Felli and Roberts (2000) analyse a model with heterogeneous types in which there are no post-investment search frictions. With workers suﬃciently close substitutes, the Bertrand-style game with firms posting wages involves agents receiving close to com- petitive returns. Eﬃcient equilibria always exist but when workers have ex ante invest- ment decisions there may be (bounded) coordination failures with attendant ineﬃciencies. What is shown is that the ranking of workers by equilibrium investment levels may diﬀer from the ranking by optimum investment levels. A worker with lower intrinsic quality may nevertheless invest suﬃciently more than an able worker that in the Bertrand equilibrium they are hired by a more productive firm. The distribution of investment is then subop- timal but it is unclear what happens to the total; indeed with heterogeneous types this may not be such an interesting question. At all events, our mechanism for ineﬃciency is diﬀerent. The issue is not so much bargained versus Bertrand price determination, but complementarity and discreteness. This can be established by noting that the ap- pendix of Acemoglu (1997) shows that for the Bertrand game with homogeneous types and continuous single sided investment overinvestment is precluded. 31 Translating our double-sided discrete investment game into a static Bertrand framework still yields over- investment equilibria. The key point is that a non investing deviant may leave the wage of investors unchanged (similarly to the binding outside option in the dynamic matching and bargaining model) allowing equilibria with excessive investment.
cooperation. He considers coordination to "involve the adjustment of government policies by a process of intensive consultation within an international institution in order to establish and maintain a programme which is designed to obtain goals generally regarded as being overwhelmingly important...The international institution has the task of deciding the programme with the advice and consent of member states." Again, it is not clear whether "common policies" are taken to mean a single policy, or a more loose, common set of national policies, ,similar to what one may observe in the current Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the European Union. Cooperation is defined as "a limited involvement of states in a joint enterprise, limited both in scope and duration, and focused upon a specific predetermined objective". Thus, Taylor's definition of cooperation comes closer to our definition of coordination. "Harmonisation" for Taylor involves the ability of an international institution to identify and exploit existing compatibilities between states. It depends on the existence of actual compatibility of interests and on the reluctance of states to act so as to endanger these compatibilities. Taylor's focus is different from that of this study. His main objective is to examine the role of international organisations, while here, NATO is only one part of the analysis. It will be important for the thesis to be alert to whether or not the Western institutions were capable of "directing" Western coordination, but, from the outset, the states are taken to be the dominant actors who "drive" the coordination process. Paul Taylor, "Coordination in international organization", pp. 29-43, in P. Taylor and AJR Groom, Frameworks for International Co-operation, London, Pinter Publishers, 1990.
In this chapter, we discuss a general problem of formation feasibility for multi-agent coordination control when individual agents have kinematics constraints modelled by affine nonlinear control systems with possible drift terms. Such dynamics mod- els include the single-integrator model and double-integrator model considered in previous chapters, as well as other commonly-used models such as unicycle models discussed in many papers. In this problem, all agents need to work cooperatively to maintain a global formation task described by edge constraints. For such a multi- agent group, we assume that different agents may have totally different dynamics, which brings the problem of coordination control of networked heterogeneous sys- tems. Based on the concepts of (affine) distribution and codistribution, we propose a unified framework and an algebraic condition to determine the existence of feasible motions under both kinematic constraints and formation constraints. In the case that feasible motions exist, we propose a systematic procedure to obtain an equivalent dynamical system which generates all types of feasible motions. Several examples involving coordination control of constant-speed agents and heterogeneous agents are provided to demonstrate the application of this coordination control framework.
166 Potential Benefits for Macro-tasking: Coordination theory allows for the identifi- 167 cation and removal of potential barriers to accomplishing crowd work. The work- 168 flow plans derived from coordination theory not only provide guidance needed to 169 accomplish work but also a shared communication medium to facilitate a common 170 understanding among crowd workers.
