43 On the one hand there are those who pursue sociology of science and 'externalist' history of science merely in order to add to specialist knowledge within sociology and history. These writers tend to decry the significance of epistemology and the study of scientific method. (A notable recent example of this is to be found in D. Bloor, Knowledge and Social Imagery. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1976.) From the standpoint of the fundamentalist viewpoint defended in Sect. VII, this approach entirely misses the point. For, according to the view advocated below, the basic task of the social sciences is to help us develop more rational institutions and ways of life, a more rational world. A central task of the social sciences, in other words, is to propose and critically assess possible institutional and social changes designed to help people all the better to discover and achieve what is of value in life - that is, to help people solve rationally the problems of living which they encounter in seeking to achieve that which is of value in life. The social sciences, on this view . ought thus fundamentally to be institutional or social epistemology or methodology. What is being attempted in this paper in connection with one institution -the scientific, academic enterprise - should be attempted quite generally in connection with institutions associated with politics, the law, the media, commerce, industry, and international relations Far from the sociology of science taking over from the philosophy of science socio!ogy on the contrary - and the social sciences quite generally - need to become the philosophy and methodology of institutional, social pursuits and enterprises. Granted that our concern is to develop better solutions to problems (3) and (4), a central task of the social sciences and humanities ought to be to help us develop fundamentalist, or aim-oriented rationalistic, institutions quite generally - including aim-oriented rationalistic academic institutions. See What's Wrong With Science.', op. cit., Chs. 8 and 9.
At the heart of wisdom-inquiry there is the intellectually fundamental activity of (1) articulating problems of living, and (2) proposing and critically assessing possible solutions - possible increasingly cooperative actions (policies, political programmes, institutional changes, philosophies of life). This intellectually fundamental activity is undertaken by social inquiry: see diagram 1. The basic task of social inquiry is to promote more cooperatively rational resolving of problems of living in the social world: acquisition of knowledge of social phenomena is a subsidiary task. Wisdom- inquiry also (3) tackles a vast mass of more specialized, subordinate problems of knowledge and technological know-how, pursued by the natural, technological and formal sciences, but (4) such specialized problem-solving is interconnected with fundamental problem-solving, so that each may influence the other: see diagram 1. Wisdom-inquiry acts as a kind of people’s civil service, doing openly for the public what actual civil services are supposed to do in secret for governments. According to this view, academic inquiry must have just sufficient power (but no more) to retain its independence from government, industry, the press, public opinion, and other centres of power and influence in the social world. Wisdom-inquiry learns from, seeks to educate, and argues with the great social world beyond, but does not dictate.
Granted, then, that a basic task of academic inquiry is to help us tackle our problems of living in cooperatively rational ways so as to make progress towards civilization, the basic intellectual work of academia will be (i) to articulate personal, social and global problems of living, and (ii) to propose possible solutions, possible actions, to be critically assessed from the standpoint of their capacity, if enacted, to enable us to realize what is of value in life. Academic
Abstract- In the general population, the HIV epidemic is still misunderstood among the Indian society. People living with HIV have faced Stigma, Discrimination, violent attacks, harassment, been rejected by families, spouses and communities, been refused medical treatment, and even in some reported cases denied the last rites before they die. Negative attitudes from health care staff have generated problem among many people living with HIV. As a result, many keep their status secret. The study try to focus on social problems of these people. This is very sensitive issue. Everyone has a right of living. One cannot seize it from others. Are those people really enjoying their rights or not? To understand what are the conditions of their life? How they are living in this society? Society can accept or not? What type of responses they get from this? All these doubts are cleared in this.
variables of (a) continuous absolute household income, (b) distance from the regional median and mean income, and (c) regional income rank were separately entered into individual fixed- effects panel models. Goodness-of-fit tests were used to compare the relative strength of associations between the income variables and children’s behavioral problems. This captures the unique associations between each income variable and behavioral problems without any impact of shared variance between the income variables. This is important because the income variables have similar properties (see Table 2) and are correlated (Table 3). Comparing the fit of models that contain only one of the income variables therefore provides a clear and direct way of identifying the income variable that is most closely ass ociated with children’s behavio ral problems, with no possible influence of
Changes in the social structure and roles and respon- sibilities of older people, particularly women, have already occurred (10). In this new reality, older women face additional responsibilities such as nursing their sick children and taking care of their grandchildren (17). Older people have also become the main bread winners through their social pension, which is sometimes the family’s only source of income (18). In 2006, any South African citizen (women 60 years or older and men 65 years or older) living in South Africa could apply for the government monthly pension (the Old Age Grant). This grant also depends on the person’s income, taking into account the total amount in the family if the person is married (19, 20).
Social characteristics: Table 3 shows the highest frequency of patients 69.9% answered that they always had taking the drug to escapes from housing problems, and the patients who answered that they had "sometimes "want to participate with others at social events comprise 58.6% , and the patients who answered that they had "always" lost friends because of drug use comprise 77.2%.
