Eleven response variables are considered. They include the productyield of primary products and the rate of coke formation. The number of trials was based on the number of design factors and was equal to 19 experiments (15 combinations with four replications). The following full quadratic model was obtained by a multiple regression technique for three factors (Table 2). In order to calculate the coecients of the model, a MINITAB software (Release 13.2) has been used:
Abstract: In this paper, phenolic-resin polymerization was reviewed by placing emphasis on the influence of method of production and its operating conditions on the productyield and kinetics of phenol-formaldehyde pre- polymer synthesis. Batch and semi-batch techniques were used to synthesize novolac and resole resin pre- polymers using standardized phenol to formaldehyde mole ratios. The operating conditions for the reactions were varied in order to measure its influence on reaction performance and kinetics. The results obtained showed that yield of phenolic-resins generally increased with increasing catalyst concentration and reaction temperature. Optimum yield for novolac resin synthesized by batch process was 77.5 %; while that for novolac and resole resins synthesized by semi-batch processes were respectively 96.5 and 96.9 %. The propagation rate constant and rate of polymerization for novolac resins synthesized by batch process at 50 % catalyst concentration increased respectively from 0.000885 l/mols; 0.002166 mol/ls to 0.005282 l/mols; 0.006902 mol/ls even as reaction temperature increased from 40 to 100 o C. Similar trends were observed for other operating conditions. Also, the propagation rate constant and rate of polymerization for resole resin synthesized by semi-batch process increased respectively from 0.093 x 10 -4 l/mols; 0.03 mol/ls to 0.113 x 10 -4 l/mols; 0.037 mol/ls with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing catalyst concentration. Overall activation energy required for phenolic-resin pre-polymer synthesis lies between 30 and 40 kJ/mol
The influence of temperature and heating rate on the pyrolysis of biomass have been investigated in the literature, for example, Chen et al. 4 investigated the effect of temperature on pyrolysis of cotton stalk, an increase in the gas content was reported with the rise in temperature. Williams et al. 8 investigated the effect of temperature and heating rate on the composition of syngas from pyrolysis of pine wood. Increase in both temperature and heating rate showed an increase in overall gas yield. Using saw dust, Zhang et al. 10 investigated the influence of pyrolysis temperature from 600°C to 1400°C on productyield and composition. They reported an increase in gas yield from 600°C to 800°C (30.9wt% to 65.3 wt%) and achieved a gas yield of 77.6 wt% at 1400°C. Zanzi et al. 11 performed rapid pyrolysis of birch wood, straw, straw pellets and olive waste in a free fall reactor from 800°C to 1000°C. Gas yield was reported to be 86 wt%, 85.5 wt%, 75.3wt% and 87wt% for straw, straw pellets, olive waste and birch wood respectively
order to calculate the prompt neutron and photon emissions, the primary fission fragment distributions, i.e. mass, charge, excitation energy, spin and parity are deterministically generated and numerically integrated for all fission fragments. The calculated prompt neutron multiplicities, independent fission productyield are fully consistent each other. We combine the β-decay and the summation calculations with the HF 3 D model calculation to obtain the cumulative fission
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be made from vegetable oil and waste restaurant greases by catalysed transesterification reactions. Over 5 billion gallons of biodiesel was produced in 2010. The European Union and United States are seeing the sigmoidal portion of the growth curve in biodiesel production. Economic analysis such as profitability and annualized worth (AW) of a bio- diesel plant in Taiwan is presented. With the revenue from glycerine byproduct recovery and with lower raw material costs, biodiesel may be profitable especially during days of higher gasoline prices. Multiple reactions of the consecutive-competive type may be used to model the methonoly- sis of trigylcerides. The reaction rate constant ratios and residence time in the reactor are impor- tant parameters in determining higher selectivity of FAME, fatty acid methyl ester productyield over glycerol by-product production. Illustrations of higher FAME yield, higher glycerol yield and cross-over from FAME to glycerol are shown for some values of reaction rate constant ratios and reaction scheme from triglycerides to diglycerides, monoglycerides and glycerol along with for- mation of FAME in each step by addition of methanol and catalyst is shown. Product distribution curves are presented in Figures 2-5 for different values or reaction rate constant ratios.