benefit from coordinating their actions. Formally, such traffic rules can be considered as the equilibria of coordination games, and the rules we selected to follow are the results of equilibrium selection. In a general sense, we cannot distinguish the advantages and disadvantages of these two kinds of rules. At the very beginning, each country therefore specifies a uniform traffic rule without any idiocratic reason in reality, after many shifts, currently people in around countries drive in right-hand, and the others oppositely. Furthermore, with a substantial probability, this proportion is still continuously changing. Such of kinds of issues of equilibrium selection, like the dynamic selection mechanism of traffic rules, therefore should be investigated deeply, why do not all countries follow the same traffic rules, and how do they coordinate in the same way across most countries? At first glance, the individuals will be better off from coordinating with others, and we identify such process to be coordinated as the process of emergence of basic social institutions. For example, the individual can realize the benefits from obeying the coordinated institutional behavior of the other individuals.
atom, occupying a crystallographic inversion centre, is six- coordinated by six N atoms of three symmetry-related 2,2 0 - (propane-1,3-diyldithio)bis(1,3,4-thiadiazole) (L) ligands in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The ligand L adopts two kinds of coordination modes in the crystal structure; one is a monodentate coordination mode and serves to complete the octahedral coordination of the Cu atom and the other is an N:N 0 -bidentate bridging mode in a trans configuration,
the main factors controlling the self-assembly of simple metal-organic architectures has been gained; appropriate matching of the coordination geometry preferences of metal ion(s), the nature and denticity of the ligand scaffold, and the length, angle and flexibility of the linking units between binding sites on the ligands generally provide good control on the resulting assembly. [1a, 2]
coordinated N,N′-bis-(2-cyano-ethylpropenoyl)-1,2-diamidobenzene ligand with a water solvent molecule in one apical position over the coordination plane. The polymeric structure and completeness of the coordination sphere is obtained by intermolecular coordination of a N-atom of a neighboured molecule finally forming the polymeric catena-structure with Zn-atoms in distorted octahedral geometry. The Zn-O bond distances involving the ligand are accordingly determined to 2.061 (1) and 2.111 (1) Å and agree with the corresponding Zn-N bond lengths of 2.063 (1) and 2.075 (1) Å. The Zn-O bond distance to the coordinated water solvent molecule is elongated to 2.185 (1) Å but still shorter than the one to the N- atom of the cyano-group of a neighbour molecule (2.232 (1) Å) which finally leads to the formation of the polymeric catena structure. The four donor atoms of the ligand in its mer-coordination form a coordination plane, they deviate from this by in the mean 0.09 Å so that the position of the central Zn-atom with a deviation from this plane of 0.04 Å can be regarded as placed well within this plane. These findings are in agreement with its embedding in the centre of a distorted octahedron. With respect to the flexibility of Zn(ii) in the formation of different complex geometries the complex fits within Fuchs et al. (2014), Barnard et al. (2009), Ryu et al. (2003), or Tanase et al. (2001), even if for the latter case larger structural deviations are observed due to larger structural differences in the ligand constitution.
The conflict and the poor economic situation in Myanmar have resulted in a huge influx of its citizens into Thailand. An estimated three million Burmese reside in Thailand, including approximately 140 000 ethnic Karen refugees living in nine refugee camps along the Thai- Myanmar border. The Karen refugees still have strong links with Myanmar and some of them are involved in the Karen Liberation Army/Karen National Union (KNLA/KNU) political and military rebel movements. Humanitarian needs in the refugee camps in Thailand relate to food security and livelihood, water, sanitation, health, protection and finding sustainable solutions. There is also a need to re-launch the refugee screening and registration process. After decades of existence of the Burmese refugee camps a different type of response and assistance is now required. Donors agree that it is imperative to move from hand-outs towards sustainable solutions which include livelihood alternatives. This transition is particularly important because refugees have become totally aid-dependent after such a long period of encampment. In this process, the Five-year Strategic Plan drawn up by the Committee for the Coordination of Services to Displaced Persons in Thailand (CCSDPT) and the UNHCR represents an important step forward. The Plan will provide a basis for dialogue with the Thai Government on finding durable solutions for the refuges by providing them with an alternative to expand their self-reliance.
Originally, EMT-based multi-agent control was tested for its team coordination capabilities over a small balancing problem involving two agents. In this problem, two agents of equal mass are standing on a long bar resting with its ends on two equal springs (Figure 1). At each time step of the system, each agent has the choice of three actions: moving left one step, moving right one step, or staying put. Every movement of an agent has a non-zero probability of failing, and the probability is biased by the inclination of the bar. That is, an uphill motion will have less probability of succeeding than if the bar were level, and downhill motion will have greater probability of succeeding than if the bar were level. Notice that bar inclination depends on the current agent positions on the bar, thus creating a correlation between the effects of the agent actions, and provides for implicit information transfer between the agents.
