Production of Activated Carbon

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Production of Activated Carbon from Cellulose Wastes

Production of Activated Carbon from Cellulose Wastes

Cellulose wastes of a wood and paper factory were used to produce activated carbon. Several chemical agents under various conditions were used for production of activated carbon and hence their adsorption properties have been evaluated. In addition the effect of process parameters such as raw material, chemical agent concentration, impregnation ratio, carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature, activation time, particle size and soaking time on adsorption properties and product yield have been studied. Based on experimental results, the optimum values of process parameters were determined. As an achievement, samples of activated carbon with specific surface area up to 1100 m 2 /g and iodine adsorption number up to 1080 mg/g were prepared.
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Production Of Activated Carbon From Agricultural Raw Waste

Production Of Activated Carbon From Agricultural Raw Waste

Abstract: Our project is on resource assessment of raw materials show there is more than enough of the agricultural waste raw material available for activated carbon production to meet local demand. In view of these facts, we proposed to do project in the area of study in activated carbon. Activated carbon is used in gas purification, decaffeination, gold purification, metal extraction, water purification, medicine, sewage treatment, air filters in gas masks and respirators, filters in compressed air and many other applications. Due to its high degree of micro porosity, just one gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 500 m 2 , as determined by gas adsorption. An activation level sufficient for useful application may be attained solely from high surface area; however, further chemical treatment often enhances adsorption properties .One major industrial application involves use of activated carbon in the metal finishing field. It is very widely employed for purification of electroplating solutions. For example, it is a main purification technique for removing organic impurities from bright nickel plating solutions. Projecting on the available raw materials, it is established that industrial demand for activated carbon can be met locally. The characterization of two types of factory wastes showed that paper waste was a better option over rice husk. The activated carbon produced from pyrolysis of paper mill waste was chemically activated with various activating agents like zinc chloride, potassium hydroxide and potassium chloride. A systematic investigation of the effect of impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time on the properties of the activated carbon was done. The optimum preparation conditions together with the effected of these conditions on the yield and efficiency of produced AC have been studied .The chemically activated carbons were characterized by measuring iodine and yield percentage. The activated carbon prepared from paper mill waste in this study had maximum iodine of 764.80 mg/g with ZnCl 2 as the activating agent.
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Optimisation of the process variables in production of activated carbon by microwave heating

Optimisation of the process variables in production of activated carbon by microwave heating

This study aims to investigate the optimal operating conditions in order to obtain cost e ff ective production of activated carbon (AC) from palm kernel shell (PKS) by microwave heating. Interactions among the independent variables, namely irradiation time (T), microwave power (W), impregnation ratio between impregnating substances and PKS, and the concentration of impregnating substance (sulphuric acid) were considered for optimising the process parameters during the production of AC, aided by Central Composite Design. The optimum conditions for the independent process variables were 11.02 minutes of irradiation time, microwave power of 676 W and impregnation ratio of 0.68. The AC produced in this work had a surface area of 1011 m 2 g 1 with high porosity as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Zinc was used to verify the potential of AC as an adsorbent. Zinc removal at the optimum conditions was found to be 13.72 mg g 1 . Such a Zn removal value is comparable with the earlier work of other researchers who used a conventional way of producing the AC. It is believed that microwave technology can be used for the production of AC in a short time with high energy e ffi ciency, e.g., 11 minutes against 2 – 5 hours of reactivation for conventional methods.
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Production of activated carbon from apple waste prepared under N2/microwave radiations

Production of activated carbon from apple waste prepared under N2/microwave radiations

