processor-memory interconnection network

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EMI: A Rack scale Memory Interconnection Network Architecture

EMI: A Rack scale Memory Interconnection Network Architecture

The "blade memory structure" in [11] implements a scalable memory structure with a low degree of coupling through a two-level memory (local and remote) mechanism that supports the dynamic allocation of memory to different servers. The prototype system implemented by this work uses the pci-e interface to interconnect the compute node and the remote memory node. But the effective bandwidth of pci-e [12] and the communication delay are easy to become bottlenecks and cannot match the processor's bandwidth and latency requirements. Memory network’s performance needs to be as much as possible to achieve memory access level requirements, so the communication interface requires a special design, rather than based on pci-e and other existing peripheral interface. At the same time, the prototype system is smaller in scale, and no more consideration is given to the interconnection between nodes.
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Network Architecture Design Exploration and Simulation on High Speed Camera System using SynDEx

Network Architecture Design Exploration and Simulation on High Speed Camera System using SynDEx

Many network PEs architecture design has been introduced by other researchers. Hakdu- ran Koc [3] proposed new method on data fetch- ing from memory in embedded multiprocessor and Daewook Kim [4] also concerned on shared memory multiprocessor. Klaus Hermann [5] proposed a new distributed embedded DRAM within multi-processor system. Amerijckx [6] introduced the architecture of a new embedded field programmable processor array (E-FPPA). The interconnection network that has been se- lected for the E-FPPA is hierarchical ring archi- tecture. Another design that show architecture in more general is proposed by Baghdadi [7]. Generic feature is depicted by its Modularity, Flexibility and Scalability.
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An Incrementally Scalable Multiprocessor Interconnection Network with Flexible Topology and Low-Cost Distributed Switching.

An Incrementally Scalable Multiprocessor Interconnection Network with Flexible Topology and Low-Cost Distributed Switching.

When performance limitations of conventional single processor computer systems first encouraged people to integrate a number of processors and memories into a single system the approach taken was to use either a shared memory bus or a switch interconnecting processors and memories. A shared bus provides a very cheap and simple interconnection scheme but can become saturated and lose performance with only a moderate number of processors. Switch based interconnects are much more expensive and can have high performance but are even more limited in the number of processors which can be attached directly. Various hierarchies and networks of switches have been employed in attempts to scale the systems beyond the capacity of a single switch or bus. Hence was born the idea of a massively parallel computing system with hundreds or thousands of processors interconnected either with a shared memory structure or via a structure which allows messages to be routed between the processors.
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PERFORMANCEEVAIUATION OF THE QUADRICS INTERCONNECTION NETWORK

PERFORMANCEEVAIUATION OF THE QUADRICS INTERCONNECTION NETWORK

containing one or more CPUs. In addition to generating and accepting packets to and from the network, the Elan also provides substantial local processing power to implement high-level message-passing protocols such as MPI. The internal functional structure of the Elan, shown in Figure 1, centers around two primary processing engines: the microcode processor and the thread processor. The 32-bit microcode processor supports four separate threads of execution, where each thread can independently issue pipelined memory requests to the memory system. Up to eight requests can be outstanding at any given time. The scheduling for the microcode processor is lightweight, enabling a thread to wake up, schedule a new memory access on the result of a
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Dell Reference Architecture for Microsoft Lync on Citrix XenDesktop 5.6

Dell Reference Architecture for Microsoft Lync on Citrix XenDesktop 5.6

Running Windows Embedded Standard 2009, the Dell Wyse D90D7 client is a high‐performance thin client for virtual desktop environments. Featuring a unified engine that eliminates performance constraints, this client achieves outstanding speed and power for demanding VDI and embedded Windows applications, rich graphics, and HD video. Driving the high speed and performance is a powerful energy‐saving AMD G Series dual core 1.4GHz processor, creating a solid platform to support a range of applications. For more information on Dell Wyse D Class client devices, please visit: LINK.

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SharePoint Server SharePoint 2010 Virtualization Guidance and Recommendations

SharePoint Server SharePoint 2010 Virtualization Guidance and Recommendations

After planning a physical farm, you have all the information necessary to design virtualization architecture. To plan a virtual farm, you follow nearly the same steps as you would for a physical farm. Most, if not all, requirements for deploying SharePoint Server 2010 on physical servers also apply to virtual machines. Any decisions you make, such as minimum processor or memory requirements, have a direct bearing on the number of virtualization hosts needed, as well as their ability to adequately support the virtual machines identified for the farm.

