Propaganda in Fascist Italy

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Evaluating National Socialism as a “True” Fascist Movement

Evaluating National Socialism as a “True” Fascist Movement

Even though National Socialism was unique in that it had the Aryan myth and racism and extreme anti-Semitism based on supposed biological superiority. Some Germans saw Jewish- ness as a cultural or spiritual problem, but to others it was re- garded as a racial problem. It was often associated with the bourgeois life and even Bolshevism. The Jews soon became the central focus point of nationalistic hatred in Germany. The frustration with their lives drove many Italians and Germans to seek new strengthening of their nations in what became hyper- nationalistic drives to monopolize politics, social organization and even education and cultural affairs (Turner, 1975: pp. 44-52). It is evident that both Italian Fascist and German Nazi leaders were able to rise to power as the existing leaders were unable to halt the threat, perceived or real, from the radical left. They were essentially unable to forge any consensus top diffuse the threat from the radical left and attract support to win a ma- jority in the parliaments, and so fascist movements tended to develop in nations with strong left-wing movements (Carsten, 1980: p. 233). The use of terror and violence in fascist Italy and Nazi Germany against enemies of the state and the removal of pluralism in both states further emphasized that they were very similar in orientation. Both states used mass psychology and extensive propaganda campaigns to great effect. Both states idolized their leaders manipulated the masses. There is no doubt that National Socialism was a variation of Italian fascism and a true fascist movement.
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Luigi Dallapiccola and Musical Modernism in Fascist Italy. By Ben Earle

Luigi Dallapiccola and Musical Modernism in Fascist Italy. By Ben Earle

surrounding Elliott Carter’s Piano Concerto and several twentieth century novels. But of course tales of the individual set against an oppressive collective can be traced back through Western culture to the Bible. Conversely, Earle dismisses the views of Hans Heinz Stuckenschmidt and Josef Rufer that Il prigioniero not only stood as a musical response to fascism and Nazism, but also addressed ‘a matter of eternally relevant concern for the whole of humanity’ as just aspects of ‘anti-communist Cold War propaganda’ (pp. 258–9). This high-flown rhetoric is disingenuous: would Earle dismiss the fact that a sizeable literature dealing with political prisoners can be found beyond the Cold War? Whilst there exist repressive regimes or institutions all around the world that persecute individuals on grounds of belief, religion, or conscience, Rufer’s claim is quite reasonable.
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Between leader-worship and member’s democracy: The consumer co-operatives in the fascist Italy

Between leader-worship and member’s democracy: The consumer co-operatives in the fascist Italy

The fate of many consumer co-operatives was dependent on the con- duct of the new pro-fascist administrators. In various cases they were acces- sories to fraudulent divestments, and were driven by the desire to exploit the co-operatives for self-enrichment. In other cases, the co-operative was used as an instrument to discriminate against anti-fascists and to provide employment to right-wing sympathizers, or also to serve as a “sounding board” for the regime’s propaganda. However, in some situations the work of the new administrators took on a more modern entrepreneurial vision. This meant that certain consumer co-operatives became more efficient from a business point of view, grew through mergers, and became more orientated towards the middle class and therefore more modern because they were less politicized and less overloaded with social burdens, thus fol- lowing the European pattern of the consumer co-operativism during the interwar period.
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ICT and the Demise of Propaganda in China

ICT and the Demise of Propaganda in China

In the process of economic and social transformation, China is developing into a diversified society of economic interests, various values, and political ideals. The ICT is playing an important role in mobilizing intellectual elite participation in political debate in such political and sensitive issues such Sino-Japanese relations, Sino-US relations, Taiwan, human rights, government corruption, etc when the government tries to black out news. During the NATO bombing of Chinese embassy and the spy plane incident, Internet were used intensely in China. With increased access to information and a multiple-sourced outlets of news, the Chinese internet users gathered and exchanged information and ideas through emails, chat rooms and websites, which had actually cracking open the news blackout by the government propaganda department and served as political mobiliz er in the country, increasing the visibility of the traditionally secretive government decision making on sensitive political issues, such as international relations, imposing a greater transparency about the government work.
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Review: : How Propaganda Works