industries could be assumed to be low-cost adsorbents since they are abundant in nature, inexpensive, require little processing and are effective materials. Several agricultural wastes have been explored as low-cost adsorbent. Some of them include the shells [3-6-7], the stones of fruits [1-2-8-9] and wastes resulting from the production of cereals [10-11]. In the recent year, adsorbents from peels and pulp of different agricultural waste like banana [12-13], pomegranate peel [14], yellow passion fruit and mandarin peels [15], beet pulp [16], grape seed [17], coffee husks [18], and apple [19] have been also used. Apples constitute one of the most abundant fruits, with a world production of 68.3 million metric tons for 2005. Although, about 12% of the production is destined to the manufacture of apples juice and cider. In turn, the solid residue from pressing apples (apple pulp) represents more than 12 wt.% of the fruit. Therefore, great amounts of about 0.84 Mt of apple pulp are generated yearly worldwide [5]. This by- product have many uses like production of antioxidants [20-22], hydrogen production [23], extraction of lactic acid [24] and pectin [25], animal feed [26], and activated carbons [19]. In this way, many studies have been done by Suarez-Garcia et al. for the feasibility of production of activated carbon from apple peel by using the chemical activation with phosphoric acid [19,27,28], but the preparation of activated carbon apple waste by microwave has not been studied. In recent years, the number of processes that combine the use of carbons and microwave heating, instead of other methods based on conventional heating has increased. The main advantage of using microwave heating is that the treatment time can be considerably reduced; in addition, the consumption of gases used in the treatment can also be reduced
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Statistical Optimization Of Production Of Activated Carbon Derived From Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

Statistical Optimization Of Production Of Activated Carbon Derived From Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

The value of fixed carbon obtained for the activated carbon is 73.58%. Sivakumar and Palanisamy (2009) prepared activated carbon from Euphorbia Antiquorum L. and obtained 57.94% for fixed carbon. Lua and Guo (1998) reported values ranging from 23.7 to 87.13% within 450 to 950 0 C. The bulk density obtained was 0.58g/cm 3 . Ahmad et al (2008) studied comparative adsorption studies for the removal of copper (II) from aqueous solution using different adsorption and obtained values ranging from 0.32 to 0.62cm 3 . Bulk density of 0.48g/cm 3 was obtained by Sivakumar and Palanisamy, 2009. The raw material, the particle size range used and the degree of activation affect bulk density, which does have an effect on adsorption per unit volume (Yemisoy-Karakas et al., 2004). The iodine number of 802.45mg/g was obtained in this work. Activated carbons with iodine numbers of about 550mg/g can be attractive for waste water treatment from the user’s viewpoint (Dai et al., 1999). The iodine number value is an indication to surface area of the activated carbon (Abdullah et al, 2001). In their work, production of activated carbon from palm-oil shell by pyrolysis and steam activation in a fixed bed reactor, Vitidsant et al. (1999) obtained maximum iodine number of 766.99mg/g at 750 0 C and 3hrs. Castro et al. (2008) obtained iodine number between 608 and 746mg/g. Each 1.0mg of iodine adsorbed is ideally considered to represent 1.0m 2 of activated carbon internal area (Al-Quodah and Shawabkah, 2009). The carbon pH of the activated carbon is 6.8 which suggests weakly acidic surface properties. The pH of activated carbon can be defined as the pH of a suspension of carbon in distilled water. The chemical nature of the carbon surfaces were globally inferred from the acidity or pH of the carbon. Similar result was obtained by Ahmed et al (2008). Valix et al. (2004) obtained pH between 6.4 and 7.4 for activated carbon prepared from bagasse. Surface area of 850.11m 2 /g
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Production of an Activated Carbon from a Banana Stem and its application as electrode materials for Supercapacitors

Production of an Activated Carbon from a Banana Stem and its application as electrode materials for Supercapacitors

Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were reviewed regarding the effect of the KOH activation agent concentration on the electrochemical properties of the AC-Ks samples. AC-Ks electrochemical measurement data are determined from the curve of the plot of the charge-discharge current density versus the potential, which was recorded in a potential window of 0-0.5 V [30], as shown in Figure 5. The overall data show that all the AC-Ks samples prefer a rectangular shape [31], but they differ in the charge-discharge current area. The maximum charge-discharge area was obtained for the AC-K5 sample. The electrochemical properties of AC-Ks supercapacitor cells are further analyzed in terms of specific capacitance values (Csp). Chemical activation using KOH successfully increased the Csp of the AC-Ks samples, i.e., 103 F/g, 139 F/g and 170 F/g for AC-K0, AC-K3 and AC-K5, respectively. The chemical activation produces new pores and increases the surface area, which is proportional to the of concentration of the KOH activation agent. The large surface area provides a large medium for the diffusion of ions into the carbon matrix so that the number of electron- ion pairs increases. These results are consistent with the SEM data, which show that chemical activation succeeded in reducing the fiber to nanometer-sized fine fiber, thus increasing the diffusion of ions between particles. On the other hand, the increase in KOH concentration in the AC-K7 sample reduced Csp to 137 F/g. In conclusion, 0.5 M KOH is the best condition for production of activated carbon for the supercapacitor electrode with the highest specific capacitance, reaching 170 F/g.
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Production of Activated Carbon and Characterization from Snail Shell Waste (Helix pomatia)