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BSP Fault Tolerant Features pdf

BSP Fault Tolerant Features pdf

File Memory Control Control Processor Control and Maintenance Unit Parallel Processor Control Unit Parallel Processor Arithmetic Element Output Alignment Network Memory Interface and Par[r]

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Fault Tolerance in Interconnection Network-a Survey

Fault Tolerance in Interconnection Network-a Survey

In such a network has two states, referred to as through and cross state, corresponding to the two possible permutations of its input terminals. There is a control line associated with each input terminal to control which output the input terminal is to be connected. Data are routed to their destinations by recirculating through the network. The faults can be tolerated by allowing data to recirculate in the network through several more passes. Two parameters have taken into account to evaluate the network i.e., communication delay (d) and degree of fault tolerance (k). It has been shown in beta interconnection network that k+1≤ d. The condition for optimal fault tolerance is k = d-1. The criterion for fault tolerance in Beta networks is called the Dynamic Full Access (DFA) property (Shen and Hayes, 1984). The fault tolerance of a Beta network is defined as its ability to maintain DFA properties in spite of the presence of stuck-at faults in its SE's. A Beta network can be made more faults tolerant if it is able to tolerate a large number of faulty SE's. A Beta network with DFA property is k-fault tolerant if the failure, either stuck-at-through or stuck- at-cross, or any k or fewer SE's do not destroy the DFA property, where k is called the Fault Tolerant (FT) parameter of the Beta network.
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Design of Wishbone Point to Point Architecture and Comparison with Shared Bus

Design of Wishbone Point to Point Architecture and Comparison with Shared Bus

A 32 bit system is designed by point to point and shared bus interconnection. The minimum size required for implementing point to point interconnection system is116 and shared bus interconnection system is 465 slices. The total logic elements required for implementing point to point interconnection system is 362 and for shared bus interconnection system the total logic elements required 898. The two wishbone interface systems are design by two interconnection architectures point to point and shared bus. Hence a portable, low cost SoC can be design successfully.
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On A New Interconnection Network for Large Scale Parallel Systems

On A New Interconnection Network for Large Scale Parallel Systems

The reliability analysis is an important criterion to evaluate the robustness of a parallel interconnection network [14,15,16]. Terminal and Broadcast Reliability measures are the main two measures. For the current network, two terminal reliability measure is evaluated and compared. Terminal reliability is the probability of the existence of at least one fault free path between a designated pair of input and output terminals. The FMC being a directed graph, the vertices and edges are weighted with reliabilities of the components they represent. Two nodes A and B are considered with n number of node disjoint paths lying between them. Let r i be the number of links
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Low-Overhead Designs for Secure Uniprocessor and Multiprocessor Architectures

Low-Overhead Designs for Secure Uniprocessor and Multiprocessor Architectures

Constructing a secure multiprocessor system by piecing together secure processors alone does not give sufficient protection because communication between processors is not automatically protected. The main challenge is that communicating processors must share necessary encryption information, so that a data block encrypted by one processor can be decrypted by another processor. In a bus-based Symmetric Multi-Processor (SMP) system, the shared bus provides an ideal medium for sharing encryption information because all processors can observe the same bus. For example, a global bus counter can be used to encrypt data transfers between processors [39], or data transmitted on the bus itself can be used to encrypt new data blocks through Cipher Block Chaining [53]. Additionally, [8] proposes a technique to authenticate a shared bus. Finally, [28] proposes an approach which claims to provide data protection in a multiprocessor with an arbitrary intercon- nection network. However, due to its general nature, this scheme suffers from significant on-chip storage overhead requirements for security-specific structures, and some security vulnerabilities if attackers can drop messages in the system.
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Disjoint Paths Multi stage Interconnection Networks Stability Problem

Disjoint Paths Multi stage Interconnection Networks Stability Problem

The switches are highly independent of each other as such no conjugation occurs amongst them thereby yielding no possible track and leaves the entire network as unstable. As the switches have no dependency, no backtracking mechanism is available thus if the initial nodes as in Figures (5, 11, and 15) fail the path is deadlocked and the entire network becomes unstable. The topology of the network has little significance associated with the unstability, as the network is not fault tolerant in case of failure thus unstability is bound to occur. The switches are unaware of the next immediate/most optimal path to follow to achieve successful delivery thereby deadlock remains causing unstability.
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HP Moonshot: An Accelerator for Hyperscale Workloads