Review: : How Propaganda Works

Taken together, the restricted focus on undermining propaganda and on ideology as the epistemic muddle that makes space for this undermining propaganda promote a peculiarly conservative agenda in much of the text, which explores how the “worthy” ideals of liberal democracies (indeed, of the founding fathers, at one point) are subverted by epistemically flawed

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The Status of the Propaganda Theorist: A Rejoinder

The Status of the Propaganda Theorist: A Rejoinder

"everything we communicate is propa- ganda" and "propaganda enslaves every- one" (including, of course, the propaganda theorist) are extrapolations which carr[r]

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Propaganda, Public Relations & Film

Propaganda, Public Relations & Film

products and promote stereotypes. In addition to examining propaganda in film, students will examine the culture of public relations, public relations practitioners, and allied fields (such as advertising, marketing, etc.) as portrayed in film.

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Web Spam, Propaganda and Trust

Web Spam, Propaganda and Trust

The first attack to this “tf.idf ranking,” as it is known, came from within the search engines. Around 1995, search engines started selling search keywords to advertisers as a way of generating revenue: If a search query contained a “sold” keyword, the results would include targeted adver- tisement and a higher ranking for the link to the sponsor’s web site. This is the first time we have a socially inspired ranking, which follows marketing practices of the real world. Mixing search results with paid advertisement raised se- rious ethical questions, but also showed the way to financial profits to spammers who started their own attacks by creat- ing pages containing many rare keywords to obtain a higher ranking score. In terms of propaganda theory, the spammers employed a variation of the technique of glittering general- ities to confuse the first generation search engines [31, pg. 47]:
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The judicial system of fascist Italy

The judicial system of fascist Italy

the old Ita lia n Penal’ Code of 1913, l,e « the "Crimes against the Security of the State", and also (2) seme slig h t resem- 11 an ce such as "Crimes against the State", in Codes o f many other countries« , Hit this provision in the new Fascist Code i s considered to he an exception, because i t s Jurisdiction is not allotted to the Ordinary high Criminal Court o f Assize, as i t was under the old Penal Procedure, hut to the Court e f Special Justice, i . e . the "Court fo r the Defence e f the State*« Secondly, Mr« Ashton alleges that the criminal law in democ­ ra tic countries always hases i t s provisions on the maxim o f "nulla poena sine le g e ", hut in the Fascist State the basic maxim becomes "nullum crimen sine poena"«. Such an assertion-
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Web Spam, Propaganda and Trust

Web Spam, Propaganda and Trust

The first attack to this “tf.idf ranking,” as it is known, came from within the search engines. Around 1995, search engines started selling search keywords to advertisers as a way of generating revenue: If a search query contained a “sold” keyword, the results would include targeted adver- tisement and a higher ranking for the link to the sponsor’s web site. This is the first time we have a socially inspired ranking, which follows marketing practices of the real world. Mixing search results with paid advertisement raised se- rious ethical questions, but also showed the way to financial profits to spammers who started their own attacks by creat- ing pages containing many rare keywords to obtain a higher ranking score. In terms of propaganda theory, the spammers employed a variation of the technique of glittering general- ities to confuse the first generation search engines [31, pg. 47]:
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Propaganda: Power and Persuasion (Exhibition)

Propaganda: Power and Persuasion (Exhibition)

The third section of the exhibition, ‘Enemy’, is one which differs slightly from the book. The exhibition looks at aspects such as the enemy from within, using the example of the Nazi attack on Judaism. It also focuses on the enemy state as a propaganda tool, as well as the state as the enemy, explaining that this would usually occur with propaganda produced by dissident groups. Conversely, Welch looks at specific case studies in negative propaganda which relate to particular countries. A wide array of examples are utilized, and these are carefully chosen to demonstrate the exploitation of stereotypes in this form of propaganda (p. 154). Examples include, amongst many others, the ‘avaricious’ French; the Hun and the Prussian bully during the First World War; the Teutonic Nazis; and the Irish ‘men of violence’ during the Troubles in Northern Ireland. The reader is reminded that these stereotypes were presented in such a way as to preclude discussion. A final mention of the ‘war on terror’ is discussed here, demonstrating that some of the
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Climate Change Science & Propaganda

