Production and Health

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Impact of lameness and claw lesions in cows on health and production

Impact of lameness and claw lesions in cows on health and production

Impact of lameness and claw lesions in cows on health and production.. JN Huxley BVetMed, DCHP, DipECBHM, PhD, MRCVS.[r]

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What place does compassion hold in the conduct and production of health services research?

What place does compassion hold in the conduct and production of health services research?

Compassion is a word that conveys a sense of action taking place in response to suffering or distress. Over recent years we have seen considerable international debate surrounding compassion within healthcare practice. However, the topic of compassion has been little discussed in terms of the production of health services research. This paper seeks to address this gap by raising compassion within health services research as an area warranting consideration by those planning, managing and conducting such work. It considers compassion towards study participants when recruiting, collecting and analysing data, and also in relation to researchers involved in day to day activities associated with executing a project. Research leaders play a role in ensuring that compassion is not overlooked for those who provide or collect and interpret data. Furthermore, self-compassion could be fostered among researchers to buffer against the everyday activities of their job that have the potential to cause anxiety and distress.
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Planetary Health: A Scientometrics Analysis of Scientific Production

Planetary Health: A Scientometrics Analysis of Scientific Production

In the first moment, we made a scientometric study trying to identify the panorama and the characteristics of the indexed scientific production about the keyword “Planetary Health” (types of published documents, number of publications, quality of Journals, most productive researchers, frequency of keywords and collaborations among groups). The data were collected from the database Web of Science (due to its scope and multidisciplinary approach), of Thomson Reuters, in November 17 th of 2017, utilizing the access by “Web of Science Core Collection” and the search expression: TS= “Planetary Health”. The data included publications of the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)--1945-present and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)--1956-present. This study covers the period from 1945 to 2016.
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Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production

Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production

production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management require- ments, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on the health and welfare of the birds are also discussed, especially in relation to the biosecurity problems associ- ated with free-range systems, the occurrence of behavioural disturbances in loose housed flocks and the use of veterinary drugs and vaccinations in general. The results from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish organic egg producers, where questions about the farmer’s perception of the birds’ health status were included, are presented at the end of the paper. It is concluded that most of the health and welfare problems seen in conventional poultry systems for loose housed or free ranging birds can also been found on organic poultry farms. It is also concluded that there is a need for information about biosecurity, disease detection and disease prevention on organic poultry farms.
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The Role of Poultry Parasites in Gut Health and Production.

The Role of Poultry Parasites in Gut Health and Production.

The development and efficacy of protozoal management programs in poultry production is based on the economic significance of the type of poultry and clinical significance of the protozoa. For broilers, multiple coccidia vaccines are available commercially due to the economic impact of this type of domesticated poultry. The next step for cocci management in broiler production is determining antibiotic- free feed additives that alleviate the negative effects associated with clinical coccidiosis. The presented broiler research indicates that the use of sodium bisulfate, a feed additive, can be added to the broiler diet to help maintain intestinal health. When broilers were challenged with an increased dosage of a commercial coccidia vaccine, the sodium bisulfate treatment resulted in broilers with greater body weight, improved villi structure and less gut leakage compared to the infected control treatment. Because the broilers were grown in ideal temperature conditions, future work with sodium bisulfate in the field should concentrate on a coccidiosis challenge with an environmental stress to determine effects on broilers in a commercial setting. Future work in the lab should determine sodium bisulfate’s mechanism in aiding intestinal health. With longer-lived poultry, H. meleagridis is a protozoal parasite of concern where chickens suffer from morbidity while turkeys suffer from mortality. It is unknown when introduction of H. meleagridis to a chicken flock is appropriate due to the secondary effects the chicken’s immune response can have on the flock’s
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The Relationship Between General Health and Health-Promoting Behaviors In Workers At The Organic Fertilizer Production and Recycling Company of Isfahan's Municipality, 2015

The Relationship Between General Health and Health-Promoting Behaviors In Workers At The Organic Fertilizer Production and Recycling Company of Isfahan's Municipality, 2015

this problem is also exemplified in this working society, and thus it deserves further attention. One of the reasons of the appropriacy of the general health score in the workers employed in the organic fertilizer production factory and the recycling management organization in Isfahan’s municipality can be attributed to suitability of the status of anxiety and sleep problems in them. In this study, 77% of workers reported the lowest level of anxiety and sleep problems. Sufficient sleep hours can protect workers against exhaustion, anxiety, and depression. Note that the findings of this study that evaluated the level of workers’ general health as good can be attributed to the fact that all samples are actively engaged in the mentioned factory. Further, during 1384, 1391, and 1394, the workers received vaccination against tetanus and hepatitis with the cooperation of Health Center Number 1 in Isfahan, with the new workers also being introduced
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Eating and Swallowing, Oral Health, and Saliva Production