Production of Activated Carbon and Characterization from Snail Shell Waste (Helix pomatia)

There has been an increasing interest in the production of activated carbon from agricultural by-products and industrial waste [7], such as cocoa pod husk [3], periwinkle shell [8], walnut shell, peach stone, physic nut waste, coconut shells, palm kernel shells, and bamboo stem wastes [9] [10]. Others include: olive stone, sugarcane ba- gasse, pecan shells, palm seed, apple pulp [11]-[14], rubber seeds, and molasses, resins, and dried sewage sludge paper mill sludge, old newspapers [15]-[19], and waste tires [20].

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An innovative treatment concept for future drinking water production: fluidized ion exchange – ultrafiltration – nanofiltration – granular activated carbon filtration

An innovative treatment concept for future drinking water production: fluidized ion exchange – ultrafiltration – nanofiltration – granular activated carbon filtration

Abstract. A new treatment concept for drinking water production from surface water has been investigated on a pilot scale. The treatment concept consists of fluidized ion exchange (FIEX), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofil- tration (NF), and granular activated carbon filtration (GAC). The FIEX process removed calcium and other divalent cations; the UF membrane removed particles and micro-organisms; and the NF membrane and GAC removed natural organic matter (NOM) and micro-pollutants. This study focused on the prevention of fouling of the UF and scaling of the NF and investigated the overall removal of micro-pollutants by the treatment con- cept. The results of the experiments showed that in 14 days of continuous operation at a flux of 65 l / h m 2 the UF performance was stable with the FIEX pre-treated feed water without the aid of a coagulant. The scaling of the NF was also not observed even at 97% recovery. Di ff erent micro-pollutants were spiked in the NF feed water and their concentrations in the e ffl uent of NF and GAC were measured. The combination of NF and GAC removed most of the micro-pollutants successfully, except for the very polar substances with a molecular weight lower than 100 Daltons.
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Production And Characterisation Of Activated Carbon From Melon Husks By Chemical Activation For The Removal Of 2, 3- Divinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP) From Aqueous Solution

Production And Characterisation Of Activated Carbon From Melon Husks By Chemical Activation For The Removal Of 2, 3- Divinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP) From Aqueous Solution

The continued use of commercial activated carbon for adsorption has become unbearingly expensive. There has been an urgent need to get alternatives. The sources from agricultural wastes are gaining ground in this regard. These sources are abundantly available and are being synthesized and used as adsorbent for a variety of applications today. The dumping of agricultural wastes in the environment has become a source of concern, as they constitute solid waste. These wastes distort the aesthetic quality of the environment, leading to serious deleterious effects such as obnoxious odour and Abstract: In this study, the removal of DDVP from aqueous solution was investigated with the aim of detoxifying contaminated bodies of pesticides. Three low-cost activated carbon prepared from Melon husks using 3 activating agents (phosphoric acid, potassium carbonate and nitric acid), were used to remove DDVP from aqueous solution. The one step activation process was adopted, using three activating agents: phosphoric acid, potassium carbonate and nitric acid. Adsorption Isotherm (Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin) and Kinetic studies were carried out. The Isotherm studies revealed the experimental data fitting Freundlich model while the kinetics showed that the data fits best into the pseudo- second order kinetic model. The research concludes that melon husk is a good precursor for use for the production of low cost activated carbon, thus a cheaper alternative to the highly expensive commercial activated carbon.
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Effect of Steam on the Energy and Activated Carbon Production of A Pilot-Scale Downdraft Steam Co-Gasification

Effect of Steam on the Energy and Activated Carbon Production of A Pilot-Scale Downdraft Steam Co-Gasification

Therefore, in this study, the concept of combined energy and activated carbon production from coconut shell using a steam co-gasification process to produce energy, and to increase the charcoal value. Finally, technology development and modern science, to boost productivity rather than increase the use of inputs, focuses on linking activities in the agricultural industry by using biomass and technology to optimize energy production to create high-value products and to further increase the product value. This is a way to develop the industry moving sustainably.

