(1998) found evidence that warnings increased perceived alcohol risk and reduced advertising effects on perceived benefits. Ursic (1984) investigated the effects of the presence of a warning on perceived effectiveness and safety of a brand. Participants were instructed to examine poster boards containing information on three brands for each bug killers and for hair dryers and rate each brand regarding its effectiveness and safety. Results showed that the presence of a warning showed higher ratings of perceived effectiveness and safety of a brand for both types of products. Furthermore, FDA investigated the effect of risk disclosure variations of prototype prescription drug (DTC) advertisements on consumers’ knowledge and behavior (Morris et al., 1984) using TV and magazine ads. The results showed that ads that contained specific risks led to greater comprehension of that risk information but general information did not improve comprehension. In addition, the ads containing general risk information were more likely to be perceived as reassuring rather than conveying risk information (Morris, et al., 1986). However, some research has revealed that risk information in ads seems not to have strong effect on product perception (Kee, et al., 2008) and health risk knowledge did not appear to be a deterrent for use of products in the future (Whisenhunt, et al., 2003).
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communication tool for the manufacturers to communicate with the consumer. In this study, the influences of different package materials in combination with food labels on consumers’ product expectations and product perception of coffee and coffee beans are investigated. While most of the researches are focused on the visual cues, in this research also the influence of tactile cues are measured. In a 2 (package material: a rough and matt surface versus a smooth and glossy surface) x 3 (food label: a eco-friendly label versus a quality label versus a basic label) design, 180 respondents evaluated a package of coffee beans and the coffee in a taste experiment. The respondents were afterwards split up in two groups: high involved consumers and low involved consumers. The attractiveness of the packaging, the perceived quality, the perceived eco-friendliness, the sensory attractiveness, taste intensity, taste liking, the product experience, the price expectation, and the purchase intension are in this research the dependent variables. It is found that consumers perceived the rough and matt packaging as more eco-friendly and are more positive about the taste when they saw and touched the rough and matt packaging. The food labels have a strong positive influence on the product
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The natural relationship between colour and taste may explanation these effects. Many fruits make as they ripen a transition from colours at the green end of the spectrum, through yellow, to the colours at the red end of the spectrum (Kostyla, 1978; Lavin & Lawless, 1998; Maga, 1974; Zampini, Sanabria, Phillips & Spence, 2007). Therefore, the red colour is strongly associated with sweetness and the green colour with sourness. As a consequence, the addition of a red colouring to food increases the perception of a sweet taste (Kostyla, 1978; Strugnell, 1997) and reduces the taste of bitterness (Maga, 1974). Such effects can also be applied in packaging design to change product perception. For example, the taste of 7-Up was evaluated as more lemony in a cans to which was added 15% of yellow to the green, compared to the original green cans (Hine, 1995).
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As green marketing is a comparatively new concept, it is seen as a more attractive style for consumers. Some peo- ple may be eager to pay more for “new” things. According to Sheth`s Consumer Motives theory, there is a motive called “cu- riosity”. That motive forces some people to buy a new product or service as a new experience. According to that theory, it can be claimed that “new” green products may be appealing for many consumers. On the other hand, only 21 percent of the participants in our study is willing to pay more for green prod- ucts, i.e. one of every five people is eager to pay more for this new thing. So, the first thing that the firms must do is to try to manufacture the green products cheaper than they are cur- rently in order to increase the percentage of consumers prefer- ring to buy green products which are expensive than non-green ones. The second action that the firms must take is to continue to make investment on technologies that is used in manufac- turing green products. This attempt will help to decrease the cost of green products in time. So, the shift to “green” -or us- ing some green technologies which may increase the costs of green products may appear to be expensive in the short term, but it will definitely prove to be indispensable and advanta- geous, cost-wise too, in the long run.
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Businesses are more likely to improve their marketing by having a more suitable servicescape. The exterior and interior of a bakery store becomes important because it influences the perceptions of consumers before they purchase the product itself. It becomes the first cue to communicate the product to the consumer [Lin, 2004]. Mayer and Johnson  suggested that the servicescape serves a functional as well as a marketing purpose. The service provider must therefore recognize that the servicescape may become a crucial component in the marketing strategy. This is due to the fact that consumers can use the physical surroundings to gather vital cues, which form their expectations prior to contact with the service personnel.