Eating and Swallowing, Oral Health, and Saliva Production

Eating and maintaining optimal nutrition are essential to health and quality of life. In both health and disease, eating is influenced by multiple factors including swallowing, oral health, and saliva production. Perturbations to any, or all, of these inter-related factors may result in consequences that negatively affect the health and wellness of an individual. Eating and swallowing impairment are common symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, and these symptoms are associated with a host of negative sequelae such as malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, and reduced quality of life. The studies reported in this dissertation explored elements of eating and swallowing, saliva production, and saliva modulation in healthy individuals and in persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This dissertation is composed of three studies. First, a scoping review methodology was used to examine literature that addressed autonomic nervous system and/or swallowing
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An assessment of the public health hazard potential of wastewater use in salad crop production at Umguza irrigation lots

An assessment of the public health hazard potential of wastewater use in salad crop production at Umguza irrigation lots

Farmers at Umguza Irrigation Lots practise unrestricted crop production using undertreated wastewater. This presents potential public health risk to producers, vendors and consumers of the produce. The aim of the study was to establish the level of public health risk of wastewater use in unrestricted crop production at Umguza Irrigation Lots. Water samples from the dam, canal and overnight reservoir and vegetables: Lactuca sativa, Brassica oleracea and Solanumlycopersicum were obtained and analysed for physiochemical and microbial characteristics. The results of the study revealed that thefarmers grew salad crops using wastewater. The mean pH, EC, DOof the waterwas 8.9, 866.9µS/cm and 607.6 ppm. The EC value was far less than the 2000µS/cmFAO guidelines. Escherichiacoli O157, Shigella,Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in the wastewater with a steady decrease in pathogenconcentration as the rain season progressed. The same trend of decreasewas also observed on vegetable samples. The level of contamination by pathogen was noted tobe ranging fromsignificantly low to nil, where drip irrigation system was used. Future research isrecommended to determine the extent of contamination and conduct confirmatory test like Biochemical tests or Quantitative Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.
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Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

During daily work, or in the framework of herd health (HH) and production management programmes (PM) both farmers and veterinarians are dealing with risk assessment. In order to optimise on-farm processes, they attempt to control on-farm processes (Brand et al., 1996). The HACCP concept appears to be very promising for application on farms because it is farm-specific, relatively low in labour and record-keeping demands, focused on risk management and prevention, easy to link to both operational management and food chain quality assurance and suitable for certification (Noordhuizen, 2004; Noordhuizen and Metz, 2005). In fact, introduction of HACCP on dairy farms means nothing more than “structuring and formalising what the truly good farmer would be doing anyway” (Ryan et al., 1997). The rearing of young stock is one of the main processes on farms; it represents a large cost within dairy farming, however often too little attention is paid to this process (Roy et al, 1984; Brand et al., 1996; Quigley III et al., 1996; Mourits et al., 1997; Garnsworthy et al., 2005). This inevitably leads
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The production of health : an examination of the economic determinants of health

The production of health : an examination of the economic determinants of health

The regression analysis suggests that health status and income inequality are not robustly related in this Australian data set. The relationship between health status and income inequality was sensitive to the choice of health status measure, trimming the data set, and the measure of income inequality. Kennedy et al. (1998) suggest that for the US self assessed health status is robustly related to the Gini coefficient. However, similarly to the results presented here Weich et al. (2000a) find that self assessed health status is not robustly related to different measures of income inequality in the UK. In another paper Weich et al (2000b) find that measures of mental health are moderately related to income inequality particularly for those ltwith the highest incomes within regions”. In this study, while SF-36 mental health is only related to particular measures of income inequality (those that emphasise the bottom of the income distribution) the effect is strong in these particular cases. Unlike, Weich et al. (2000b) I find that when SF-36 mental health is related to income inequality the effect is stronger in the bottom of the income distribution compared to the top half.
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Virus based pharmaceutical production in plants: an opportunity to reduce health problems in Africa

