Research to date has been dominated by quantitative studies which have inferred the attributes and dynamics of absorptive capacity across signifi cant numbers of organizations, and recent work has included studies of innovation networks (Adams et al., 2006; Hagedoorn et al., 2006; Phene et al., 2006) and knowledge transfer within alliances (Kim and Inkpen, 2005; Zhao et al., 2005). However, few studies have examined the internal processes of absorptive capacity (Jansen et al., 2005). This article builds on recent studies (Jones, 2006; Zahra and George, 2002) that have started to adopt a processperspective. We start with a review of the literature which identifi es weaknesses and gaps in the cur- rent concept of absorptive capacity. Through analysis of our data we confi rm some features of current thinking and add two important features, power and boundaries, which have largely been neglected by past scholars; we fi nish with a discussion of the wider implications for theory. The distinctive contribution of the article, therefore, lies in the further development of a processperspective on absorptive capacity through the use of qualitative case studies.
Product, process, and technology innovations have traditionally been viewed as the source of innovation and value creation. Although BMI can be traced back to Schumpeter (1934), it has received increased attention from managers and scholars in recent years. The “newness” of the business model may refer to any of its design elements—that is, its content, structure, or governance. Because of the systemic, interconnected nature of the business model, a change in any of these elements (compared with existing models) may engender further changes at the system level (e.g., it may lead to changed functionalities and performance prospects). For example, the addition of the iTunes music distribution activity to Apple’s business model (a content and structure innovation) enabled the firm to achieve higher value creation through the powerful combination of selling its
All the financial, customer satisfaction, internal business processperspective, and learning and growth perspective of Balanced Scorecard have been termed as either significant or more than significant motivational factors and helps in enhancing the financial aspects of company by increasing profitability, added economic value, and increase sales growth. It is our belief that the implementation of the BSC at company A will positively impact management efficiency, as it will give access to knowledge of the flaws all levels. Strategic goals and key task were derived from each perspective of the adopted BSC and for each strategic goal, several tasks were determined, being those tasks considered as critical success factors, which were the most critical issues for the enterprises competitiveness and therefore aligned with the vision and strategic objectives of Company A. SWOT analysis on the nine elements of Business Model Canvas for Laundry world identified the possibility of growth to other geographical areas and increased sales in its main business activities.
The learners and external community perspective reflects the value-added innovations that impact on the learners, and the local and global community. It is a reflection of the good image and impression that the school and its graduates make on the industry and the public which may result in short and long-term collaborations and linkages established with strategic partnerships for mutual benefit. This perspective corresponds to the ‘customer perspective’ of business firms (Kaplan and Norton, 1992) and the ‘stakeholders’ indicators of some community colleges which include measures such as student satisfaction, student retention, graduation rates, and community support (Lyddon and McComb, 2008). The researcher, however, distinguished the indicators that are indicative of the effectiveness and efficiency of the teaching-learning process and decided to retain these in the internal processperspective. Those that were categorized in the ‘learner and community perspective’ are objectives that steer the school to continually innovate and add value to existing services and programs in order to respond to the changing needs of the learners and the external community; resulting to better school image, increased popularity and stronger relationships with patrons, the industry, and the external community.
Based on statistical tests on multiple linear regression equation, then the third hypothesis "internal processperspective significantly effects on the performance of college" is proven. This is due to the significant value of 0.002 internal processperspective is smaller than 0.05. Additionally supported by the opinion of Kaplan and Norton (2002) in Awadallah and Allam (2015) that the most important processes are based on the university to provide assurance on the quality of Teaching and Learning and the quality of the Teaching and Learning supporting devices. In the implementation, the service that has been designed is then conducted with effective cost.