HP Moonshot: An Accelerator for Hyperscale Workloads

There are many ways ARM licensees differentiate their system on chip (SoC) designs. Some have architecture licenses and implement their own microcode engines – i.e. core designs. Many differentiate based on their on-chip system bus, some design their own and others license and implement various levels of ARM system bus designs. And then there are memory controllers, integrated Ethernet NICs and switches, etc. We believe there are no intrinsic system-level advantages evident by comparing chips and SoCs. The power efficient server SoC market could very much use a common set of relevant rack-level server benchmarks.
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Chap5   IEEE 802 pdf

Chap5 IEEE 802 pdf

d) If all unused address lines are not used as chip selectors, then these unused lines become don’t cares. This results in foldback, meaning a memory location will have its image in memory map. For example, if A15 is don’t care, then address 0000H is same as address 8000H. It wastes memory space.

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QuickSpecs. HP ProDesk 490 G2 Microtower Business PC. Overview

QuickSpecs. HP ProDesk 490 G2 Microtower Business PC. Overview

The HP ProDesk 490 G2 Business PC supports the 4th generation Intel® Core™ processor family. Based on a new PC micro-architecture, the processor is designed for a two-chip platform consisting of a processor and Platform Controller Hub (PCH). Unlike previous generations, the 4th generation Intel® Core™ processor includes an Integrated Memory Controller (IMC). The IMC supports DDR3/DDR3L protocols with two independent, 64-bit wide channels each accessing one or two DIMMs.

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HP EliteDesk 800 G1 Ultra-slim Desktop Business PC. 1. Slimline drive bay supporting an optical disk drive (located behind removable bezel)

HP EliteDesk 800 G1 Ultra-slim Desktop Business PC. 1. Slimline drive bay supporting an optical disk drive (located behind removable bezel)

The HP EliteDesk 800 G1 Business PC supports the 4th generation Intel® Core™ processor family. Based on a new PC micro-architecture, the processor is designed for a two-chip platform consisting of a processor and Platform Controller Hub (PCH). Unlike previous generations, the processor includes an integrated memory controller (IMC). The IMC supports DDR3 protocols with two independent, 64-bit wide channels each accessing one or two DIMMs.

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QuickSpecs. HP EliteDesk 800 G1 Desktop Mini Business PC. HP EliteDesk 800 G1 Series Business Desktop. Overview

QuickSpecs. HP EliteDesk 800 G1 Desktop Mini Business PC. HP EliteDesk 800 G1 Series Business Desktop. Overview

All HP EliteDesk 800 G1 Business PC models featuring this technology include processors that are part of the Intel 2013 Stable Image Platform Program (SIPP) designed to ensure the stability promise inherent in the value proposition of the HP EliteDesk 800 G1 Business PC, thus making these models the most stable, secure, and manageable platforms available to enterprises today. Intel Advanced Management Technology (AMT) v9.0 – An advanced set of remote management features and functionality which provides network administrators the latest and most effective tools to remotely discover, heal, and protect networked client systems regardless of the system's health or power state. AMT 9.0 includes the following advanced management functions:
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Omega 2000 Hardware Reference Manual pdf

Omega 2000 Hardware Reference Manual pdf

Figure Title Example 02000-Series Systems Graphics Controller Block Diagram Drawing Processor Block Diagram Pixel Memory Organization Pixel Memory Controller Block Diagram Processor Writ[r]

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vsphere Virtualization and Data Protection without Compromise

vsphere Virtualization and Data Protection without Compromise

Scale-out Architecture – ExaGrid’s scale-out architecture adds full-server appliances with processor, memory, network bandwidth, and disk into a scalable GRID system. As the data grows, so do all four resources. By adding compute with capacity, the backup window stays fixed and does not grow over time. The GRID allows for modular growth when the customer needs it, without having to rip and replace an appliance that has been outgrown, with no forklift upgrades. Whether it’s virtualized tier-1 applications, vApps, or agentless backups, ExaGrid’s scale-out architecture ensures you will have the proper resources to protect it.
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IN-MEMORY BIG DATA MANAGEMENT

IN-MEMORY BIG DATA MANAGEMENT

Available Online at www.ijpret.com 297 memory. In modern architecture, data can’t processed until it is not stored in register. Performance of data program highly depend on utilization of memory hierarchy. Good temporal locality and spatial locality is usually depend on efficiency optimization.

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