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Activated carbon production from spent 
		mushroom substrate for sulfide removal

Activated carbon production from spent mushroom substrate for sulfide removal

Agriculture industry in Malaysia has evolved entirely over the last decade due to the advancement in science and technology. Also, Malaysia’s mushroom industry has also shown an upward trend recently. Thus, the increasing of mushroom production in Malaysia also has led to the increasing of mushroom waste such as the spent mushroom substrate (SMS). It is estimated that for 1 kg of mushrooms grown, about 5 kg of SMS is produced. Since the SMS has high potential to be converted into activated carbon (AC) by pyrolysis method and chemical activation, thus this study is crucial to produce the AC derived from the SMS to be used in industrial application especially in the wastewater treatment as the AC has a very excellent adsorption property. Using AC from SMS, 93.7% of sulfide from the industrial wastewater was successfully removed. The optimum condition to produce AS was at the heating temperature of 515°C and heating time of 106 min.
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Production of Activated Carbon from Sugarcane Bagasse Activation with ZnCl

Production of Activated Carbon from Sugarcane Bagasse Activation with ZnCl

Figure-4 shows the decomposition behaviors of the activated carbons prepared from different activation temperatures. Generally, as the temperature increased, the more AC sample weight lost was observed. Among the AC samples, the weight loss of SC600 is negligible (approximately 10%) while the weight loss of SC400 is significant (approximate 35%) and the weight loss of SC500 is slight (approximately 15%). In details, decrease of sample weight during the decomposition takes place in two stages. In the first one, loss of absorbed water is about 2 – 5 (%) at temperature below 100 o C. In the second stage, the
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Abstract: The preparation of highly efficient and low-cost activated carbon from sawdust was

Abstract: The preparation of highly efficient and low-cost activated carbon from sawdust was

The adsorption of uranium and heavy metals from the groundwater has been found to be a superior technique compared to other methods because it is a simple, effective, economical, and environmental technique [7]. Activated carbon (AC) is one of the most widely used adsorbents in environmental applications. Activated carbon is a family member of carbons including carbon blacks, nuclear graphite, carbon fibers, composites, electrode graphite, and more. Any cheap material with a high carbon content and low inorganic can be used as a raw material for the production of activated carbon [14–24].
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PRODUCTION OF A NEW ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED FROM PALM FRONDS BY THERMAL ACTIVATION

PRODUCTION OF A NEW ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED FROM PALM FRONDS BY THERMAL ACTIVATION

Figure 1(a) shows the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the produced PFAC. It depicts a surface containing a well-developed pores expected of a good absorbent, in which the carbonaceous matters and salts that could have blocked the pores as seen had been leached off by the activation process (Figure 1(b)), showing the efficacy of the thermal activation and it shows fibrous cylindrical channels in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a honeycomb lattice that is considered helpful for the accessibility of metal ions to the adsorbent surface.

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THE REMOVAL OF CU2+ IN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER USING THE ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA) LEAVES

THE REMOVAL OF CU2+ IN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER USING THE ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA) LEAVES

In terms of assessing the feasibility of preparing activated carbon from precursor, production yield was considerably important. As the activated carbon was to be sold in a weigh basis, high conversion yield, as much as possible, is expected. As compared to the study of de Lara et. Al [6], the percent yield of activated carbon derived from Mango leaves is larger. The percent yield from modified peanut shells was in the range of 12.506-18.4016% as compared to the percent yield from Mango leaves with 21.5439%. Higher percent yield gives an advantage to Mango leaves as raw materials for the production of activated carbon and can be accounted to the bulk density of the sample after carbonization. The result indicated that Mango leaves as a raw material were efficient in the production of adsorbent. Because of considerably high percent yield, the raw material was fully utilized for characterization.
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Usage of palm shell activated carbon to treat landfill leachate