To determine the reproducibility of the novel extraction strategy of the MAE process, five samples of the same weight (1 g) were processed under the same optimum extraction conditions as obtained from the Box–Behnken design. The mean extraction of yield obtained under the optimised conditions was found to be polyphenols 94.34 (mg/g), flavonoids 45.61(mg/g) and free radical scavenging activity 92.25%. The calculated %RSD (relative standard deviation) value of 0.224971, 0.432381 and 0.42869 respectively shows that the proposed method has an acceptable precision and that the optimisation study was reliable as well. Comparison of MAE with conventional extraction methods:
trend of result was influenced by heat transfer effect between RMS particles, because, as the particles size was increased, heat transfer between the particles was decreased and eventually reducing the yield of bio-oil. Larger particle requires more time to heat by intra-particle conduction , where eventually lead to slower heating rate and incomplete thermal decomposition, and thereby increase in char and less in vapour yields .
Although the optimum curing temperature varies with the thickness and shape of the product, standard temperatures range from 130˚C (266 ˚F) to 200˚C (392 ˚F) , but curing is possible at temperatures as low as 90˚C (194 ˚F) and as high as 210˚C (410 ˚F) .
The data on crop yield, measured in kilograms per hectare (kg/ha), were gathered from the Ministry of Agricultural Jihad. Province-level climate data for monthly maximum temperature, monthly minimum temperature, and monthly total rainfall were gathered from the Iran meteorological department from 1983 to 2014. The monthly data were subsequently used to group the climate variables into annual averages for temperature and annual totals for rainfall concerning the crops. Crop yields are more often than reported based on their production year which is not on the basis of the calendar year; therefore, for simplicity in our analysis, the years were merged; for instance, the data of rice yield from 1982 to 1983 was taken into consideration as the yield for the year 1983. Accordingly, climate variables were in line with the yield data. Although yields are affected by numerous factors, only climate variables were taken into account, specifically temperature and precipitation. Other input factors such as fertilizer, seed, and herbicides may have been considered, but they were not accessible on a crop by crop basis. Table 2 shows the data description.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of inlet air temperature and gum Arabic concentration on yield of spray drying of soymilk and powder quality (moisture content, water activity and antioxidant capacity). Since soymilk had a significant lipid content, gum Arabic played a significant role as an emulsion stabilizer, improving process yield and preserving antioxidant capacity. However, temperature did not affect antioxidant capacity. The optimal condition to obtain higher antioxidant capacity was: 30% of gum Arabic and 160°C. The powder obtained under optimized condition was characterized regarding to bulk density, particle size distribution and morphology.
rust, number of leaves(main branch) and seed/pod showed the third set was inversely related to axis one (PC3). Days to flowering, internodes distance, number of nodes and secondary branches of plant was in detrimental relation to two axes. This may helpful in selection of genotypes for construction of varieties based on PC values for high elastic capacity. The outcome of analysis also determine the significance of those characters for evolution of varieties with greater yield potential
concentration (Malik, 1994). Its protein source is pre- ferred due to its easy digestibility and less expensive as compared to animal proteins. In Pakistan, mung- bean area increased from 146.3 thousand hectares to 178.8 thousand hectares while production increased from 102.1 to 130.1 thousand tones (Anonymous, Abstract | Mungbean is an important pulse crop and gaining popularity in the farming community of Pa- kistan. Improvement of mungbean germplasm for high seed yield requires information on genetic variability and correlation of traits. For this purpose, fifty eight exotic and indigenous diverse mungbean genotypes were evaluated for seed yield and other related traits. The genetic analysis of mungbean germplasm revealed high genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variability for biological yield (GCV% = 31.70, PCV% = 33.58), harvest index (GCV% = 27.80, PCV% = 30.16) and seed yield (GCV% = 25.28, PCV% = 27.54). While heritability estimates were high for all the traits except days to maturity and clusters per plant. Biological yield, harvest index and seed yield depicted high estimates of heritability (0.89, 0.85 and 0.84, respectively) coupled with greater genetic advance (61.57, 52.81 and 47.82, respectively) indicating the involvement of additive type of genes,and selection based on these traits may help to improve the germplasm. Seed yield showed positive and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with clusters per plant (r g = 0.322), pods per plant (r g = 0.276), biological yield (r g = 0.470) and harvest index (r g = 0.264). These traits also showed high positive direct effects on seed yield. Hence,indirect selection for these traits may facilitate for developing high yielding genotypes. The diversity analysis categorized fifty-eight genotypes into four clusters. Clustering pattern did not show any relation to the geographic origin. Cluster-I with three geno- types (Thailand: 2; Sri Lanka: 1) and Cluster-II with seventeen genotypes (Thailand: 12, Pakistan: 3, India: 2) showed the highest values for yield and yield contributing traits. Three distant genotypes were identified;a genotype, VC3012B was found high yielding, NIMB-101 had high biological yield and number of clusters per plant and VC 3404 had high 100-seed weight. These genotypes may be used for the incorporation of genes for high seed yield, biological yield, clusters per plant and seed weight into well adapted germplasm. Ghulam Abbas 1 , Muhammad Jawad Asghar 1 , Muhammad Rizwan 2 *, Muhammad Akram 1 , Jaffar Hussain 1
Abstract A 5x5 diallel cross involving five wheat varieties/lines (Kohistan-97, Chakwal-86, 6529-11, 6544-6 and 7086-1) was conducted. Twenty hybrids along with five parents were planted in randomized complete block design with three replications in order to find out the gene action controlling some vital polygenic yield related attributes like plant height, spike length, peduncle length, number of tillers per plant and grain yield per plant. Highly significant differences among genotypes were observed for all traits. Plant height has only significant differences. The graphical presentation demonstrated that number of tillers per plant was ruled by partial dominance with additive type of gene action. While over-dominance was observed in plant height, spike length, peduncle length and grain yield per plant. It showed the potential for the availability of transgressive segregates in later filial generations. The prevalence of partial dominance type of gene action for number of tillers per plant showed that it can be gradually improved by selection.
