processes for engineering a system

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C. Main processes of Value Engineering workshop

C. Main processes of Value Engineering workshop

20 KV system, construction of a 63/20 KV substation in the downtown was felt highly important. The relevant steps to find a land with suitable conditions to construct a dual 63/20 KV Transformer substation with 2*40 KVA capacities were initiated. During this process, two pieces of lands were considered; one in downtown and the other 300 Meters away. Considering the high price and the legal problems with the first choice, finally the second one was chosen.

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Quantification and Modeling of Biological Processes
for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Quantification and Modeling of Biological Processes for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Too often investigators don’t actually measure the healing rate and therefore cannot get the relationship between design parameters and clinical outcome. For drug delivery, the relationship between delivery rate and bioprocess rates (both clinical outcomes as well as those that occur at the cellular level), to determine the optimal delivery kinetics. The critical part usually left out is the bioprocess of breakdown of the drug being delivered. This is not only after it is released, but during storage (both within the drug delivery system and when stored prior to incorporation). For degradable regenerative systems the in vivo bioprocesses of material degradation and tissue healing/regeneration need to be characterized. In many cases, such as for bone plates, the two are tied together; since higher loads on the bone occur as the bone plate degrades. So design in this case is an iterative process, since changes in design will alter heal ing rate and the design essentially changes over time. It is also important to determine the change in mechanical properties of both the bone plate and fracture site, along with the expected loading pattern, to make sure neither the fracture site or bone plate fail before the bone is healed.
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REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESSES, TOOLS/TECHNOLOGIES, & METHODOLOGIES

REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESSES, TOOLS/TECHNOLOGIES, & METHODOLOGIES

This methodology is presented by Kotonia and Sommervile in 1998 in their work which describes five inputs to the process and three outputs of the process. The inputs are: existing system information, stakeholder needs, organizational standards, regulations and domain information. A detailed process is applied on these inputs and the agreed requirements, system specification and systems models are achieved as outputs. These inputs and outputs are similar for all organization [3] in the most of the cases but only the requirements vary. This is a general sort of requirement engineering process and is flexible to be adopted by any organization for any project through defining organizational applied standards and regulations. The system models which are one of the outputs of this process are the data flow, OO process models useful in designing the software system. models are achieved as outputs. These inputs and outputs are similar for all organization [3] in the most of the cases but only the requirements vary. This is a general sort of requirement engineering process and is flexible to be adopted by any organization for any project through defining organizational applied standards and regulations. The system models which are one of the outputs of this process are the data flow, OO process models useful in designing the software system.
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Directions of the environmental protection processes optimization at heat power engineering enterprises | Journal of Engineering Sciences

Directions of the environmental protection processes optimization at heat power engineering enterprises | Journal of Engineering Sciences

The optimization of the environmental protection pro- cess involves the choice of the physical-chemical factors such as: thermodynamic, kinetic, mass- and heat- exchanging, hydrodynamic, influence parameters on the heterogeneous, complex systems. The thermodynamic factors, combining features of both phase and chemical equilibrium, determine the technological parameters and the direction of the implementation of the process, its speed and selectability. The kinetic factors, in their turn, involve kinetic constant and the energy of the reaction activation within the system. The group of mass- exchanging factors is represented by the interphase trans- fer coefficient of all the initial, intermediate and final substances. The heat-exchanging factors include heat- transfer coefficient and the characteristic of the external heat-exchange of the system with the surrounding. The hydrodynamic factors are defined as the characteristic of the interface formation, linear momentum, the turbuliza- tion of gas and liquid phase flow. However, the sphere of their indirect influence increases significantly due to the integrated speed of mass- and heat transfer and chemical reactions.
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Harnessing developmental processes for vascular engineering and regeneration

