Professional Knowledge In Music Education

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Reconceptualising preservice teacher education courses for music teachers: the importance of pedagogical content knowledge and skills and professional knowledge and skills

Reconceptualising preservice teacher education courses for music teachers: the importance of pedagogical content knowledge and skills and professional knowledge and skills

The early-career teachers in this study spoke of four areas relating to the structure of their course. This ‘fragmented’ view of teacher education seems to reflect existing teacher education programs (Ferry et al., 2004) which present both music and education theory in isolation from the context of music teaching. Despite the reality of fragmentation, the overwhelming finding from this study was that pedagogical content knowledge and skills and professional knowledge and skills are seen as very important to early-career music teachers, predominantly because these are the areas that are seen to be directly contextualised to their experiences as music teachers. A course that takes into account the needs of its stakeholders should therefore present pedagogical and professional knowledge and skills within the context of music education. This would enable early-career teachers to develop the ability to apply knowledge and skills learnt in all subjects to their future context as early-career secondary music teachers.
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Exploration on Teaching Reform of Vocal Music in Music Education Major in Colleges and Universities

Exploration on Teaching Reform of Vocal Music in Music Education Major in Colleges and Universities

Teachers should do a good job in the curriculum planning of music vocal music courses, and make a reasonable arrangement of theoretical and practical courses. As a basic course, vocal music course has higher requirements on basic theoretical knowledge and practice of solfeggio and ear training. Only by laying a solid theoretical foundation can qualified music educational talents be cultivated. Only rich practical experience, to music education industry to transport professional quality music talents. Therefore, the teacher in the vocal music class teaching, cannot discriminate. Teachers should reasonably arrange the teaching of basic music theory knowledge, sound principle, music aesthetics and other courses at the beginning of vocal music teaching. Only lay the foundation of theoretical knowledge, practices, vocal students won't because of wrong way voice hurt vocal organs, or because don't understand the song but not sight singing practice ear, only enhance the aesthetic basis, to make students comprehend music want to express the connotation of, and affectionately do in practice.
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The Professional Development of Music Librarians

The Professional Development of Music Librarians

While most of the literature discussed thus far may be described as qualitative discussions of professional development, a number of researchers have undertaken formal, quantitative studies regarding the activities, needs, and opinions of professional librarians. For example, Balsamo (1997) administered a survey to the reference librarians at the main libraries on the sixteen campuses of the University of North Carolina. The questionnaire collected data regarding the current “continuing professional activities” of the librarians, along with their opinions as to the effectiveness of those activities, their preferences for certain types of activities, and the areas in which they would like to acquire more knowledge in the future. The study effectively demonstrates that workshops and seminars of one day or less are the most highly preferred means of continuing education, that half the respondents feel that their institutions are not meeting their continuing education needs, and that 100 percent of the respondents agree with the statement that their “position will demand further technical training within the next five years.” Unfortunately, though one of the survey questions reveals that the “technical” training of most librarians has been acquired on-the-job or has been self-taught, the survey focuses exclusively on formal means of professional development and thus does not indicate the other means through which these librarians gain vocational knowledge.
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Evaluating Graduate Education and Transcending Biases in Music Teachers' Professional Development

Evaluating Graduate Education and Transcending Biases in Music Teachers' Professional Development

At each of two intervals, at the end of Years 1 and 2, the same 15-item questionnaire was administered, developed for the purpose of the current study, inviting respondents to give the Levinsky College of Education anonymous feedback on their own curriculum. The questionnaire comprised two 7-item closed subscales, one relating to "various aspects of the program" and the other relating to these aspects' "contribution to teacher professional development," as well as one open-ended question inviting students to offer recommendations for the program's improvement. The program evaluation subscale focused on the curriculum's perceived input with regard to aspects like evaluation of tasks, body of knowledge, and quality of instruction (e.g., "Most of the courses in the program contribute to my music education;" "I am satisfied with the level of instruction in most of the courses") and showed a Cronbach α of .80. The program contribution subscale focused on the curriculum's output regarding perceived changes in students' professional development and identity such as changes in one's desire to expand activities, one's sense of empowerment to initiate change, or one's ability to exchange ideas, connect theory to work, or take an empirical perspective (e.g., "Following the master's degree in music education, I feel empowered to change things at my workplace;" "Knowledge of theories helps me reexamine my work in the field"), with a Cronbach α of .88. Each closed item was rated on a 6-point Likert-type scale ranging from not at all (1) to very much (6). Responses to the open question underwent content analysis, and categories were formulated.
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Investigating Views and Practices of Music Teachers’ about Inclusive Education

