intake (CGPA), ii) participation during teaching and learning (T&L) activities, and iii) motivation towards gaining more knowledge rather than achieving a good grade only. Also, it is observed that the excellent students (those who scored A+, A, A-) would give good comments and credits to the conducted T&L activities during POPBL implementation in their project. In contrast, the moderate or less-performing students would normally criticise the teaching methods and materials delivery which they regarded as the source contributors towards their achievement.
problems and necessitate students to attain new knowledge to resolve the problem. PBL is student-centred therefore, the pursuit for more information drives student learning in a shared, group-centred, hands-on setting (7). Within PBL sessions, two major pedagogical ideologies stimulate students acquire best knowledge; (a) they are more active in groups rather than alone, and (b) they are able to enthusiastically identify and tackle the gaps in their knowledge. Information gathered in this study aims to highlight the issues to be considered while selecting PBL sessions to improve professionalism course implementation as well as teaching and assessment material. We, therefore intend to find answers to the following questions in pursuit to get evidence to best fit PBL into the professionalism course.
The participants of this study were first year Bachelor of Education students enrolled in a mathematics education course at a regional Australian university (N=58). The course is based on the two major curriculum strands of numeration and patterns and algebra. The data collected were from two end-of-semester exam questions, from two consecutive 2009 (n=30) and 2010 (n=28) semesters, answered by students who were in attendance both weeks when place value was investigated. In both years, a two-hour whole group lecture was provided in traditional fashion in a lecture theatre followed by a two-hour tutorial session. The difference between the ways the students were taught is that during the tutorials, the 2010 group was taught using a PBL approach and the 2009 group was taught using a traditional instructor-led approach. Each method was designed to probe students‟ MCK related to their conceptual understanding of PV systems and their symmetry.
and Hancock (2010) have defined as introduction, presentation of information, and end of lesson. Lecture-based computer courses are slightly different from other lecture-based instruction in terms of its structure. Essentially, the lecturer starts with an introduction, presents the information, allows student application of information-related sample issues on their computers, and ends the lesson. In this respect, lecture-based courses obstruct student creativity, problem-solving skills (Hsieh & Knight, 2008) and ICT skills. To eliminate these negative outcomes and to effectively enhance student ICT skills, PBL approaches may be used in computer courses. Although most PBL research has used computers as technological learning tools to facilitate teaching and learning processes (see Dunlap, 2005; Kim & Pedersen, 2011; Raes, Schellens, De Weyer, & Vanderhoven, 2012), there have been quite a few studies in recent years examining PBL-based approaches to computer courses (see Baturay & Bay, 2010; Warren, Dondinger, McLeod, & Bigenho, 2012). However, none of these studies applied to pre-service teachers. While Warren et al. (2012) focused on using PBL and 3-D computer game strategies in course design, Baturay and Bay (2010) used an experimental design for distance education. The present research may be the first PBL-based experimental study using both qualitative and quantitative approaches to provide and determine pre-service teacher ICT skills.
Partnerships and prompting as facilitation also come in many forms, for example, by partnering through the facilitation process and through the instructor as a meta-cognitive coach. A coach who also thinks and prompts about solutions to the problem is one way to motivate and stimulate in students the PBL conduct expected of them, producing a positive attitude to learning. Facilitation questions are encouraged. What is going on here? Can anyone explain to me where we are at in the problem? Students are encouraged to divide and share the work through task delegation and to use technology. Further questions include: What do we need to know more about? What can we do in a more effective way? What should it look like visually? What is missing from the graphic? Is this better sketched as a 2- D or 3-D sketch? Facilitation is the process that keeps groups aligned and moving toward the engineering objectives and the imaginable two- or three-dimensional solution to the problem.
An audit by the Leeds Met Employability Office in December 2008 revealed gaps in the provision of employability skills for students within course structure and content. Despite some excellent examples of embedded employability and enterprise skills in courses, key areas for improvement were noted. Overt articulation and visibility of “hidden skills in course documents, mapped skills at the time of new course approvals, named staff to track issues and a consistent pan-University approach to PDP and work experience” were identified as crucial for producing graduates who are fit for purpose for the wider world of work. Whether graduates move into creative jobs, into the public or private sectors, become self-employed or volunteers, the fostering of generic enterprise and entrepreneurial skills are vital in these changing times. There is plenty for Leeds Met to do to catalyse this for its graduates.