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Metaphorical advertising is a frequently used tool in contemporary product marketing (Agarwall, 2008; McQuarrie & Phillips, 2005). Whenever we watch an advertisement clip, in which the repairing agents of a vanishing crème or the cleaning particles of toothpaste are visualized ‘at work’, to give us an idea of how this new product benefits us, a metaphorical reference is drawn. The same applies to shampoo bottles which introduce themselves to be ‘attitude for your hair’ or barbecue sauces that are labelled to contain an ‘African safari’. Metaphors are often used in advertisement and have been shown to be beneficial on extensive ad processing (Toncar & Munch, 2001), dimensional thinking (MacInnis, 2004) and ad responses (McQuarrie & Mick, 1999; McQuarrie & Phillips, 2005; Tom & Eves, 1999).
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Given Kansei engineering research, the present study explores the composition of Chinese-style imagery by a perceptual (image) survey to gain insights into the charm of Chinese-style clothing design. Here, sensible engineering was employed to investigate the relationship between sensory imagery and paradigm in Chinese style. Consumer-oriented perceptual engineering is defined as "a system transforming consumer product perception and image technology into design elements." To effectively increase the satisfaction of Chinese style clothing design, designers should understand the consumer's demand for Chinese imagery characteristics/attributes of clothing, elucidate the association between the quality and satisfaction of Chinese style attributes, and then figure out the Chinese clothing design. The glamour factor acts as a reference for the positioning and development of future Chinese style clothing design.
The first aspect of the performance is about the present value of the innovative SMEs. The innovative SMEs are expected to increase the present value through coopetitive interactions in two ways: either by enlarging the current market together with the partners, or to explore and create a new market together with the partner, which is value appropriation and value creation separately. However, in coopetitive interactions, in order to increase the present value of the innovative SMEs, the involved partners are all required to work closely so that the shared knowledge and assets can be transferred easily. But between each partner, trust can be missing or quite weak. This could reflect in the performance in negative ways as decrease in the motivation of participating in the market creation process and etc. The second aspect is regarding the new product development. Refers to Tzokas, Kim, Akbar, and Al-Dajani (2015) that in today’s fast changing business environment, especially for knowledge-intensive SMEs, it is vital to acquire and use the external knowledge and also technology, etc., in order to sustain their innovativeness in the market.
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et al (2010:684) have undergone deregulation and liberalization since the 1990s that is unparalleled in the history of media industries. The result he notes is that in conjunction with the new communication technologies of satellite and cable there is an increasing global market place for the media product. From the foregoing the mass media is being harnessed to several general and specific needs of the human society. The literature is replete with various areas that the media is advancing the society ly. However there appears to be information gap on the perception of church people on the impact of mass media on church growth in Nigeria. Consequently this study is an inquiry of the perception of church members on the impact of owth in Nigeria. The mass media has been categorized into seven developmental epochs by
Our research differs from the Hee-Su and Yoon (2004) article in several ways such as (i) their service quality, product quality and brand image variables were binary variables based on customer satisfaction scores. The authors mention that a 5 point scale was used to obtain the satisfaction scores for each variable (Hee-Su and Yoon, 2004, p. 758) but they do not explain how this 5 point scale was converted into a binary measurement for each variable. For instance, a 5 point scale for brand image would require 4 binary/dummy variables to represent this scale in a logistic regression but they only had one binary variable to represent brand image (ii) they mentioned that their choice of variables was based on ―a survey questionnaire used by a leading mobile operator in Korea‖ (p. 759). Our choice of variables is based on a review of the literature.
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As for the purpose of this study, green corporate perception was conceptualized as a single dimension variable based on a study by D‟Souza et al. (2006). D‟Souza et al. (2006), in their study, investigated consumer perception formation towards green products in Victoria, Australia and found that there was a significant, but negative relationship between consumers‟ corporate perception on green products. Accordingly, consumers‟ overall perception about green product was negatively correlated with green purchase intention. The findings showed that the respondents had a general perception on corporate policies that did not support corporations that placed higher profitability in implementing green product strategies. In another study conducted by Barber (2010) that covered a general adult population of wine consumers in the USA also reported similar findings. The study that aimed to examine consumers‟ attitudes, behaviours, values, and intention to pay more for green wine packaging revealed that consumers who considered environmental issues when making a purchase were more likely to pay more for green wine packaging than those who did not. Significantly, about 77 percent of these respondents stated that they refused to buy wine products from companies alleged of being harmful to the environment. Hence, this contributed to the formation of the first hypothesis of this study:
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Cordell (1991) and Liefield and Wall (1991) stated that products manufactured in less developed countries lack the quality of material, design, and workmanship found in products from developed countries and can thus be high risk products. Given this belief, companies considering moving their manufacturing facilities overseas to capitalize on low labor costs as a means to improve profit margins and meet price points set by exporters from emerging economies have to be very careful. Consumers’ perception of quality based on country-of-origin is an important consideration when choosing an offshore location (Katsanis & Thakor, 1997). Country image is associated with product appearance, design, style, variety, status, reputation of brand name, reliability, durability, workmanship, and manufacturing technology (Hamzaoui & Merunka, 2006).