Investigating Views and Practices of Music Teachers’ about Inclusive Education

Another program under the name of inclusive education is the special sub-classes which are opened in organized educational institutions once more for children with mild disabilities who need special education and the syllabus which is going to be practiced in these classes is specially developed (Çetinkaya, 2008). While the inclusive students studying in these classes take some lessons in their own classroom, they take some lessons in the classroom where their normal peers are present. All students who are educated in inclusive education are raised as happy individuals who can live together with the community and are aware of their social role, are able to establish good relations with their environment, can adapt to their environment, have self-efficacy and are not dependent on others and are able to have a business in the future according to their interests and abilities. For this reason, no individual who needs special education should be abstracted from the society, he/she should have the same rights as other individuals (peers), every individual should learn to live as a society with different individuals and should respect each other's rights. These children, along with other peers, should be trained in their limited educational environment. These children, along with their peers, should be educated in the educational environment which is restricted especially for them. The paragraph "l" of Clause 4 of the Ministry of National Education's Special Education Services Regulation (2006) describes the least restricted education environment as “It is the most suitable program for the individual who needs special education in order to ensure integration into society and acquire appropriate academic and professional knowledge and skills with social, self-care, skills in the field of language and communication and provides support education services and to be in harmony with as many peers as possible.” (URL-2, 2006).
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Identities of music teachers: implications for teacher education

Identities of music teachers: implications for teacher education

It seems that teachers who specialise in secondary classroom music may find their professional identity and their feelings regarding teaching to be ‘situated’ within their discipline specialisation. The interviews revealed that despite their ‘passion’ for the subject area, music teachers had three separate views regarding their identity. They saw themselves as a musician, a music teacher or a teacher. Their identification with either of these categories appeared to be based on their perceived musical (performance) ability. This is consistent with Hargreaves, Welch, Purves and Marshall’s (2003) research which points to the importance placed (by music teachers and the community) on the musical performance skills of music teachers. In the present study, music teachers’ perceived ability in the subject area seemed to determine how they viewed themselves professionally – the ‘better’ they felt they were at music, the more likely they were to see themselves as musicians. Conversely, if they reported little confidence in music skills and knowledge, they were more likely to see themselves as ‘teachers’.
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ASSESSMENT IN THE SECONDARY MUSIC CLASSROOM

ASSESSMENT IN THE SECONDARY MUSIC CLASSROOM

performance, knowledge, understanding, etc. is at the expected age level); and opportunity-to-learn standards (have the students been provided with adequate resources, expert teachers, and instructional time) to reasonably be expected to attain the content and performance standards. These standards may differ depending on mandates. In Mexico, outcomes are expected to include awareness, contemplation, expression, appreciation, contextualization, and creation. Caribbean nations have agreed on listening and appraising, performing, and composing. Belarus and Russia seem to assess music instruction based on observation, singing and playing of instruments, creative assignments, oral responses, essays, projects, and listening exams that test composer and/or selection recognition. Taiwan has established cognitive objectives as being 25% of any assessment, psychomotor 50%, and affective, which includes participation, appreciation, and creating, 25% (Holmes et al., 2010). In the United States, percentages are not specified but include performing, creating, and responding. Categories or mandates in other countries suggest composing (including arranging), audiation, performing, literature studies, skills, and aesthetics—musical styles and idioms.
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SYNOPSIS OF SLOVAK MUSIC EDUCATION