Usage of palm shell activated carbon to treat landfill leachate

Therefore, to counter the high cost of AC, finding a low cost and renewable precursor constituted a strong interest among researchers aiming to replace the conventional AC [6], which was mainly from industrial and agricultural by-products, such as date pits [7], silk cotton hulls and maize [8], jute fiber [9], groundnut shell [10], corn cob [11], bamboo [12], rattan sawdust [13] and oil palm fiber [14]. The new alternative source to produce AC is more cost effective and abundantly available [15-17]. Palm shells from palm oil processing mills are an agricultural solid waste in some tropical countries [15]. Palm shell is a good raw material for the preparation and production of activated carbon [18].
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Study on Pore and Surface Development of Activated Carbon Produced from Iranian Coal in a Rotary Kiln Reactor

Study on Pore and Surface Development of Activated Carbon Produced from Iranian Coal in a Rotary Kiln Reactor

Production of activated carbon from Iranian coal (Goltoot mine) in a rotary kiln reactor with several operating conditions was studied. The experiences showed the main effect of pre-oxidation and charring steps on the final properties of the product. In addition, the potential of this coal mine for activated carbon production was very interesting, hence even the fast reaction condition (such as steam activation at 900 o C for 1.0 hr) can produce a relative high surface area product (surface area of 850 m 2 /gr).

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Production of Bio-coal and Activated Carbon from Biomass

Production of Bio-coal and Activated Carbon from Biomass

Substituting conventional fuel with biomass for combustion has raised a large interest to date in attempt to achieve sustainable energy production. According to a 2010 survey of energy resources, 10 % of the total 2008 global energy demand was covered by biomass and 87 % of this biomass percentage was cover by woody type of biomass. It’s estimated that the world energy demand quantities will rise for 2015 and biomass will have a greater contribution without a fixed specification on the biomass type covering this future demand (1). While biomass has a large potential as a fuel to replace coal for electricity production, the fuel characteristics of biomass varies widely. A consistent biomass supply is critical to ensure maximum combustion efficiency (2). Biomass has other problematic properties such as hygroscopicity, low heating value, non- homogeneous moisture content and non-homogeneous behavior during combustion. Hygroscopic fuels lead to storage problems, decrease in calorific value and increased transportation costs. A method to eliminate these problems is the thermal upgrade of biomass by torrefaction. Torrefaction is the low temperature (200-300 o C) thermal conversion (i.e. mild pyrolysis) of biomass. This technique provides a means to remove oxygen from biomass and decompose hemicellulose to ultimately produce a fuel with increased energy density (3). Lignin and cellulose can also decompose in the torrefaction temperature range, to a lesser degree (4).
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Production and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Oil-Palm Shell for Carboxylic Acid Adsorption

Production and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Oil-Palm Shell for Carboxylic Acid Adsorption

It was possible to properly synthesize CA from oil palm kernel shells using both acidic (A) and alkaline (B) reagents at two very different concentrations (10 and 60% w/w). All 4 samples of obtained carbon, i.e., CA10A, CA60A, CA10B, and CA60B significantly increased their surface area and pore volume during activation of fixed carbon in the shells. After characterization it was found that CA10A and CA60A present an acidic surface with pore diameter between 1 and 4.2 nm, while CA10B y CA60B present a basic surface with pore diameter between 0.96-5nm. From all CAs obtained in this study, CA60B evidenced the greatest adsorption capacity reaching 1300 mg of adsorbed acids/g of carbon, corresponding to 33.3% of acids present in the solution.
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Production and Characterization of Activated Carbon and its Application in Water Purification

Production and Characterization of Activated Carbon and its Application in Water Purification

Activated carbon adsorption can be considered as an effective means for reducing various impurities like dissolved particles and colloidal matters and unpleasant tastes and odors in water. The water obtained from this treatment process is more desirable than that obtained from some public supplies. Different types of units can be prepared for purification.

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