The purpose of this study was to illustrate the nature of knowledge exhibited by pre-service mathematics teachers as they approached problems that call for translations. As prospective teachers completed the problems, they (a) moved back and forth between process and object perspectives, (b) infrequently demonstrated constructs of process and object perspectives, and (c) solely demonstrated constructs of object perspectives. A second analysis of data, which aimed to determine the ways in which prospective teachers demonstrated or failed to demonstrate translations, highlighted three conceptions – flexible, disconnected and constrained. With respect to flexible conceptions, prospective teachers demonstrated facets of constructs of process and object perspectives. Fundamentally individuals with flexible conceptions illustrated translations between algebraic and graphical representations. With respect to disconnected conceptions, prospective teachers demonstrated constructs of process and object perspectives, but failed to interpret information regarding both perspectives and or representations. For instance, Katie exhibited this when she failed to coordinate processperspective constructs of the algebraic representations within her solution method to determine appropriate coordinates for ‘C’ and ‘D’. This breakdown in her solution method led her to suggest “you can’t find [C and D] very easily because you don’t know how far over they are going or how far up. I mean for C you can find the ‘x’ – just knowing that it is on the intercept. It will be 0. But you wouldn’t know what the ‘y’ is”. With respect to constrained conceptions, prospective teachers demonstrated constructs of object perspective, but failed to incorporate constructs of processperspective and facets of the algebraic representations. For instance, Marie demonstrated this as she failed to coordinate processperspective constructs of the algebraic representation within her solution methods to determine an appropriate ‘y’ coordinate for point E. This led her to employ approximation methods as she suggested the following: “Since E is (5, y 1 ) we know by looking at the graph that
Table 5 shows the results of regression coefficients of Cairo Amman Bank. Organizational performance is dependent variable whereas Balanced Scorecard Approach (BSC) is independent variable. An unstandardized beta coefficient gives a measure of contribution of each variable to the model. A larger value indicates that a unit change in the predictor variable has a larger impact on the criterion variable. Firstly, the unstandardized beta coefficient of customer perspective is 0.3022 which is an indication of positive impact of customer perspective on organizational performance. The p value corresponding to customer perspective is less than 0.05 which shows that customer perspective has significant impact on organizational performance. Secondly, the unstandardized beta coefficient of internal business processperspective is 0.2509 which indicates that one unit change in internal business processperspective will bring 0.25 unit change in organizational performance. Further, its regression coefficient is statistically significant at 5% level of significance (P<0.05). Thirdly, the unstandardized beta coefficients of learning & growth perspective and financial perspective are also statistically significant at 5% level of significance (P<0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and it can be said that there is a significant impact of BSC on organizational performance in Cairo Amman Bank.
As lean construction has evolved as a practice, efforts have been made to develop theoretical foundations for understanding it. These efforts have been informed by our understanding of lean manufacturing, a source of many of the seminal ideas for lean construction. One key insight has been the shift from the understanding of a process as the transformation of materials from inputs to outputs to the view of a process as a flow of materials through a sequence of steps or operations. Another has been the recognition that value must be considered from the customer perspective. More recently, several authors have proposed more general contexts for understanding the entire construction process. These proposals have included observing the essential role of language in the conduct of projects, recognizing the limitations of a purely economic context, and adopting a more comprehensive flow perspective. In this paper, we propose a framework for situating the construction process in the world of human concerns. We show that consideration of the human being as actor within a world of concerns provides a necessary context and foundational explanation for all subsequent discussions of process, flow, value, and commitment. We also suggest a new perspective for understanding and addressing the issue of risk.
Literature suggests that the premise for promoting community engagement in CHW’s selection is to ensure transparency in the process; better acceptance of CHWs by the community; chances of better accountability of CHWs to the community; hence better performance of CHWs and expected outcomes of the programme (http://www.mchip.net/ sites/ default/ files/ mchipfiles/07_CHW_Recruitment.pdf). In case of CHWs’ selection in various countries like Ethiopia, Nepal, Mali and Pakistan community participation and consultation forms the basis of their selection(8). In India, while the selection of ANMs is the prerogative of DHFW and that of AWWs is of the DWCD, ASHA’s selection is entrusted to the village level political body (known as Panchayat) and its leader (known as Sarpanch) in consultation with rest of the villagers through a formal village level meeting (known as Gram Sabha). The Panchayat/Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI) are local governance institutions spread across India to promote decentralised planning, implementation and monitoring of various government programmes and to ensure people's participation in decision making and seeking accountability from the system. For ASHA Selection, these meetings are also expected to be attended by the officials from health and aligned department representatives, including DWCD, to ensure consultative selection of ASHAs. This study looks at the operationalization of this process of ASHA selection in reality and how this reality affects the working relationship between ASHAs and her co- workers (ANMs and AWWs).