Climate Change Science & Propaganda

This article addresses the relationship between science and propaganda using the Climate Change controversy as a study model. The United Nations International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the recognized leader on this model issuing multiple Assessment Reports. This review begins with a discussion of the basics—what is propaganda and how does it work, followed by whether the IPCC adopted or rejected it. Next explored is how propaganda can be seamlessly fused into “report writing” in a way that arouses and makes interesting humdrum details. Some unexpected results emerged from current and historical observation data involving the Greenhouse theory, CO 2
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Visual propaganda in editorial design

Visual propaganda in editorial design

Visual Propaganda In Editorial Design Jarrod Allan Gahr May 2002 Book Survey Graduate Thesis Directions Please answer the following questions concerning the effectiveness of the Key book[r]

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World War II. Propaganda

World War II. Propaganda

Radio Propaganda - The text translates: "All Germany hears the Führer on the People's.. Receiver." The Nazis, eager to encourage radio listening,.[r]

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Trends in Anti-Fascist and Anarchist Recruitment and Mobilization

Trends in Anti-Fascist and Anarchist Recruitment and Mobilization

According to Stuart Burns, while the "Old Left" operated under the shadow of the Communist Party in every country, and these parties were subordinate to the Soviet Union, the New Left "was represented by a young and much more individualistic spirit," 26 disenchanted with the Soviet Union. Although violent tactics and violent rhetoric were not common, yet, violent individuals and groups were an inseparable part of a new LWE that crystallized within an anti- fascist and anti-capitalist framework. 27 Burns also argued that "in an era heralded by centrists as signifying the 'end of ideology'," the New Left "rebelled against ideology from within […] and embodied a flexible vision at once moral and political, utopian and practical, personal and structural." Furthermore, "it was new because it expressed not just a political analysis but a cultural and psychological need." 28
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Propaganda as a manipulative form of informing

Propaganda as a manipulative form of informing

39 šovinistička politika napravila i time izravno stvorila atmosferu koja će svoje posljedice dobiti tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata. Ako se govori o Drugom svjetskom ratu, za razumijevanje tzv. vječnog srpskog antifašizma kojim se Srbi vole ponositi, onda treba razjasniti i događaje pred početak Drugog svjetskog rata na prostoru tadašnje Jugoslavije koji govore o malo drugačijoj istini. Prema Cohenu, famozni državni udar u Beogradu 27. ožujka 1941. godine, koji je i danas na Zapadu poznat kao antifašistički ustanak je bio sve samo ne antifašistički ustanak. Naime, glavni cilj urotnika tog puča je bio isključenje Hrvata i Slovenaca iz vlasti i stvaranje Velike Srbije s obzirom na to da je ta zloglasna srpska ideologija bila u opasnosti jer je novostvorena Banovina Hrvatska i ostatak teritorija Jugoslavije podijeljen na nove granice. 81 Osim toga, često se optužuje hrvatski narod da je kolaborirao s Trećim Reichom u Drugom svjetskom ratu te ga se posljednjih 70 godina demonizira zbog te četiri ratne godine, no manje je poznata i razina srpske kolaboracije s Trećim Reichom tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata. Kao primjer navedenom, za početak se može navesti i onaj oblik vlasti koji je nužan za funkcioniranje svake države, a to je vlada. Ako su ustaše bile vlada u Hrvatskoj, onda je ekvivalent u Srbiji bila srpska kolaboracijska vlada na čelu s Nedićem koja je uspostavljena 1941. godine te je aktivno surađivala s Trećim Reichom sve do vlastitog pada 1944. godine. U prosincu iste godine (1941.), Nedić se zalagao za stvaranje Velike Srbije. Nadalje, sam Nedić nije bio usamljen u takvim mislima. Potporu je osim naroda i dobivao i iz onih krugova od kojih bi se takvo što smatralo nemogućim. Radi se o potpori srpskih svećeničkih krugova, pa je kao primjer navedenom, metropolit Srbije blagoslivljao Nedićev režim i progon Židova. Osim srpske vlade koja je surađivala s Trećim Reichom i potpore srpskih svećeničkih krugova, posljednja karika koja nedostaje je srpski narod. Kakva je bila njihova uloga i ponašanje u tom ratu? Kao odgovor tomu, važno je i spomenuti da je otpor Nijemcima u Srbiji do pred kraj rata bio vrlo slab, a Srbi su aktivno sudjelovali u fizičkom uništavanju Židova te su se mnogi od tih istih Srba materijalno okoristili njihovim nestankom, a u skladu s tom izjavom nije slučajan podatak da je Srbija postala prva država u Europi koja je 1942. godine proglasila da je postala slobodna od Židova. 82 Dakle, ovi podaci koju su gore navedeni su samo mali dokaz koji srpska propaganda sve ove godine zataškava ili ih negira unatoč dokazima, a oko posljednjeg
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Pinocchio, a political puppet: the Fascist adventures of Collodi's novel