A Project Oriented ProblemBasedLearning (POPBL) has been introduced to the first year students in the Analog Electronics (BEL10203) course at the Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, UTHM. The aim is to design an electronic circuit using transistors and diodes that can function as electronic appliances with low cost, low power consumption, and has the features of smart and portable. The total of 141 students were divided into groups and assigned to setup an electronic based company that will be manufacturing the electronic product. Each group had to conduct their regular meetings and develop different kind of products with their creativity. The overall evaluation is divided for both lecturer and peer assessment which carried 20% of their course work. The assessment covered 60% of evaluation for the group management, attitude, progress presentation, report writing while another 40% for the functionality and features of their product. As a result, the POPBL session has increased the student’s ability to analyze and design an analog circuit using various kinds of transistors and diodes. They also gained practical understanding on transistor and diode operation. The POPBL not only expanded their experience in using software tools for circuit design and simulation, but also developed greater awareness to conduct professional presentation and technical report. They also learned to work as professional, keen to ethical responsibilities and committed to the group. The analysis conducted has shown that 95% of the students agreed that the problem given helped them understands better the course syllabus and developed a good problem solving skills.
A Project Oriented ProblemBasedLearning (POPBL) has been introduced to the first year students in the Analog Electronics (BEL10203) course at the Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, UTHM. The aim is to design an electronic circuit using transistors and diodes that can function as electronic appliances with low cost, low power consumption, and has the features of smart and portable. The total of 143 students were divided into groups and assigned to setup an electronic based company that will be manufacturing the electronic product. Each group had to conduct their regular meetings and develop different kind of products with their creativity. The overall evaluation is divided for both lecturer and peer assessment which carried 20% of their course work. The assessment covered 60% of evaluation for the group management, attitude, progress presentation, report writing while another 40% for the functionality and features of their product. As a result, the POPBL session has increased the student’s ability to analyze and design an analog circuit using various kinds of transistors and diodes. They also gained practical understanding on transistor and diode operation. The POPBL not only expanded their experience in using software tools for circuit design and simulation, but also developed greater awareness to conduct professional presentation and technical report. They also learned to work as professional, keen to ethical responsibilities and committed to the group. The analysis conducted has shown that 95% of the students agreed that the problem given helped them understands better the course syllabus and developed a good problem solving skills.
Problembasedlearning has been widely used as a method of delivery amongst higher learning institutions to provide greater understanding and effective learning (Hmelo-Silver, 2004), while enhancing the integrating of related knowledge (Lou, 2011). It was of common understanding that the general culture of higher degree student to score high marks in the courses, at least in science based courses, is at worst by regurgitating the content of their lecture and tutorials, or by strictly following the procedures of a lab technique, which is contrary to the idea of “learning” itself. There is little or no indication that the students actually “digest” the information for real life practices through the traditional method of delivery and assessment. Through a problem-based method, students are allowed to feel the ”fear” of not performing strictly to what is ”required”, therefore they may reject the delivery method with the argument that they do not learn much or anything at all (Lou, 2011).This may stem from the inability of the students to gauge their required knowledge (Langendyk, 2006). However, for some of the problems in Biomedical Engineering there might not be a definite right or wrong answer, thus a problem-basedlearning might be the most suitable approach. Unlike guided self-learning approach, a problem-basedlearning method involves minimal guidance and loose instructions (Newstetter, 2010). Students are expected to identify the problems themselves and come up with a solution based on their self exploration. This method might or might not work based on the amount and nature of guidance provided (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006).