Harnessing developmental processes for vascular engineering and regeneration

A dual approach to create highly functionalized and architecturally sound vasculature was recently developed by West and colleagues, who used a PEG hydrogel tailored with RGD- and MMP-sensitive peptides to support vascular network formation. They then applied the hydrogel to a microfluidic system in order to mimic native vascular organization and function (Moon et al., 2010). PEG-based hydrogels tailored with RGD- and MMP-sensitive peptides have been widely used for supporting vascular network formation (Moon et al., 2009, 2010; Cuchiara et al., 2012; Turturro et al., 2013). The authors first encapsulated HUVECs and mesenchymal progenitors (10T1/2 cells) that exhibited a perivascular cell morphology within PEG hydrogels containing both RGD peptides and MMP-sensitive sites (Cuchiara et al., 2012). They found that the hydrogel supported rapid vascular morphogenesis of the HUVEC and 10T1/2 cells, and that the synthetic matrix was soon replaced with newly formed basement membrane proteins, such as laminin and collagen type IV. The authors then applied the engineered vasculatures to perfusable microfabricated channels, thus culturing the HUVECs and 10T1/2 cells encapsulated within the synthetic hydrogels inside the microchannels (Cuchiara et al., 2012). The use of microchannels represents an innovative approach to perfusing and integrating the vasculature with nutrient-containing fluids in vitro . Using this approach, they found that nutrient transport within the system shifts from simple diffusion to vessel-supported convective transport and extra-vessel diffusion, meaning that the transport of nutrients was more efficient and more closely replicated that of bona fide vascular beds. This integrated approach has considerable value because it mimics the complex in vivo environment using emerging microfabrication technologies, and therefore holds great potential for tissue-engineering applications in vivo .
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MECHANOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE FORMATION OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS BASED ON POLYMERS

MECHANOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE FORMATION OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS BASED ON POLYMERS

Mechanically activated particles of polyamide-kaolinite mixture are characterized by developed morphology that will likely be reflected in the activity of the system (Figure 7). Based obtained by scanning electron microscopy data is observed the presence of nanoscale fragments lateral size of 20-50 nm on the surface (Figure 7 c, d). The introduction of this mechanically activated mixture in a polyamide matrix should lead to a change in the parameters of physical and mechanical properties of the polymer matrix. This system has advantages over mechanically activated particles of metals, silicates, metal oxides, etc., as the presence of the boundary layer grafted to the silicate particles increases the thermodynamic compatibility with the base polyamide matrix.
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A REVIEW OF REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESSES, PROBLEMS AND MODELS

A REVIEW OF REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESSES, PROBLEMS AND MODELS

Requirements engineering processes kick off with elicitation activities which aim to discover the purpose of the system under development. The specification produced from this stage is an essential element that determines what to be built (Herlea 1996), why build it, when, where, and how to build (4W+1H). Rather than a question and answer session for collecting software and system requirements, requirements elicitation is more complicated that what it appears to be. The reason behind that is requirements cannot always be collected or captured, but rather elicited (Zowghi & Coulin 2005). Requirements elicitation is, therefore, considered as a critical activity to requirements engineering processes and the rest of software development.
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Engineering Business Processes with Service Level Agreements

Engineering Business Processes with Service Level Agreements

Secure Tropos uses the concepts of actor and goal. Actor models an entity that has strategic interests, i.e., goals with the system. An actor represent a physical, social or software agent as well as its role. It might happen that an actor does not have the capabilities to achieve his own objectives by himself. In this case that actor has to delegate the objectives to other actors that leads to their achievement outside the control of the delegator. Secure Tropos supports two types of delegations. Delegation of execution, i.e, at-least delegation, means that one actor (called delegator) delegates to another one (called delegatee) the responsibility to execute a service. Delegation of permission, i.e, at-most delegation, models the transfer of entitlements from delegator to delegatee. Two types of trust dependencies are supported. Trust of execution, i.e, at-least trust, means that one actor (called trusted) trusts that another one (called trustee) will at least fulfill a service. While the meaning of trust of permission, i.e, at- most trust, is that an actor trusts that another actor will at most fulfill a service, but will not overstep it. Trust modelling aims at identifying actors trusting other actors for services, and actors which own the services.
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Software Engineering (9th Edition) pdf

Software Engineering (9th Edition) pdf

Historically, there has always been a split between the process of software devel- opment and the process of software evolution (software maintenance). People think of software development as a creative activity in which a software system is devel- oped from an initial concept through to a working system. However, they sometimes think of software maintenance as dull and uninteresting. Although the costs of main- tenance are often several times the initial development costs, maintenance processes are sometimes considered to be less challenging than original software development. This distinction between development and maintenance is increasingly irrelevant. Hardly any software systems are completely new systems and it makes much more sense to see development and maintenance as a continuum. Rather than two separate processes, it is more realistic to think of software engineering as an evolutionary process (Figure 2.8) where software is continually changed over its lifetime in response to changing requirements and customer needs.
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Engineering foreign exchange processes via commitment protocols