Indirect selection for cotton yield using yield component variables may provide improved yield, yield stability, and fiber quality. Data from irrigated and non-irrigated tests conducted in 1999 through 2006 at four Arkansas locations were evaluated. Parameters included lint yield (LY), basic yield components of number of seed per area (SPA) and lint index (LI), secondary yield components of seed index (SI), number of fibers per seed (FPS), and fiber density (FDEN), lint percentage (LP), and seed percentage (SP), and fiber quality traits of micronaire (MIC), length (LEN), uniformity index (UI) and strength (STR). Seed index and LP were dropped from further consideration due to collin- earity. Locations and genotypes varied in most of the tests for most of the variables. Genotype × location (G×L) was most frequently found for LY and SPA and least frequently found for LEN and UI. Path coefficients from PathSAS were used to identify the direct effects and relationships among variables. Higher instability was found in non-irrigated tests and in tests of more recently developed genotypes. Lint yield was influenced by SPA, but SPA exhibits low heritability. Lint index was influenced by FPS, MIC and LEN with FPS having the strongest influ - ence. Among the fiber quality parameters, MIC and LEN had a negative relationship while UI and STR had strong direct effects on LEN. Fiber density via FPS tended to be related to lower MIC. These data suggest that FDEN could serve as a selection crite- rion for increased LY without negatively impacting fiber quality traits.
measurements on individual plants over the course of several years without fear of contamination. Even seed set on fertile plants prior to biomass harvests can be controlled with tillage or pre-emergence herbicides. Every breeder uses spaced- planted nurseries for one purpose or another. The critical ques- tion here is whether or not they are being overused or misused. Spaced plantings consist of a highly unnatural environ- ment, in which individual genotypes are not allowed to compete with each other, taking away an extremely essential component a sward environment or community established in a production field. Indeed, the distinction between environ- ments with vs. without interplant competition can be used as a method of classifying traits as simple or complex traits. Simple traits are those that can be effectively measured on spaced plants and genetic gains are realized in sward plots [ 47 ]. Numerous examples, far too many to cite here, include flowering time, simple morphological traits such as stem and leaf characteristics, biomass quality traits (e.g., lignin, ash, or N concentrations), pest resistances, and some stress tolerances [ 47 ]. Conversely, for traits such as biomass yield, the literature contains numerous examples of failures to make breeding progress when selection is conducted on spaced plants and evaluations are conducted in sward plots to simulate realistic production conditions [ 46 – 48 ]. Biomass yield should be
Like all other crops, growth, developmental process and grain yield of canola depends upon biotic and abiotic factors. Nitrogen plays important role in growth and development of canola plant (Brandt et al; 2007). According to Wright et al., (1988) reported rapid leaf area development increase crop assimilation, prolonged life of leaves and improvement in leaf area duration due to higher nitrogen application, on the other hand higher rate of nitrogen application may results in decrease of oil contents per unit seed rates (Yusuf and Bullock, 1993;Velichka et al., 1998; Jasinska et al., 1997).