Collaboration, one of 21 st century skills, in English for Business III course is focused on through the problembasedlearning task to serve a dual purpose. In addition to encouraging students to divide the work in a fair manner among the group members, it also encourages mutual respect and interaction, willingness to listen and adapt thinking to a commonly agreed goal and develop a shared understanding of issues related to an identified problem through open interaction. Co-construction of meaning and developing multiple solution options is encouraged by such situated learning, where students learn to give mutual support and constructive criticism and tuning in cognitively and socially (Billet, 1996). On the one hand, “real-world problems furnish more interesting, meaningful and challenging contexts for students to apply and hone their skills (Nilson, 2010, p.198). On the other hand, students are engaged in cognitive collaboration and develop problem-solving expertise (Heller et al., 1992), group dynamics and team work as they critically analyze the specific situation and suggest creative solutions through the services offered by the international charity. For example, in small groups, students are asked to work collaboratively on the products (presentation and written report) that will present their findings and team work, and use mobile and computer tools and services (e.g. WhatsApp, Google groups, etc.) for their out-of-class digital collaboration.
In Saudi Arabia, at the beginning of this century, PBL started to spread among other health professions such as medicine, dentistry, and physiotherapy colleges (Khalil &Al Rukban, 2010). These authors outline that the majority of the medical colleges in Saudi Arabia are planning to change their curricula to PBL curricula, and newer medical colleges are adopting the PBL curricula (Khalid, 2008). This shift has shown great results in the learning outcomes. For instance, Al-Damegh and Baig (2005) compared PBL students with NPBL students in third-year medical students at the Medical School at King Saud University. The Medical School at King Saud University has two campuses, one campus is in Riyadh (where the teaching method is NPBL) and the other in Al-Qassim (PBL teaching method). The author compared the PBL with the NPBL approach in regard to solving problems and self-directed leaning skills in both teaching approaches.In the Riyadh campus, there were 138 students and there were 65 students in Al- Qassim campus. The results showed that 64% of PBL students were able to answer problem-solving questions correctly as opposed to 7.25% of the students at NPBL students. In addition, 86% of PBL engaged in self-directed learning compared to 20% in the NPBL class. In a nursing context in Saudi Arabia, Aliand El Sebai (2010) conducted a one-group pre-test and post-test design to examine the impact of PBL on nursing students' learning and their self- directed learning abilities. PBL was introduced in the Evidence-Based Nursing Course for one semester only. The results showed significant differences between the pre-test and post-test mean scores for this approach to learning.
The fact that there are most lecturers in learning does not involve assessment in the learning process. It is good for the learning process to be evaluated on what each student is doing, so that the learning process stimulates students to be actively involved in finding the concepts that they are learning. Physics becomes a course that requires reasoning ability, so learning requires abstract illustration abilities. Problem-basedlearning have to developed primarily in physics to help students develop thinking skills, problem solving, and intellectual skills that learn about the various roles of adults through their involvement in real-life experiences or simulations and become autonomous and independent learners.
Problem-basedlearning (PBL) is an internationally recognised pedagogical approach that is implemented within a number of disciplines. The relevance and uptake of PBL in psychology has to date, however, received very limited attention. The aim of this paper is therefore to review published accounts on how PBL is being used to deliver psychology curricula in higher education and to highlight psychological research that offers practical strategies for PBL theory and practice. The paper is divided into three sections. In the first, we discuss the principles of PBL and provide examples of how it can be used within psychology curricula alongside a consideration of its advantages and disadvantages. In the second section, we outline the results of a systematic literature review of published examples of PBL used within psychology undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Finally, in the third section, we examine some of the ways in which psychological research can provide practical guidance for PBL teaching practice. We conclude this paper with some recommendations for future research across all these areas, and call for the further development of PBL curricula in psychology higher education course provision.
Fukuzawa et al. (2017) stressed on the importance to utilise PBL method in introductory courses as an initiative to ward off criticism from professional bodies about the lack of soft skills such as communication skills, IT skills, problem solving skills and ability to work effectively in teams among the accounting graduates. Furthermore, Malaysian public universities which offer the Education programmes are in the process of introducing and strengthening active learning and student-centred approach in all the programmes offered. This is in line with the 10th Malaysia Plan (RMK10, 2011-2015) and Malaysia Education Blueprint (PPPM-PT, 2015-2025), in which the main objective in education is to give priority to education institutions to implement and revive teaching and learning processes which are outcome-based. One of them is the PBL approach which is believed to increase the students’ creativity and critical thinking skills as well as innovation.