Virus based pharmaceutical production in plants: an opportunity to reduce health problems in Africa

DOX: Doxorubicin; E2: Envelope 2 protein; EIC: Ebola Immunogenic Complex; EVD: Ebola Virus Diseases; G protein: Surface glycoprotein; GAD65: Human glutamic acid decarboxylase; Gag : Group Antigens; GFP: Green fluorescent protein; GOI: Gene of interest; Gp120: Glycoprotein 120; HAV: Hepatitis A virus; HBsAg: Surface antigen of hepatitis B virus; HBV: Hepatitis B virus; HCRSV: Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus; HCV: Hepatitis C virus; HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus; HPV: Human papillomavirus; HPV16 L2: Human papillomavirus serotype 16 gene L2; HR: High risk; IgG: Immunoglobulines G; INERA : Institut de l ’ Environnement et Recherches Agricoles; IRSS: Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé; IYMV : Imperata yellow mottle virus; LABIOGENE: Laboratoire de Biologie moléculaire et de Génétique; LDCs : Least developing countries; LFW: Leaf fresh weight; Nef: Negative Regulatory Factor; NTDs: Neglected tropical diseases; NVCP: Norwalk virus (NV) capsid protein; ORF: Open reading frame; PAA: Polyacrylic acid; PapMV: Papaya mosaic potexvirus; PepYVMLV : Pepper yellow vein Mali virus; PfMSP1: Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1; PLD: PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin; PSA: Polystyrene sulfonic acid; PVX: Potato Virus X; PyMSP1: Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 1; PyMSP4/ 5: Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 4/5; RCNMV: Red clover necrotic mosaic virus; Rev.: regulator of expression of virion proteins; RYMV: Rice yellow mottle virus; SHMV: Sun hemp mosaic virus; SIV: Simian immunodeficiency virus; ssDNA: Single strand DNA; ssRNA: Single strand RNA; Tat: Transactivator of transcription; TBSV: Tomato bushy stunt virus; TMV: Tobacco mosaic virus; TSP: Total soluble proteins; TYDV: Tobacco yellow dwarf virus; UEMOA : Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine; VLPs: Virus Like Particles; WHO: World Health Organization; ZMapp: Ebola experimental drug name this way by Mapp biopharmaceutical Inc
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Pesticides and Health in Vegetable Production in Kenya

Pesticides and Health in Vegetable Production in Kenya

The health cost almost doubled in 2008 as com- pared to 2005. On average, health cost was estimated at US$ 6.55/farmer/season for 28% of the farmers who reported pesticide-related illnesses. These costs equal 47% of mean household pesticides expenditures in 2008. Con- sidering all the farmers this translates to a mean of US$ 1.77/farmer/season and assuming two crop seasons per year the costs amount to US$ 3.54/farmer/year. However, the true health costs are likely to be much higher because the costs arising from chronic diseases resulting from long- term pesticides exposure were not considered, as this would have required more detailed medical assessments. Moreover, only costs directly involving family members were reported; costs occurring to hired farm laborers were not included. Furthermore, other “costs” to restore health status completely and nonmonetary costs like suffering and income lost by family members assisting in seeking treatment were not captured [34, 35]. In addition, preventive costs associated with precautions taken to reduce exposure such as wearing protective equipment were not considered because they were mainly improvised from old clothing or pieces of cloth wrapped around the nose and mouth to reduce inhalation exposure. The cloths were also used for other purposes like spraying on coffee and other farm work and it was difficult to specify those used for spraying pesticides on vegetable crops alone. However, the combined mean of personal protective equipment used increased by 43%, with the largest increment noted for gumboots. Over 20% of farmers also paid wage premiums of up to 32% above the normal wage to hired labor for spraying pesticides, which were normally paid in cash.
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Climate Change Related Factors Impacting Dairy Production in Pakistan