C NMR, IR-spectroscopy and a single-crystal X-ray diffrac- tion study. The Ru atom in this complex is best described as having a considerably distorted octahedral coordination environment with the arene occupying three coordination sites. Two further coordination sites are occupied by chloride and bromide ligands, while the sixth site is occupied by the carbene. The carbene portion of the ligand is a benzimidazole ring. This ring is connected to the C 6 H 4 C(CH 3 ) 3 arene by a
Thus, long-term adaptation to training is characterized, in particular, by an increase in the activity of stress-limiting systems, helps to overcome the stress response to the disease, and establish the normal resistance of the organism to respiratory diseases. In the process of systematic exercises in therapeutic gymnastics, the neurohumoral regulation of respiration during muscular work is improved, better coordination of the work of breathing and exercises is provided; there is an increase in the economization process of the respiratory system and in conditions of rest, and during standard physical exertion.
From the static coordination degree point view, the coordination development between population, resource, environment and economy was in a quite good status but showed obvious fluctuation since 1997 (Figure 4). The ratio of the highest static coordination degree (0.998) and the lowest (0.773) was 1.29. The static coordination degree of the overall system showed a trend of decrease and was in the state of maladjustment from 1997 to 2002, which reached the lowest in 2002. That of the overall system was in the state of coordination from 2003 to 2008, which reached the highest in 2008. That of the overall system was in the state of maladjustment since 2009.
If there is in the society an observation network as 1 or 2, in any sequential equilibrium, for any payo¤s, and for any order selected by the nature, agents willing to take choose it on the equilibrium path. Let explain why. Since the agents have threshold t = 2;any of them would best respond by choosing if observes that a predecessor has chosen also . In the network 1, the …rst agent in the clique who has to choose, knows that her action is observed by at least one agent willing to take the action (she is observed by 2 agents, and only 1 in the society does not want to choose ). Therefore, she best responds by choosing , since then the …rst best is obtained. The second agent in the clique, when choosing, if she observes that the …rst one has not chosen must believe with probability 1 that she was the unwilling agent, and assigns probability 1 to be observed by a willing agent. Therefore, in any equilibrium path, the willing agents in the clique choose , and agents who does not belong to the clique best respond to these strategies by also choosing . A similar argument can be applied in the network 2. However, in 3 a di¤erent equilibrium can be sustained. Imagine that everyone is playing after observing and that penalization of choosing if nobody else chooses it is extremely high. If the …rst agent who decides is not in the extremes, she will choose since she knows that is observed by, at least, one willing agent. But if the …rst agent is in one of the extremes, if she plays , with positive probability she is observed by the unwilling agent, who would choose also . Given the prescribed strategy, if the order of play is according to the sequence, nobody else would choose , and the initial agent prefers . Therefore it is possible to sustain an equilibrium failure. The existence of the structure 3 does not guarantee the non existence of coordination failures.
The asymmetric unit consists of three mononuclear cobalt centers and two lattice chloride ions. All the three Co cen- ters have a distorted octahedral geometry. Two of the co- balt centers (each on an inversion center) have similar coordination geometry made up of two chloride ions, one furfuryladenine cation and their inversion related ligands (Figure 3a). They are (Co2 and Co3 ions) positioned at a ī and e ī Wyckoff site symmetries respectively. Unlike these Co2 and Co3 ions, Co1 ion lies at the general position (surrounded by the two furfuryladenine cations, three
The Scheduler uses a Multiple Criteria Genetic Algorithm (MCGA) to facilitate the optimum utilisation of the available resources. The Scheduler views the scheduling problem as the minimisation of the total design time of a given number of tasks, with interdependencies between them, by assigning them to be performed on an optimum number of the most efficient resources. The Scheduler prepares the information required for the MCGA using information held in the resource model, and the task model, which is supplied by the DMS. When instructed by the Resource Manager, the Scheduler executes the MCGA to produce a Pareto optimal set of schedules. A prescribed criteria is then used to select the most appropriate schedule to enable the optimum utilisation of the available resources.