Process Improvement (PI) and Continuous Improvement (CI) have been enduring themes across research and practice in operations management. PI and CI encompass a spectrum of activities, methods and approaches that seek to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of business processes over time and ensure the alignment of business processes with the competitive environment. PI and CI are fundamental in many formal organisational development and accreditation processes (Benner and Veloso 2008, Anand et al. 2009). They are of immediate and direct relevance to SMEs (Wolff and Pett 2006, Tidd and Bessant 2013). PI and CI may assist smaller firms in overcoming some of the limiting aspects associated with firm size (Wolff and Pett 2006). They have been identified as key mechanisms for improving SME productivity (Terziovski 2010). However, only a limited amount of research has been conducted on the detailed nature of improvement practices in smaller firms (Tidd and Bessant 2013). Research has discussed the relevance of established and influential improvement frameworks such as Six Sigma in the SME context (Antony et al. 2005, Kumar et al. 2006) but has not investigated the nature of improvement activities in such environments in detail. Research is needed to examine improvement practices in SMEs and how such practices relate to organisational level change (Chaston et al. 2001), in particular to understand how SMEs can learn through PI (Amundson 1998).
In support of achieving their consumer and financial goals, the Center has developed numerous goals within the operational perspective. For example, in support of their consumer services goals, the Center has attempted to deepen and improve its relationship with consumers and their families by making the public aware of available services; by making services accessible to individuals with developmental disabilities; and, making certain the staff within the Center is accessible. Further, the Center knows that to reach its consumer goals as well as to improve productivity, it must excel in its operational processes. Specifically, the Center has attempted to provide operational excellence by developing systems to effectively and efficiently deliver services in the natural environment; by developing a comprehensive information system; by insuring that people are served in a timely fashion; by establishing measures and analyzing data on outcomes to continually improve services; by meeting and exceeding regulatory requirements; and, by creating a safe and secure environment for consumers, employees and visitors. The Center also has attempted to identify and implement new service opportunities for individuals with disabilities in an effort to grow its revenue base. Last, by creating a positive image and being actively involved in the community, the Center knows it will create long-term benefits necessary to achieve its goals.
A few national reports (Ghana, Iran and Pakistan) dealt with gender issues in the context of poverty reduction but they neither analyzed nor discussed women’s poverty-induced vulnerability in relation to disasters, nor their unique capabilities to reduce vulnerability. In the national reports submitted by Honduras and Nicaragua, women’s issues were dealt with based on the impact of Hurricane Mitch, but the two countries never mentioned whether they had incorporated a sound gender perspective into their national contexts. El Salvador and Haiti made a brief reference to the important role women played in disaster risk reduction but there were few examples of gender inclusiveness.
investigation. Based on the different activities that need to be carried out in the digital forensic investigation process, the following table gives the mapping between the CP Grobler and al. model, the Soltan Alharbi and al. model and our proposed model. In this defined table, the symbol √ specifies the fact that the approach supports the associated activity. Moreover, the absence of this symbol denotes the fact that the approach does not address a given activity. By comparing the different rows representing each model, the row representing our proposed model support all the activities that should be taken into consideration in dealing with digital investigation within an organization. These activities are regrouped into reactive, active and proactive process and should be conducted within an organization that needs to efficiently face the cyber crime problem. The main problem in this domain is the definition of a complete investigation process of cybercrime. Our model gives the base for this process that needs to be validated by its application in various cybercrime situations within organizations. When this process will be validated, the next step will be the concrete implementation of the associated activities. In this phase, the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can be used since each main activity, i.e proactive, active and reactive, can be seen as a service. This is one of our future focuses.