Engineering foreign exchange processes via commitment protocols

A C+ specification describes a transition system con- sisting of states and transition between them. A specifica- tion consists of a set of causal laws. A fluent is a propo- sition (true or false) whose value may change from state to state. Actions are performed by agents to cause fluents thus bringing about various conditions. Inertial fluents con- tinue to hold unless an action occurs that causes their nega- tion. The C+ semantics ensures that all and only the caused fluents hold at any state. The general concepts relating to protocols are specified in C+ as an ontology (Listing 1), to be included with specifications of individual protocols. The operator ++ denotes logical OR and <> denotes object in- equality.
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Risk and Safety in Engineering Processes

Risk and Safety in Engineering Processes

In recent times with advance of systems engineering, management of interfaces between system constituents, suppliers, contracts, internal divisions delivering parts of the system, etc. is executed through management of system requirements. The system requirements should say what the system must do, not how it must be done, and should be set at the level of interfaces across boundaries within the system, where the boundaries are defined as boundaries between major system constituents and system and environment. The boundaries may be dictated by contractual arrangements for delivery of the system constituents, internal divisions into delivery groups on the project, etc. Regardless of the reasons behind the structure of the project delivery organisation, these influences must be taken into account when system boundaries are defined within the system architecture and/or process models as described earlier. Following from the change safety analysis process, Safety Requirements should be derived from identified defence/protection measures. However, not all of the
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Enabling Improved Understanding of Biological Processes through Protein Engineering.

Enabling Improved Understanding of Biological Processes through Protein Engineering.

Silent mutations were introduced into at positions 19, 20, 82 and 83 to introduce HpaI restriction sites into the protein using primers HPF1 and HPR1. This version with silent mutations was PCR amplified using primers HPYSDF1 and HPYSDR1 and cloned into yeast display vector pCTCON using the restriction sites NheI and BamHI. This construct was then linearized with HpaI. The ultramer was amplified using primers HPYSDF1 and HPYSDR1 to generate at least 50μg of double stranded DNA library of Sso6904 mutants. The PCR product and linearized vector were concentrated by using Pellet Paint™ (Novagen, San Diego, CA). A yeast display library was generated through homologous recombination as described in (12, 13). Briefly, 4μg of linearized vector and 12μg of PCR product were added to 400μl of electrocompetent yeast cells and electroporation was performed using a 2 mm electrode gap cuvette in a Bio-Rad Gene Pulser system (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) at 2.5kV and 25μF. Four such transformations were performed, and following a one hour outgrowth in 32 ml of 1:1 mix of 1M Sorbitol and YPD (10 g/l yeast extract, 20 g/l peptone, 20 g/l dextrose), the electroporated cells were expanded in 1L of SDCAA (20 g/l dextrose, 5 g/l Casamino acids, 6.7 g/l yeast nitrogen base, 5.40 g/l Na 2 HPO 4 , 7.45 g/l NaH 2 PO 4 ).
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A Software System for “Design for X” Impact Evaluations in Redesign Processes

A Software System for “Design for X” Impact Evaluations in Redesign Processes

In such a context, there are no concrete software tools for management of engineering changes in several life cycle aspects. The aim of this research work is to support the redesign process focusing on knowledge availability to designer to perform his/her choices. Rather than assessing change impact on the basis of probabilistic components relations, the focus is set on the integration of a dependency change management engine in a multilevel product structure and including a more extend knowledge intensive definition of product parts linkages.

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The Using of Controlled Cavitation Processes in Some Engineering and Agricultural Applications

The Using of Controlled Cavitation Processes in Some Engineering and Agricultural Applications

Abstract On the basis of information on impact of ultrasonic and hydrodynamic cavitation on water in various engineering and agrochemical applications parameters of the frequencies favoring to an intensification of growth of some grades of tomatoes, shanks of decorative roses and saplings of a pine ordinary are defined. The example of the engineering application of operated hydrodynamic cavitation on the basis of the independent generator of warmth for heating is presented. This example was patented and successfully used further for water structuring in some agrochemical applications. Results of researches of influence of acoustic radiations in the range of frequencies of 20 Hz - 50 kHz and operated hydrodynamic cavitation on growth of some types of plants and data on influence of the specified private range on some physical and chemical properties of irrigation water are presented. It is shown that for a productive drop irrigation of skilled plants the range of ultrasonic radiation in a range close to 20 kHz which leads to increase of concentration of microcells of the metals dissolved in irrigation water is most effective and also influences favorable change of pH of irrigation water. Experimentally an established fact of increase of productivity of tomatoes for 15 % at rather short-term period of watering by the structured water and considerable effect of increase in growth of root system at saplings of decorative roses. Also established an experimentally fact of decrease in an electric conductivity of irrigation water after hydrodynamic cavitational impact on 18-23 %, along with favorable change of pH of water. Some factors influencing an intensification of growth of saplings and development of root system with considerable decrease in pathogenic micro flora are analyzed and revealed.
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Business Process Design Of An Efficient And Effective (Literature Review)