The study began in March 2007 and is funded for three years by the European Commission. It involves ten coun- tries and aims to develop a toolkit for assessing and reviewing the living conditions, care and human rights of people with mental health problems who require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. No such international, standardised assessment tools cur- rently exist. The majority of people living in these kinds of institution have a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaf- fective disorder , major mental illnesses which have a chronic or fluctuating prognosis in up to 60% of cases . By definition, these individuals are also likely to have additional characteristics which have complicated their recovery such that they require ongoing institutional care. These may include: treatment resistance (persistence of psychotic symptoms despite appropriate medication) which occurs in up to 30% ; cognitive impairment, spe- cifically in the areas of executive function, verbal memory and pervasive negative symptoms such as apathy, amoti- vation and blunted affect [4-7]; pre-morbid learning disa- bility and poor function ; drug and/or alcohol misuse and challenging behaviours [4,9]. Despite their high lev- els of need and, possibly because of the complexity of their problems, there is very little evidence for effective interventions available to guide practitioners. As well as the significant clinical challenges they pose for profession- als, these individuals constitute a major resource pressure for mental health services, social services, informal carers and society as a whole since they require high levels of support and are usually unable to work.
Cheryl was not sure about the diagnosis of Jenny’s health but she knew her health was poor 'she always picks something up, she’s always got a rustley chest, a cough, snotty nose, she’s always got something'. Jenny had been to hospital frequently for various problems including bronchitis and had an inhaler and other treatment. Cheryl had not thought that the temperature of the house affected Jenny’s health until staff at Sure Start told her about it: 'Like I know her room it is cold, whereas this room were, but my landlord’s just put me a new radiator in and there is a difference, so I don’t know if it’s her radiator’s not big enough or I don’t know'. She was aware that Jenny’s room is quite cold: 'Yeah, that is the coldest room other than like my kitchen and bath room, I think her room’s too cold for her. She sleeps with a blanket on in, well she sweats throughout the night anyway but she’s still cold even though she’s sweating'.
The environmental assessment identifies and removes potential hazards (for example, clutter, poor lighting, and uneven floor surfaces) and modifies the environment to improve mobility and safety (for example, installation of grab bars and raised toilet seats and the lowering of the bed height). Specific environmental interventions should include the following: adequate lighting in all areas of the house, bathroom grab bars next to the toilet, raised toilet seats, handrails in the living room , and furniture that is easy to rise from. Of special importance is bed height. Proper bed height is such that when the patient sits on the side of the bed with feet touching the floor, the knees are bent at a 90-degree angle. Furniture can also be rearranged to support an unstable patient for ambulation to the bathroom. Although not usually considered a part of the environment, proper footwear is important for safety. Ill-fitting shoes, shoes with worn soles and heels, heels that are too high or too narrow, or shoes left untied or unbuckled are unsafe.
Participants in this study described how mental health and substance use problems pushed them further away from normal social and educational development, severely restricting their potential for successful lives. Coupled with the high rate of suicidal ideation in our sample, it becomes all the more important to focus research and resources to these areas to ensure these young people have a chance at a better life.
Based on the data presented in the tables above as well as a further analysis of the students’ and their choice of statements, it was found out that the most preferred learning styles among the respondents is the kinesthetic style. A majority of 23 out of the 50 respondents or 64% chose four of the six statement thus making them fall into the kinesthetic style. The second most preferred learning styles of the students is visual learning style with 32%. It was found out that out of 50 students, 16 of them fell into visual learning styles after choosing four or more of the statements in the category. The auditory learning styles however was found to be the least preferred learning style where only 22% of the respondents or 11 out of 50 respondents fell in the category. The possible reasons for the kinesthetic learning style was found to be the most preferred learning styles than the other two styles is probably because the respondents are majoring in technical course that is Living Skills which requires a lot of ‘hands-on’ learning as they learn various types of technical subjects such as electrical, machinery, welding, technical drawing, sewing, as well as culinary. The practices that they have to do could be one of the reasons that influenced them to become kinesthetic learners. In other words, because they are used to learn through kinesthetic mode of learning which is through ‘doing’ and lab activities, it had somehow affected their preferences in learning.
seen as an outcome of service activities, such as encoura- ging uptake of preventive care, or modifying lifestyles. For example, the US Centre for Disease Control focuses its efforts on improving QoL by promoting healthy life- style, behaviors, increasing the use of clinical preventive services, addressing cognitive impairment, addressing issues related to mental health and provide education on decision making related to end-of-life planning (http:// cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/aging. htm - link valid 03-03-2011). Promoting psychological resources is crucial for optimising both ageing well or successfully, and enhancing the quality of later life, enabling older people to feel confident in living in their own homes, and with wider benefits to society.
mentioned family pressures, legal problems, and periods of homelessness or the threat of homelessness. They also emphasized the important role of benefits associated with abstinence as a reason to continue sobriety. However, participants felt there were time-varying influences for some motivational factors. For example, they felt perceived costs of sobriety (ie, the challenges associated with not using) were more prominent early in recovery. Persons still using substances or those in early recovery were viewed as often not having confidence that they could manage without substances. In contrast, managers felt the benefi ts of sobriety were stronger influences at later time points. With the passing of time, residents in recovery regained important aspects of their lives that had been lost, particularly relationships with estranged family members. To date, there has been limited examination about the ebb and flow of motivation over time, particularly factors related to maintenance of sobriety.