2014/02/minnesota-candidate-fundraising-independent-committees-round-two-still-struggling/. 70. See Brent Ferguson, Beyond Coordination: Defining Indirect Campaign Contributions for the Super PAC Era, 42 H ASTINGS C ONST . L.Q. 471, 509-10 (2015) (proposing a candidate-action theory for limiting “indirect contributions,” in which “an expenditure may be treated as a contribution if there are reliable indications . . . that an expenditure will provide sufficient utility or perceived utility to a candidate such that quid pro quo corruption becomes a strong concern”); Note, Working Together for an Independent Expenditure: Candidate Assistance with Super PAC Fundraising, 128 H ARV . L. R EV . 1478, 1480 (2015) (proposing a redefinition of coordination “to include candidate-assisted Super PAC fundraising activities”); The Editorial Bd., supra note 10 (calling the Empowering Citizens Act “the best chance for ridding politics of special-interest cash and preventing another era of scandal”); Paul S. Ryan, Commentary, New Report Highlights Need for “Coordination” Reform Post-Citizens United, R OLL C ALL (June 18, 2014, 5:00 AM), http://www.rollcall.com/news/new_report_highlights_need_for_coordination_reform_post_ citizens_united-233970-1.html?pg=2&dczone=opinion (“It is time for the FEC to tighten up its ‘coordination’ regulations—to bring the legal definition of coordination in better alignment with the common sense meaning of the word.”); Summary of H.R. 270, the Empowering Citizens Act, D EMOCRACY 21 (Aug. 1, 2014), http://www.democracy21.org/ppf-
Chan assesses the strength of simulation modelling in project management with limited resources (Chan 1997). It is stated that project scheduling decisions are generally subject to both precedence and resource constraints. PERT and CPM are cited as the most common network techniques for project scheduling. Chan explores the possibility of using simulation software, namely Simfactory 11.5. The simulation model allows an estimate to be made of the performance of an existing system under some projected set of operational conditions. Simulation results are claimed as not necessarily giving the optimum solution, but alternative system designs are proposed that can be compared to see which best meets speci®ed requirements. Simfactory 11.5 is de®ned as a compliment to both PERT and CPM, and can work on deterministic and stochastic models. Two similar case studies are detailed which use Simfactory 11.5 to solve the project scheduling problem for both deterministic and stochastic scenar- ios. The deterministic scenario involves activities of constant time whereas the stochastic scenario uses a uniform distributed time, which can have a time variant added to every activity to account for uncertainty. The experiments are described as an alternative to PERT and CPM in dealing with any project management problems. Results indicate that Simfactory 11.5 is capable of managing projects with both precedences and resource constraints. The most important feature is stressed as that a resource constrained project, while taking into account the uncertainty and at the same time performing the time, cost analysis can be solved. In fact, it is stated that due to Simfactory 11.5 being able to compute the total project cost, and perform a sensitivity test, it is not impossible that simulation will replace PERT and CPM as a project management tool.
ment, participated in the creation of questionnaires, interpreted the findings, helped to draft the manuscript, had full access to all the data in the study and has the final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. TU participated in the design and coordination of the study, developed the problem based learning curriculum, carried out teaching of students in CPR, managed the car- diac arrest survivors database of our emergency depart- ment, participated in the creation of questionnaires, interpreted the findings and contributed to the writing of the article. MH participated in the design and coordina- tion of the study, developed the problem based learning curriculum, carried out teaching of students in CPR, par- ticipated in the creation of questionnaires, interpreted the findings and contributed to the writing of the article. AK participated in the design and coordination of the study, carried out teaching of students in CPR, interpreted the findings and helped to draft the manuscript. MH carried out teaching of students in CPR, obtained and analysed the data, performed the statistical analysis, interpreted the findings and contributed to the writing of the article. HH participated in the design of the study, carried out teach- ing of students in CPR, analysed the data, performed the statistical analysis, interpreted the findings and contrib- uted to the writing of the article. ANL participated in the design and coordination of the study, developed the prob- lem based learning curriculum, carried out teaching of students in CPR and contributed to the writing of the arti- cle. HD participated in the design and coordination of the study, developed the problem based learning curriculum, carried out teaching of students in CPR, interpreted the findings and contributed to the writing of the article. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Acknowledgements