Pinocchio, a political puppet: the Fascist adventures of Collodi's novel

institutionalized when, at the end of the story, Pinocchio the trouble-maker becomes a strong leader and a perfect fascist boy. An element that this and the previous rewriting have in common is the fact that the moral aspect of the story is signifi- cantly simplified. The episodes which reveal a moral complexity in the original are, in Schizzo’s version, presented in a way which suggests a clear-cut division between right and wrong, guilt and punishment. Pinocchio fra i Balilla opens with the puppet being first chased by a dog and then, having being mistaken for a dog himself, taken prisoner by a dog-catcher. In Collodi’s story, the puppet is similarly chased by a ferocious dog, and he is later obliged to act as a guard-dog at a peasant’s house. Stuck in such an absurd situation, the protagonist is confronted with a series of moral dilemmas, to which we find no reference in Schizzo’s version. For instance, in the former, one night Pinocchio is awoken by four thieves who are trying to break into the house and offer him some food in return for his silence. The thieves inform him that the guard-dog who preceded him used to accept their gifts in exchange for letting them steal some animals every week. The puppet firmly refuses to be corrupted, despite the harsh conditions of his life, while also deciding not to report the previous guard-dog, who had passed away that same day.
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Who’s the Fascist? Uses of the Nazi Past at the Geert Wilders Trial

Who’s the Fascist? Uses of the Nazi Past at the Geert Wilders Trial

The use of the Nazi past to justify European hate speech laws is not a doctrinal necessity. Hate speech laws predated the Holocaust and there are other ways of rationalizing them—including as offshoots of an earlier European tradition of using law to protect one’s honor. 10 In fact, one can adopt bright line rules—the clear and present danger test, the gravity of the evil test—that, in theory, are at least indifferent to the type of “danger” or “evil” on offer. 11 For example, the Amsterdam trial court, in acquitting Geert Wilders of comparing the Quran to Mein Kampf and calling Islam a “fascist” religion, relied on the general principle that hate speech and group defamation charges cannot rest on insults directed at ideas or objects of religious veneration. 12 So, clearly, there are other ways of defending (or
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Claiming Ethnic Privilege: Aromanian Immigrants and Romanian Fascist Politics

Claiming Ethnic Privilege: Aromanian Immigrants and Romanian Fascist Politics

As a fascist social movement, the legion was well suited to Aromanian needs. Deterritorialised by macrohistorical forces including urbanisation, nationalism, shifting borders, population transfers and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Aromanians needed to reterritorialise themselves in a new and hostile land. Identifying with Romanian nationalism secured them the rights of colonists, but for the most part the Romanian state held them in contempt and settling in Southern Dobruja did not end their problems. As a social movement that fought for Romanian ethnic privileges, the legion allowed Aromanians to voice their complaints and simultaneously reinforced their identity as ethnic Romanians. The legion integrated this marginal, migrant community into national politics and legionary lawyers and publicists supported Aromanian assassins when they attacked public figures. Involvement in legionary politics did bring material benefits to a handful of Aromanians for a few brief months in 1940, but more often than not Aromanian legionaries faced prison and death, and undertook gruelling labour and physically demanding propaganda marches. In this case, ideology was more important for most
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The Rumanian case: the Iron Guard as Part of the fascist Network

The Rumanian case: the Iron Guard as Part of the fascist Network

the Elders of Zion 6 . The defender of the Swiss anti-Semites was the Welt-Dienst of Erfurt, an organism financed by Goebbels since 1933 and intended to become an international propaganda office under the direction of the retired Oberstleutnant Ulrich Fleischhauer 7 . Moţa’s correspondent was Georg de Pottere, a former Austro-Hungarian consul in Moscow, born in the Banat 8 , thus a former compatriot of Transylvanian Moţa and who knew well the Russian context of the anti-Semitic forgery of The Protocols.

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