Celebrity endorsement gives additional attributes to a product that it may have not possessed since he is used to promoting credibility and rational values ( Mberia&Zipporah, 2014 ). When the celebrity matches the product, the value associated with him is transferred to the product, which creates an image easily recognized by consumers.This immediate identification helps in increasing brand credibility, thus improving the percentage of sales. The main objective of celebrity endorsement is to have brand recognition and emotional association with the target audience. Therefore, if this strategy is used effectively, it can make the brand stand out and stimulates brand recall ( Mberia&Zipporah, 2014 ). Celebrity knowledge, liking, credibility, and appearance are important factors which affect advertising believability (Mberia&Zipporah, 2014).
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the cellular segment to provide their services. It has brought heavy competition into the market and cellular service providers are facing challenges to satisfy their customers in the light of cutthroat competition and the changing market conditions. They are striving for their survival and steady growth. Therefore cellular service providers have to find out new marketing strategies to market their services in the better way. On the other hand retailers of these organizations are also continuously striving for their sustainability and growth. Customer generally buy a product from retailers therefore these retailers know very well about effectiveness, efficiency Abstract: In this study a closer look has been laid down towards the cellular service segment of telecommunication industry operating in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand state from the stand point of competition and the marketing strategies adopted by them. As many private operators have entered into the cellular segment to provide their services. It has brought heavy competition into the market therefore cellular service providers are facing challenges to satisfy their customers in the light of cutthroat competition and the changing market conditions. These cellular service providers are continuously striving for their survival and steady growth. They have to find out new marketing strategies to market their services in the better way. Keeping these marketing strategies challenges of cellular service providers as a point of view this study has being carried out. For this purpose three major companies i.e. BSNL, AIRTEL and IDEA were selected for the study and 105 retailers (15 retailers from each district) from each of these companies were selected as samples, who were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Therefore total sample size is 315 from uttarakhand Circle offices based in entire seven district of Garhwal region. Retailers were taken as respondents for the reason that consumers generally buy a product from retailers and they are in face to face contact with their retailers, therefore retailers can perceive very well about effectiveness, efficiency and impact of the marketing strategy implemented by the organization. Further these retailers are also continuously striving for distinction in the way they provide service to its customers therefore retailer’s discernment about products and services offered by its organization also plays an important role in sustainability and growth of cellular service providers. Retailer’s perception in this perspective is imperative. Therefore, an effort is being made to study the perception of retailers regarding the marketing strategies adopted by Cellular service providers. Chi- square test was taken as statistical tools for data analysis.
In today’s world, the basic human wants are already satisfied. Though there are a few ways to attract potential customers to a certain product. One of them is the satisfaction of secondary aesthetic needs. In this regard the aesthetic preference is an important criterion in the consumer purchase decision. When corporate identity is developed properly, the company is guaranteed to attract its regular customers, and therefore, occupies a certain market niche. Thus, it is very important for the company to develop its corporate identity and maintain it, inspiring potential customers to buy, and holding them about the company. Consumer awareness about a particular brand, as well as their emotional and intellectual associations are achieved through corporate identity, or corporate style. Style is the hallmark of goods and services helping the consumer to classify a certain product to a specific category. It also allows consumer to classify the product within a product line and brings the elements of the marketing mix to the needs of the target market.The article proves that the basis of the commercial chain “form- product-company” is repeatability. It is through the repeatability that the form becomes an attribute of corporate identity. Therefore, this aesthetic element should always be used and improved through the corporate communications system. As practice shows, sometimes even small functional form of a certain object can be invaluable in terms of aesthetics, becoming part of the brand image.