Business Process Design Of An Efficient And Effective (Literature Review)

3) Manual procedures tend to produce clerical errors, such as incorrect account numbers, invalid inventory numbers, and price–quantity extension miscalculations. These errors may go undetected in batch systems until the source documents reach data processing, by which time the damage may have already been done. For example, the firm may find that it has shipped goods to the wrong address, shipped the wrong goods, or promised goods to a customer at the wrong price. Real- time editing permits the identification of many kinds of errors as they occur and greatly improves the efficiency and the effectiveness of operations. Finally, real-time processing reduces the amount of paper documents in a system. Hard-copy documents are expensive to produce and clutter the system. The permanent storage of these documents can become a financial and operational burden. Documents in digital form are efficient, effective, and adequate for audit trail purposes.
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A Review on Hybrid System for Power Generation

A Review on Hybrid System for Power Generation

B. Ai , H. Yang, H. Shen, X. Liao, Computer-aided design of PV/wind hybrid system, Elsevier, 2003, In this paper[2] combining with hourly measured meteorologic data and load data, the performance of a PV/wind hybrid system is determined on a hourly basis; by fixing the capacity of wind generators, the whole year’s LPSP (loss of power supply probability) values of PV/wind hybrid systems with different capacity of PV array and battery bank are calculated, then the trade-off curve between battery bank and PV array capacity is drawn for the given LPSP value; the optimum configuration which can meet the energy demand with the minimum cost can be found by drawing a tangent to the substitution curve with the slope representing the relationship between cost of PV module and that of the battery. According to this match calculation method, a set of match calculation programs for optimum sizing of PV/wind hybrid systems have been developed.
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Targeted treatment in COPD: a multi-system approach for a multi-system disease

Targeted treatment in COPD: a multi-system approach for a multi-system disease

to discuss treatment of various aspects of COPD, including the pathological processes involved, clinical phenotypes and systemic manifestations. It is apparent that there is significant variation in many of these aspects in the COPD population. Furthermore, many of these have significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Targeting COPD treatment to the individual and actively identifying and managing the inflammatory process involved along with pulmonary and systemic manifestations present in that patient may help to reduce this impact. However, as yet, there is limited evidence for benefit in this approach and further study of targeting phenotypes is required.
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PLGA hybrid Nanoparticles: A promising system...

PLGA hybrid Nanoparticles: A promising system...

These NPs were more stable than simple PLGA NPs and presence of lipid coat in the hybrid NPs resulted in slower antibiotic release rates (23). Peiqi et al. showed that paclitaxel loaded folic acid targeted lipidshell and polymer-core NPs on intravenous administration led to tumor regression and improvement of animal survival in a murine model, compared with that observed With Taxol and biodistribution study showed that paclitaxel concentration in tumor for paclitaxel encapsulated NPs was higher than other paclitaxel formulations (24). Chan et al. developed a “nanoburr” system for the treatment of injured vasculature, by conjugating the lipid-coated PLGA hybrid NPs with a novel peptide ligand, screened from a combinatorial library of heptapeptide ligands against human collagen IV, which represents 50% of the vascular basement membrane (25). This “nanoburr” system demonstrated efficient targeting toward vascular basement membrane, high NPs accumulation in the region of injured vasculature in a rat model, and sustained drug release over 2 weeks.
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Minimization of Power Losses In Radial Distribution System- A Review

Minimization of Power Losses In Radial Distribution System- A Review

Placing DG in parallel with radial distribution system is the best method when compared with the implementing unified power quality conditioner in radial distribution system because, if we use the renewable energy sources as DG‘s in radial distribution system like solar energy. We can the save the conventional energy resources. It does not consume any electrical energy. So, the efficiency of the distribution system is increases. If we implement unified power quality conditioner in distribution system. It consists of shunt and series inverters. These two inverters are connected back to back with a dc link.
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Development of a Mechatronic Control System for a Mechanical Fuel Injection System of a Four Cylinder Automotive Diesel Engine

Development of a Mechatronic Control System for a Mechanical Fuel Injection System of a Four Cylinder Automotive Diesel Engine

Mechatronics now plays an important role in these enhancements, so most of the internal combustion engines now contains a lot electronics and controllers so in this paper a mechatronic control system will be developed to replace mechanical fuel injection system of a four-cylinder automotive diesel engine, to study what are the important electronics fuel injection parameters which have the highest effect on the engine performance.

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