From the agronomic and commercial point of view desirable genotype is a stable and high yielding. On the AMMI1 biplot (Fig 2) hybrids H21 and H35 stand out according to the grain yield which was above the grand mean and with low IPCA1 score. Those hybrids could be recommended for production in all observed environments, especially to small farmers who demand stable yield throughout seasons. According to obtained IPCA1 scores, winning areas of certain hybrids could be determined. After the calculation it was concluded that there are actually three winners H20, H11 and H36. On the Figure 2. determination line “a” is dividing winning areas of H20 and H11, while the line “b” is determining wining areas of H11 and H36. Thereafter, in all environments above the determination line “a”, the highest yielding hybrid according to the AMMI model is H20. In environments L7/2, L4/3 and L5/3, the highest yielding is H11, while in all environments below line “b” the best is H36. As the hybrid H36 had the highest yields in all three years on the location 2 – Loznica and 3 – Panĉevo, it could be recommended for production with a great certainty on these locations both under favorable and unfavorable conditions. On the other hand on the location Kikinda (1) under favorable meteorological conditions H36 had best performances, while in the dry year, shorter season hybrid H20 (FAO 500) yielded better. These results also revealed that on the location 6 – Sombor the production of H20 presents less risk in unfavorable 2012 and more favorable 2013, while in the most favorable 2011 the best yielding hybrid was the long season hybrid H36 (Figure 2).
26 % in ear length (Table 2). Variety K9006 had maximum ear length. Grain yield and straw yield per plant significantly reduced by 40 % and 34 % due to salinity > 3 dsm-1. Genotypes K9006, K8434, KRL1-4, K88 and HD 2733 showed better tolerance against higher levels of salinity. Biological yield, harvest index and test weight were significantly reduced by salinity. Genotype K9006 produced maximum value and genotype K9644 showed minimum value (Table 2) Salinity may directly or indirectly inhibit cell division, cell enlargement, which results in reduction of shoot length, number of leaves, dry matter accumulation, leaf size, mobilization of food material from source to sink and increased root shoot ratio (Francois et al., 1986; Mass and Poss, 1989; Rawson, 1988) found similar results. Singh and Singh (1991) reported that yield and yield attributes decreased markedly with increasing levels of sodicity. Salt stress of Ec6dsm-1 and 10 dsm-1 decreased grain, straw yield and harvest index (Afria and Nornolia, 1999; Asha and Dhingra, 2007). Tolerant genotypes had a capability to better nutrient and water absorption which provide maximum leaf area that resulting in better accumulation of photo-assimilate in plant.
More cotton yield was harvested at Chitekete than Kadoma in the first picking of mature seed cotton. LS9219 showed the earliest maturity index of 78.41% whilst CRIMS2 had the lowest maturity index if 66.41%. Maturity index values from this study are closely related to those by  who reported values of 71.0 to 83.0 percent. The temperature ranges of Chitekete as shown in Table 3, indi- cated that there was more heat units for the crops per day in Chitekete than in Kadoma. Chitekete, though more drier had higher average daily temperatures than Kadoma. This depicted a more closely higher degree days per day as indi- cated. Kadoma had lower maximum temperatures as compared to Chitekete. Test cultivars 644/98/01 and 648/01/04 ranked 1, and 3 at Chitekete yet 10 and 6 at Kadoma. The results indicated poor stability of these two varieties across the two sites. Adaptation of the test varieties was more inclined to Chitekete than Kadoma. CRIMS2 was more stable for this trait over the two sites. In terms of ranks, it ranked 9 for both sites and its maturity values were rated second on the mean separation.
vernalization and photoperiod in barley were significantly associated with yield differences in crosses between spring and winter types (Cuesta-Marcos et al., 2009). In barley, different pool of germplasm can be identified based on genetic markers and clusters of varieties monomorphic for the alleles at loci controlling row type, vernalization and photoperiod (Comadran et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009). These pools are rarely crossed between each other in elite breeding programmes in order to avoid extreme segregation in progenies (David Harrap pers. comm.). Therefore the yield variation the within each pool originates another set of segregating alleles and genes. Bi-parental populations are continuously produced in the process of plant breeding and can be used for research purposes. An elite bi-parental DH population was generated at KWS-UK from the cross between two-row winter barley varieties Saffron and Retriever. This population provides an opportunity to understand the genetic architecture of yield and yield components in elite two-row winter barley material. The complementarity of the varieties in terms of agronomic characteristics had been spotted by the breeder willing to exploit their contrasting genetics (David Harrap pers. comm. and Table 1.1). Saffron and Retriever are known to differ in tillering ability and grain weight and have different yield responses under first and second cereal conditions affecting their yields and yield components. However, the magnitude of genetic main effect, pleiotropic effects and genotype x environment interactions for these traits and their interaction with other traits remains unclear. Barley was shown to have different yield response to nitrogen supply (Abeledo et al., 2003) and varying root architecture (Hargreaves et al., 2009). It is possible that Saffron and Retriever have contrasting soil scavenging abilities and responses to early nitrogen availability. The nitrogen economy may also impact on plant development and fate of above ground material associated to yield performance (Gregersen et al., 2008).