between the ACBC and CS surveys so that similarities and differences of implicit and explicit preferences could be identified within specific consumer groups. In addition, demographic profiles of the consumer clusters were described (Table 3). Each method identified 3 clusters from the share of preference score patterns, however, there were marked differences in how variation between the groups was explained. Differentiation of groups in the CS survey (Fig. 4) was primarily dominated by 3 levels: all-natural label claim (CS cluster 1), naturally sweetened (CS cluster 2), and no label claim (CS cluster 3). Preference within select consumer subgroups for protein products that are all-natural or naturally sweetened is consistent with findings reported by Oltman et al. (2015) and Parker et al. (2018). Product attribute categories such as protein amount, protein type, and platform failed to define specific groups. Demographically, CS cluster 1 had a greatest proportion of non-Caucasian respondents, compared to the other groups. CS Cluster 1 explicitly reported that their ideal protein product included all-natural as a label claim, and stevia, a non-nutritive/all-natural sweetener, as the primary sweetener type. These results similarly mirror the findings reported by Smith et al. (2009), which showed that non- Caucasian consumers were more likely to purchase and consume organic or all-natural products. CS cluster 2 had the highest proportion of consumers who reported infrequent protein product consumption, but was otherwise similar to the other CS clusters. While self-reported
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Independent t-test analysis was employed to investigate the difference between patients perception and pa- tients satisfaction. As presented in Table 1 the calculated t-value of 25.022 is greater than the critical t-value of 0.196 with 614 degree of freedom, this result therefore implies that, the null hypothesis which states that, there is no significant difference between the perception of patients towards nurses meeting their self-esteem needs and patients satisfaction is rejected while the alternate hypothesis is upheld. A cursory look at the mean values
The aim of the paper is to evaluate diﬀ erences in the quality perception among particular segments of demand. A questionnaire survey among clients of accommodation establishments was given in order to achieve the objectives set in this article. The task for respondents was to evaluate particular elements of the quality on the scale of one to ﬁ ve, where one was the best and 5 was the worst. Five partial elements of quality of the accommodation and six basic elements of quality of the catering services were identiﬁ ed based upon the analysis and ﬁ ndings given by previous scholars. The questionnaires were given out by owners or operators of the accommodation establishment having been le at reception desks by prior arrangement and subsequently distributed to guests. The guests were asked to ﬁ ll the form and hand it in back before their leaving. Factor analysis based upon the Principal Component Analysis Method was used in order to assess mutual links among those partial elements of quality perception. Only those factors with eigenvalue bigger than 1 were further analysed. The impact of the visitors’ expectations regarding the assessment of quality of respective accommodation establishment was identiﬁ ed by means of the one-factor analysis of variance and the results were tested by the Tukey Post-hoc Test for unequal sample sizes.
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Today, people are concerning about green product rather than conventional product. While enjoying the convenience provided by technology, people should have the right mind-set in keeping and protecting their environment healthy. The “going-green” trend is now extending to the Asian region. Therefore, for this research, the aim to conduct this study is to (1) to identify the level of consumer perception of eco-friendly product, (2) to identify the level of consumer behavior and (3) to study the relationship between consumer perception of eco-friendly product towards consumer behavior. The concept of consumer perception of eco-friendly product including product price, product quality, brand loyalty and also consumer behavior of willingness to pay more and willingness to recycle waste. This research covered at Melaka only. This research will take place at Melaka because of Melaka is a city that applied in green technology. This research is using convenience sampling method which is 400 of people are the randomly targeted respondents in this study. The result of the analysis showed that only price and brand loyalty had significant towards consumer behavior. Recommendation for the future research is to reach greater responses and improve the scope of research in understanding of green product use not only in Melaka but advisable to all consumers including Sabah and Sarawak in Malaysia.
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The level of involvement with the outcome of a decision or evaluation is often associated with the processing style of consumers and as a moderator (Kitchen et al., 2014) of the effects of persuasion techniques. This has been the case since the 1980s (Petty et al., 1983). This study expected, in addition to its role in the overall model, the level of involvement to affect the processing style and depth directly. A more involved participant would process the information presented more deeply and take more time doing so, than one that was less involved with the outcome of his or her decision. A trend was indeed found within the results that supports this notion for the processing depth, but not for the processing time. This leaves open questions about the validity of processing depth and time as representative constructs of the processing style. This we will discuss more in-depth later. Surprisingly, this study found that a more involved participant had significantly higher price and value perceptions. They expected wines to cost significantly more and offered more money for them than participants that were less involved. The difference in the average price perception was more than 15%. Involvement did not moderate the effect of scarcity. We expected it to moderate it at the outset of the study. This can in part be attributed to the absence of some effects hypothesized for the manipulation of scarcity and will be discussed more in the next paragraph.
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