SYNOPSIS OF SLOVAK MUSIC EDUCATION

The Conservatory is a secondary/high school where pupils prepare to become either professional interpreters (instrument players, singers, composers, conductors, dancers, actors), or music teachers. Also, after graduation from the Conservatory, they are prepared to proceed in their studies at the university with either artistic or educational focus. Pupils usually enter the conservatory after completing the primary general education school, i.e. at the end of the ninth grade (and in exceptional cases, after the 8th grade). They are accepted after succeeding in the admission exams. The overall time of studies here is usually 6 years. After the first four years and together with the successful completion of graduation exam (Maturita), the pupil may continue his/her studies at the University. If (s)he decides to stay at the Conservatory for two more years, (s)he receives after final exams the title DiS. art. (Certified specialist of art) and the qualification for teaching instrument/singing at Primary Art School.
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THE EFFECTS OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND TEACHER EDUCATION ON STUDENTS' LEARNING OUTCOMES

THE EFFECTS OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND TEACHER EDUCATION ON STUDENTS' LEARNING OUTCOMES

On the other hand, the cooperation is beneficial for medical teachers as well. In our case, medical teachers are essentially doctors and teaching assistants who most often do not have any formal training in pedagogy and teaching methodology. In other words, they have the necessary content knowledge but need pedagogical knowledge – they need to develop and maintain the skills of a competent teacher. These skills imply commitment to the teaching-learning process, a desire to develop in the fields of both teaching and medicine, understanding and awareness of the educational needs of students and the educational principles applied in medicine, practical teaching skills, openness to cooperation and assessment abilities. For many, their teaching practice has been learned solely by doing and mostly relies on the traditional, ex-cathedra teaching. In team and tandem teaching, they are given an opportunity to learn about the methodological aspects of course design, the use of various teaching methods, approaches and principles. Even if it only inspires them to think about and reflect on their teaching practice, it will eventually lead towards improvement (Moon, 1999).
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The biography of music teachers, their understanding of musicality and the implications for secondary music education

The biography of music teachers, their understanding of musicality and the implications for secondary music education

In analysing the data in Table 1, two points will be examined in a little more detail. In the musical competencies data, participants ranked ‘composing’ as a fairly important competency for developing musicians to acquire – ranked in 5th position. The rankings of the observed significance scores also place it in the top half (6th). In as many as 40% of lessons observed, the activities of composing or improvising were a focus of the teaching and learning. The National Curriculum also places devising one’s own music as one of a triumvirate of principal musical activities: performing, devising, and listening. However, in the survey/ questionnaire carried out with the entire participant group (n=64), 40% of the respondents indicated that they were not particularly experienced in composing; and Harris & Hawksley (1989) argued that ‘many music teachers compose, but few have learned about music through composing’ (Harris & Hawksley 1989: 7). There is a fundamental indication in the research that, while composing is a core activity in music lessons and within the curriculum, many teachers have little experience as active composers. This was observed in practice in a music lesson given by one teacher-participant, an experienced music teacher endeavouring to encourage his students to compose but who, ultimately, provided them with little guidance on the actual process of composing. Consequently, outcomes tended to lack ‘shape’ and direction.
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Assesment of information literacy skills in county governments: A case study of Machakos County Kenya

Assesment of information literacy skills in county governments: A case study of Machakos County Kenya

among the Kenyan population, including professionals. Despite the vast number of Studies on IL skills none for has addressed county governments. More studies are therefore needed in this area. While it is critical for IL in ensuring effective and efficient delivery of services at all levels, the newly devolved County Governments will have to provide such services amidst this challenge. However, for the County Government to be able to offer efficient and effective services knowledge on what determines IL is therefore important and yet it has not been established. Such knowledge can inform both policy formulation on IL and enhance service delivery in the County Government
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NEWS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS

NEWS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS

The Division of Professional Education is concerned with four major areas of activity: the preparation of professional personnel; the improvement of professional education stand- ards in[r]

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Improving public health through student-led interprofessional extracurricular education and collaboration: a conceptual framework