Climate Change Related Factors Impacting Dairy Production in Pakistan

Lack of innovation in processing milk and milk products (s=76) has raised grave question marks in Pakistan. Experts viewed that milk requires special treatment as soon as it is obtained from animal body. Poor processing and transportation of milk creates huge loses along with deterioration of milk quality. Transportation and processing though have different trajectories in terms of analysis and impact on milk quality, however, processing of milk started right after it is obtained from farm animals as milk is a fragile and perishable commodity. The containers in which it is initially collected are of low quality i.e. poor in withstanding the fluctuation in climatic conditions. Poor skills and knowledge of farmers in this regard is another serious concern. There is a good lesson from Kenya regarding innovation in milk processing to adapt to changing climate where variety of ways (mainly technology implementation) are adopted to process milk under changing climate where warming is chief factor impacting the quality of milk (Wynn et al., 2006; Farooq, 2016; Asayehegn et al., 2017). Lack of genetic up-gradation (s=73) and poor genetic pool of breeds (s=70) in Pakistan are serious and significant CEHFs identified by experts. These factors are significantly linked to the lack of genetic research (s=76) that is discussed in CEHF threatening health. However, in case of production, impact is serious. One of the experts highlighted that Australians took our Sahiwal cow breed and Neli Ravi buffalo to their country and modified it. Now it is producing around 28-30 kg average of milk whereas in our country it is still producing 13-14 kg. They updated these breeds and increased the production of meat. Their animal of 2.25 years age weighs around 16 mounds whereas our animal of same age weighs not more than 8 mounds. Genetic up-gradation is dire need of time to cope the animals not only with global standards of production but also to withstand fluctuating environmental factors (Khan et al., 2013; Rauw and Raya, 2015; Garner et al., 2016; Jabbar, 2018).
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Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences

Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences

India is an illuminating case for which one would expect to find a considerable body of literature. The country has emerged as one of the so-called ‘Rising Powers’ which represent drivers of global economic and social change. Healthcare is one of India’s largest sectors in terms of revenue and employment, and is expanding rapidly. The private sector accounts for more than 80% of total healthcare spending within India [4]. Since ‘liberalisation’ of economic policies in the late 1980s, India has also become increasingly at- tractive to foreign investors with its low costs and large, English-speaking, workforce. During the 1990s, Indian healthcare grew at a compound annual rate of 16% and today the total value of the sector is more than $34 billion and projected to grow to nearly $40 billion by 2012. The consultancy group Pricewater- house Coopers’ Emerging Market Report on Health- care in India [5] listed a number of ‘flourishing market opportunities’ for foreign as well as national companies: medical tourism (often combining elective surgery and aspects of Ayurveda), the emerging health insurance market, telemedicine, healthcare in- frastructure expansion (including public-private part- nerships and training of healthcare staff ), the medical equipment market, and the pharmaceuticals industry (manufacture, research and clinical trials). Indian fi- nance capital and healthcare-related firms are expanding horizons to markets and investment opportunities outside its borders. Indian pharmaceutical production, for ex- ample, supplies some 22% of the global generics market, primarily exporting to the US and Europe but also to China, Brazil, Nigeria and Mexico. A significant propor- tion of the vaccines produced are for developing countries [6].
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Rearing and Caring for a Future Xenograft Donor Pig

Rearing and Caring for a Future Xenograft Donor Pig

Health protection in xenograft donor pigs The main problem in the production of xenograft source pigs to be dealt with in the production phase seems to be protection against infections. Protective systems with terms, such as Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) or Minimal Disease (MD), exist for pig production in many Western countries. Most of such regulations are aimed at improving agricultural economy rather than the more sophisticated use of the porcine organs for xenotransplantation. E.g. Danish SPF regulations ensure protection against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Acti- nobacillus pleuropneumonia Type 2, Sarcoptes scabiei, Serpulina hyodysenteriae and toxin- producing Pasteurella multocida (1). Agents of interest in xenotransplantation, such as influen- zaviruses and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae are common in these pig herds (2). Therefore, com- mercial laboratory pig producers as well as xenotransplantation research facilities gener- ally follow even stricter regimes (16).
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Organisation of organic agriculture research in Denmark   background, use of knowledge syntheses, analysis of results

Organisation of organic agriculture research in Denmark background, use of knowledge syntheses, analysis of results

Twelve knowledge syntheses from ICROFS in Danish • Nitrogen leaching and balances in conventional and organic production systems • Health and welfare in organic milk production • Opportu[r]

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Research on the Supervision and Regulation Mode of Production Safety in China, Germany and Canada

Research on the Supervision and Regulation Mode of Production Safety in China, Germany and Canada

DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2019.72B010 88 World Journal of Engineering and Technology industries, and primary manufacturing and agriculture are also the main pillars of the national economy [14]. The federal government is responsible for the formulation of labor security, working conditions, occupational health and safe- ty regulations; the provincial government is responsible for formulating labor standards for minimum wages, compensation for work-related injuries, vaca- tions, and overtime; provincial administrative district governments focus on providing employment assistance and social protection assistance to vulnerable groups [14]. In addition, strengthening the national safety awareness is another important part of the Canadian government to ensure the continuous and stable improvement of the production safety situation. Moreover, Canada holds a na- tional occupational safety and health “safety week” in the first week of June each year, for example, posting “safety and health week” posters, distributing and showing free information and videos on safety and health; inviting security ex- perts to present security knowledge to the enterprise; organizing seminars; an- nouncing the list of workers, departments and leaders who have made out- standing achievements in safety and health work [15].
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Behavioral Health Needs of Men

Behavioral Health Needs of Men

their present lives. In behavioral health coun- seling, transference generally refers to attrib- utes clients assign to their counselors. Countertransference reactions are the attrib- utes counselors assign (from their histories) to their clients. Transference and countertrans- ference are not inherently good or bad, but both can potentially disrupt the therapeutic process if not recognized and monitored. One of the most difficult issues to address in any counseling context is the sexualized trans- ference that is likely when a female counselor works with a heterosexual male client or a male counselor works with a gay male client. In therapy, the counselor invites the male cli- ent to be open to his feelings, be vulnerable, and engage in a kind of intimacy that may or may not be present in other relationships in that client’s life. It is common and normal for the male client to feel emotional and/or sexual attraction for the counselor. Although this is a common occurrence, substance abuse treat- ment counselors may have received very little training in how to address client transference feelings, particularly sexual feelings. The fol- lowing clinical scenario offers some options for addressing sexualized transference. Case example: Hank and Jennifer Hank is a married 32-year-old African Amer- ican man with two young children. His drugs of choice were alcohol and marijuana; he en- tered treatment after his wife threatened to divorce him if he did not stop using. Hank describes his marital relationship as still shaky. He recently completed an intensive outpatient treatment program and was referred to indi- vidual counseling as part of his continuing care plan. He was given several counseling op- tions and chose to make an appointment with Jennifer, a 28-year-old White American wom- an who has worked at the outpatient substance abuse clinic for 2 years. She is a lesbian who has lived with her domestic partner for 5 years.
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Improvement of Production Productivity and Process Capability to Create a Production Process Controlled by Quality and Quantity Case Study on the Production Line Assy Element Assy, Factory 2 Production Area, PT  XYZ

Improvement of Production Productivity and Process Capability to Create a Production Process Controlled by Quality and Quantity Case Study on the Production Line Assy Element Assy, Factory 2 Production Area, PT XYZ

to success of a company. Because at this design stage all the entities in the work system are properly arranged and prepared in order to achieve the targets set by the company. In this study what is meant by company targets is the target in terms of production productivity and targets in terms of process capability Be rhubungan with the quality of products produced. Based on this, the research conducted on the Production Line Assy Element Assy in the Factory 2 Production Area of PT. This XYZ aims to improve the competitiveness of companies through the design of good work systems to increase production productivity, and through evaluating the critical processes contained in the work system in order to improve process capabilities that are closely related to the quality of the products produced.
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Lac production, constraints and management  A review

Lac production, constraints and management A review

a natural resin of wide industrial applications, is a Kerr belonging to the family Tachardiidae (Kerriidae) and order Hemiptera. Lac consists of resin, wax and dye, thus has a wide range of armaceuticals, cosmetics, perfumes, varnishes, paints, polishes, adhesives, jewellery and textile dyes, since ancient times. Lac is a cash crop of commercial importance providing an importance source of livelihood to ting tribal dominated forests regions of the country. The agricultural production continues to be constrained by a variety of biotic (e.g., pathogens, insects and weeds) and abiotic (e.g., drought, logging) factors that can significantly reduce the quantity and quality of crop production ., 2013). Abiotic stress factors such as heat, cold, drought, salinity, and nutrient stress have a huge impact on world agriculture, as they reduce average yields by more than 50 per cent for most major crop plants (Wang et al., 2003). Analysis of lac production trends in India during past few years showed a decline in production which is attributed to the biotic stress as well as climatic patterns unfavorable for lac crop. The production of the lac is greatly affected by abiotic stress
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