and control program the situation is not very favourable. UNAIDS says that in the largest regions of the world where the prevalence rate of infection is high, around 9.5 million people immediately need life- saving drugs (ART) but only half of them – approximately four million manage to get them. Also, global deaths of 2 million people per year by HIV/AIDS have been recorded which is needed to be controlled. Even in our nation, the current situation of PLHA is still critical because the main activities of NACO move around specific points like awareness regarding HIV/AIDS, promotion of the use of condoms among the sexually active population to control the transmission of HIV, distribution of ART and behaviour change strategies. These arrangements do not address diverse problems and their weaknesses are quite glaring. For example, it is well known that ART is useless for the people who are only affected and are not living with the virus but are the family members of an infected person and also that a child is unable to protect himself/herself from the virus. The behaviour change strategies can’t solve the problems like school dropouts, economic insecurity, loss of rearing & caring hands and absence of home care. Awareness campaigning has its own limitations in creating enabling environment for PLHA because print or electronic material promoting awareness has no value for poor, illiterate PLHA. Hence, in this paper, an effort has been made to assess the satisfaction points of PLHA in terms of facilities and services provided by NACO. Further enquiry has been made in the context of variables like sex, education, income and location of residence which directly affect the satisfaction level of PLHA.
The development of our nation depends upon the development of all the villages and their condition. Thus the study encourages helping the development of farmers living in Kattusurai village of Sivagangai district in Tamil Nadu state. This study focuses on studying living conditions of farmers and to find out the problems faced by them. The study specifically concentrates on the demographic profile of the respondents, the living conditions, the economic status and out the facilities provided by the government and The study describes how the farmers are struggling with their problems to eke out their living. Therefore the researcher adopted descriptive design to bring out the profile and economic status of farmers. The researcher adopted purposive sampling method. The sample size of the study is 60 respondents. Primary data was collected through interview schedule.
In addition to the above, some resources are exhaustible and others are inexhaustible. Exhaustible resources are the resources which are available in limited supply and are going to be exhausted as a result of continuous use example are crude oil, coal, gas etc while inexhaustible resources are resources which cannot be exhausted by human use (i.e they are unlimited in supply). This includes wind, sand, water, clay, solar radiation, etc. There seems to be many contention about the definition of sustainability but three basic concepts are involved in sustainable measures; living within certain means of the earth capacity to maintain life; understanding the interconnections among the economy, society and environment; and maintaining a fair distribution of resources for this generation and the next . Resources are the backbone of any economy; it provides raw material for production, it is a source of revenue to the government (internal and external) and it also performs environmental services. Resources can
one third of population of Pakistan lives in cities. More than one fifth of the urban population of Pakistan is poor. Mostly people migrate from small towns and rural areas towards cities for better employment opportunities and better quality of life. But when they arrive in the cities, they face many problems especially availability of shelter to live which leads to emergence of squatter settlement Slums, hereafter called Kachi Abadies. Squatter settlement is defined as a settlement where a resident has an unauthorized possession of the land (Pathan, 2010, Siddiqui, 1994).
The aim of our paper is to discuss the problems of operationaliz- ing the concept of a “cost-of-living-index” (COLI). For this purpose we are …rst undertaking a theoretical analysis of Diewert’s theory of superlative index numbers as one possible approach to approximate a COLI. We show that Diewert’s superlative index approach is arguable in many points and that the approach requires restrictive assump- tions which are not likely to be met in observed households’ behav- iour. To get a better idea about the deviation of observed households’ behaviour from the neoclassical assumptions about utility maximizing behaviour, we are estimating an Almost Ideal Demand System and a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System with cross section micro data from the German income and expenditure survey. Using the results of the demand system estimations we calculate COLIs and compare them with superlative index numbers and the Laspeyres price index.
Research studies have indicated differences in the nature of maltreated children’s friendship networks and social cognitive processing abilities. Physically maltreated children report that the people in their social networks are less likely to be known by their parents or a responsible adult than comparison children. Physically abused children’s friendship networks have been described as comprising a larger proportion of younger children, fewer same age peers and less class peers. Furthermore, physically maltreated children report more negative perceptions of their social relationships with peers who they nominate as fiiends. Peers they regard as fiiends perceive physically abused children more negatively than comparison children (Rogosch et al, 1995). Abused and neglected children are reported to experience more difficulty in comprehending situationally appropriate negative affect in social situations and impaired cognitive processing abihties relative to comparison children (Rogosch et al, 1995;). Research exploring maltreated children’s peer relationships has suggested that maltreated children’s social cognitive skills act as a mediator of their psychological outcomes. Abused and neglected children’s ability to comprehend negative affect has been found to mediate between a history of maltreatment and the development of externalising behaviour problems (Rogosch et al,