Improving public health through student-led interprofessional extracurricular education and collaboration: a conceptual framework

Kruse argues that health care professionals often lack respect for other professionals, fail to recognize the value of a team-based approach and a shared vision, and demonstrate a deficiency in communication skills that are required to set goals and priorities aimed to improve health care efficiency and effectiveness. These professional health care silos exist because we have allowed and fostered competitive training programs rather than cultivating an environment rich in col- laboration, teamwork, and interprofessionalism. 13

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Organize the Performance of Professional Education Services in Indonesia

Organize the Performance of Professional Education Services in Indonesia

Mohammad (Chairman of the Large Administrators PGRI), stated unequivocally that "all the success of the education reform agenda is ultimately determined by the element that is located in the front leading edge, i.e. teachers. Rights of the teacher as a person, and also the profession of teacher training, community members and citizens who had been neglected, need to get priority in reform ". The main rights of educators who had to gain attention in the Government's policy is the right to earn income and well-being with a decent wage standards, rather than the ' minimum wage '. The policy of "minimum wage" may thus have led officials of the coolies, not minded individuals who pursue employee achievements. That is why, then the first step increasing the quality of produce educators and educators are giving prosperity teachers with a decent salary for life.
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Physical Education Teachers’ Knowledge on the Professional Code of Ethics and Conduct in Tanzania

Physical Education Teachers’ Knowledge on the Professional Code of Ethics and Conduct in Tanzania

Every profession considers the development and application of a Professional Code of Ethics and Conduct (PCEC) as a means of maintaining acceptable professional standards. As for the teaching profession, teachers are supposed to exhibit a high level of professionalism, responsibility, integrity, competence, character, respect and honesty. Such moral virtues are imperative for Physical Education (PE) teachers since their work involves close interactions with students in and outside the classroom and school contexts. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of PE teachers on PCEC in Tanzania. The study explored whether PE teachers were knowledgeable on PCEC and whether their knowledge differed according to their demographic and institutional characteristics. The study was significant in that knowledge on PCEC could help teachers to understand the nature of their work, the values they transmit and the implication of those values for those with whom they are engaged. The study could also help PE teachers to improve and sustain the standards and reputation of the teaching profession by upholding the best practices and conduct. The study utilized descriptive survey design and was conducted in secondary schools and teachers’ colleges that had PE and sport programs. Purposive sampling was adopted to select PE teachers and data were collected through questionnaire. Results revealed that PE teachers had high knowledge on PCEC (M =4.41, SD = .317). However, knowledge on PCEC differed significantly across educational levels (p = .001), institutional ownership (p =. 011) and institutional level (p = .019). There were no significant differences across age categories (p = .056), gender (p = .926), marital status (p = .153), teaching experience (p =.258) and location (p = .252). It was concluded that PE teachers possess adequate knowledge on PCEC; and the level of education and religiosity are determinant factors for the knowledge on PCEC. It was recommended that there is a need to strengthen professional development courses for teachers and emphasize the teaching of moral and professional ethics in the teacher education programs. Teachers should also be encouraged to obtain copies of professional code of ethics and conduct, and they should be emphasized to implement the professional code of ethics and conduct. Moreover, studies should be conducted to understand the level of compliance with PCEC among teachers in other specialized subjects. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Keywords: knowledge, PE teachers, professional code of ethics, code of conduct, perception, demographic
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The accreditation of nursing education in Australia

The accreditation of nursing education in Australia

As the accreditation standards are used to assess whether a program of study or education provider provides a person who completes the program with the knowledge, skills and professional attributes necessary to register as a nurse in Australia (ANMAC 2011), it is of the utmost importance that the standards provide an appropriate platform for the design of quality nursing curricula across the nation. The accreditation standards are central to such a goal as they prescribe the structures, personnel and processes expected of nursing education providers and their programs (ANMC 2009a). This includes the governance and
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Alumni Awards 2011