The progress and the methodology used to collect data was conditioned from the purpose of the study. Without doubt, the method used to collect data in qualitative research is the interview (a question-answer process realized with the person in front interviewer person). Interviews are flexible tools for data collection, used to portray certain events related to a topic in a particular context, presenting the reality in perceptions and attitudes. In this study were used semi- structured interviews. These interviews should be used as information for many people and when we need to learn about their experiences.
It is urgent for the strategic moves of the organizations, that the process of qualifying suppliers, to be managed properly, generate competitive advantages for companies. This concern for the integrity of its business, with the establishment of lasting partnerships with reputable companies, acting with ethics and social responsibility, in accordance with legal principles and, furthermore, noting the quality and commitment in supplying products and services it is a decisive factor for its perpetuation (Oliveira, 2013). This article was derived from a work of completion of the Bachelor course of Business Administration from the Mackenzie University, Campinas campus, Brazil and which aimed to giving students a practical learning in the development of applied research.
Humanistic psychology has provided a series of fundamental theories about human personality and its development. Prominent representatives such as A. Maslow, C. Rogers or R. Assagiolli, along with the psychoanalyst C. G. Jung, have defined the basic concepts that help us today to better understand the individual evolutionary path from intuitive thinking structures and pri- mary group integration, to elements of metacognition, creativity and integra- tion into society through high moral values. Self-realization is a complex process that needs to be addressed from a number of perspectives, to provide a more complex and true picture of how individual development takes place. The paper aims to identify the role of family, interpersonal relationships, to understand which are the functions of knowledge and emotional experiences during development and actualization of individual’s own potential. Achiev- ing self-realization involves going through some stages, overcoming various difficulties and, above all, practicing self-regulation over individual emotions and behaviors. Education also provides the logical-scientific basis of going beyond the stages of self-realization, it provides insight and understanding, but it also means overcoming the theoretical boundaries, through personal involvement in actions that reflect moral and humanistic values. Positive and active approaches are ways that lead to self-realization.
One of the great challenges of business process management systems is to offer both support and flexibility [9, 14, 35]. Today’s systems typically are too rigid, thus forcing people to work around the system. One of the problems is that software developers and computer scientists are typically inspired by processes inside a computer system rather than processes outside a computer. Figure 2 illustrates the typical mind-frame of people developing business process management systems. This photograph shows the Whirlwind computer, which was the first computer system to have magnetic core mem- ory (1953). It is interesting to mention that Whirlwind was developed by Jay Forrester who also developed the well-known Systems Dynamics approach . Software engi- neers are typically trained in the architecture and systems software of computers like the Whirlwind and its successors. As a result, these engineers think in terms of control systems rather than support systems. This explains that few of the existing workflow management systems allow for the so-called implicit choice, i.e., a choice resolved by the environment rather than the system . To solve these problems, the typical mind- frame should be changed such that the business process management system is viewed as a reactive system rather than merely a control system.
model?”, a research field that has only recently begun to emerge and that is slowly gaining momentum. To date, research on quality in conceptual modelling is still believed to be in its infancy (Moody, 2005; Nelson et al., 2005). What holds true for conceptual modelling in general (Buhl and Heinrich, 2005), must be stressed even more for the field of business process modelling: several researchers explicitly state the need for research aiming at understanding and developing a common notion of business process model quality (Brito e Abreau et al., 2002; Wand and Weber, 2002; Poels et al., 2003; Moody, 2005; Krogstie et al., 2006). Before this background, the research discussed in this article aims at arriving at an understanding of business process model quality. More precisely, the research presented in this paper seeks to countervail the lack of a theoretically and methodologically sound and comprehensive appreciation of process model quality. The basic assumption of this paper is that a better understanding of process model quality can only be developed if business process modelling firstly is appreciated from a methodological perspective. In short, this paper argues that a methodology of process modelling is needed that exhibits sufficient explanatory power to address all those traits of quality that are relevant to contemporary process modelling activities in both practitioner and scholar communities.