Alumni Awards 2011

Mr. Joe D. Moore is Instructor of Music and Director of Bands at Delta State University, where he conducts the Wind Ensemble, directs the “Pride of the Delta” Marching Band and teaches courses in conducting and instrumental music methods. He received the Bachelor of Music Education degree from East Tennessee State University, the Master of Music degree in music education from the University of Miami (FL) and is presently a candidate for the Doctor of Musical Arts in Wind Band Conducting degree from the University of Kentucky. His primary conducting teachers have been John Cody Birdwell, Nicholas DeCarbo, Lee Kjelson, Donald Oglesby, and George Naff, with additional studies and master classes with Timothy Mahr, Jack Stamp, Christian Zembower, Allen McMurray, Thomas Caneva, John Boyd, Joseph Hermann and David Waybright.
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Fostering the Mobilization of Knowledge from Professional Development to the Classroom

Fostering the Mobilization of Knowledge from Professional Development to the Classroom

I observed Jesse demonstrate play-based learning on multiple occasions (observation, January 26, 2016; January 27, 2016; February 2, 2016; February 9, 2016). The classroom had several learning stations spread around the perimeter with a large carpet in front of a white board in the center. Some examples of learning stations were building blocks, sand, and water, quiet reading, an art center and toy animals. I also observed a poster on the wall beside the door of the classroom which described each learning center along with how it contributed to student learning. That chart showed how the content knowledge of the Kindergarten AQs was intended to be mobilized. Moreover, a document provided by Jesse gave a basic outline for the flow of a full day (Anonymous, N.d.) including the regular use of learning stations as a way to engage students in play-based learning while providing the context for documentation. Additionally, I noticed that Jesse regularly moved around the learning centers to engage with students for several minutes before asking questions about what they were building/reading/creating etc. By engaging with students first, Jesse appeared to get a sense of what the students were trying to accomplish before asking pointed questions. This engagement demonstrated the mobilization of the pedagogical knowledge.
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Music Education Commons , and the Music Pedagogy Commons

Music Education Commons , and the Music Pedagogy Commons

unique, however they would all agree on one thing without a doubt: music is a necessary and valuable part of human existence, and therefore a necessary and valuable part of education. In the way that an individual’s actions will reflect their desires if they allow themselves to be motivated and led by their own personal values, a community’s actions will align with its intentions if it has a strong philosophy. Reimer believes, and I certainly agree, that “until music education understands what it genuinely has to offer, until it is convinced of the fact that it is a necessary rather than a peripheral part of human culture, until it ‘feels in its bones’ that its value is a fundamental one, it will not have attained the peace of mind which is the mark of maturity. And it also will not have reached a level of operational effectiveness which is an outgrowth of self-acceptance, of security, of purposes understood and efforts channeled.” 58
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Designing music lessons for the 21st century : make learning a musical instrument more fun, playful, and modern

Designing music lessons for the 21st century : make learning a musical instrument more fun, playful, and modern

The teacher has an important role in musical education, but every teacher is different in his/her educational methods. The different educational methods are thus the most important link to how a student receives the music education. Wright and Kanellopoulos (2010) and Schmidt (2012) all agree that the role of the teacher is key to how somebody receives the music education. Therefore, teaching should be done universal way, such that every student benefit from musical education. On the other hand, Cox (2002), as cited in Schmidt (2012), and Jones and Parkes (2010) argue that it is best for students if teachers are teaching their own style. According to them, teachers are best in influencing students because of their beliefs of how teaching should be done. These beliefs the teachers learned from their cultural background, role model or family. Music is a part of the teachers’ identity and he/she wants to surpass a part of this identity onto his/her students. Therefore, teachers teach with conviction, which feels real for the students and thus works motivating for them. Every experience in life is noneducative, miseducative or educative (Dewey, 1933/1998, as cited in Schmidt 2012). Noneducative experiences have small consequences for the student, miseducative some more and educative experiences are experiences that trigger the student to develop beliefs and/or understandings from the teacher. As a music teacher, this is the stadium you want to reach in education. How this is reached, through one universal way of teaching or a teacher’s own way does not have to matter.
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