Absence of land rights lead to household poverty and food insecurity (FAO, 2004). However, land ownership practices portray gender bias against women. Kameri-Mbote (2007) argues that land ownership and inheritance issues are dominated by men causing gender biasness. Therefore, women in most patriarchal societies are ‘forced’ to conform to prevailing circumstances and expectations without objective justification. Often, they defend and rationalize discriminative s detrimental to their well-being (KHRC, 2003; 2006). Those who dare question the status quo are made to feel guilty, ridiculed and stigmatized as anything against the normative script for men and women is undesirable (COHRE, 2006). practices in property ownership and inheritance (COHRE, 2006; Kameri-Mbote, 2002). Pursuit of gender equality in property ownership and inheritance remains a challenge in most patriarchal societies due to restricted abilities of women to control, own and inherit property. This practice has continued to sustain women’s low socio-economic status and dependence on men, a factor that not only affects the being of women, but their families and societies at large (FAO, 2004; Ngwira, 2006). Women continue to suffer disfranchisement and gross denial of property ownership and inheritance rights (Ngwira, 2006) as glaring gender disparities continue to exist in property control, ownership and inheritance (FAO, 2004; Nzioki, 2006). It is in light of this that INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
Islamic real estate management has become an emerging trend and focus among the researchers. This paper addresses on issues and challenges in managing Islamic inheritance from real estate management perspective. The issues pertaining to the high number of unclaimed inheritance properties and the volume of freezing assets faced by Muslims are increasing in Malaysia. The values of unclaimed assets have increased from RM40 billion in 2009 to RM42 billion in 2011 and subsequently increased to RM60 billion in 2013. These valuable assets have been frozen and become counterproductive. This is a depletion to the nation if the scenario is allowed to continue as the value of these properties which is amounting to billions of ringgit can be used as a source of economy and be able to solve the issue of poverty of the community. The accumulation of unclaimed inheritance properties has become a serious issue that needs to be addressed immediately. Therefore, the study of Islamic inheritance from the real estate management perspective is important to be given a serious attention and finding comprehensive solution and alternatives to overcome this issue. On the other hand, effective management and real estate planning in Islamic inheritance will ensure smooth operation of the estate administration based on the principles and basic concepts that have been created as well as to the existing laws. The research methodology is through identifying and review the issues on existing literatures in managing inheritance property in Malaysia from various dimensions such as law perspective, Islamic and conventional studies. The findings of this study are useful for relevant parties to improve and overcoming the inadequacy of Islamic Real Estate Management especially the inheritance properties.
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In the April 2001 issue of IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, a correspondence titled “On the Applicability of Weyuker property 9 to Object-Oriented Structural Inheritance Complexity Metrics” by Gurusaran and Roy was published . In that correspondence Gurusaran and Roy tried to analyze some particular classes of inheritance metrics through formalization and prove that the classes of inheritance metrics can never satisfy property 9 presented by Weyuker . Actually, Gurusaran and Roy’s work was inspired by the observation that none of the inheritance metrics proposed in Chidamber and Kemerer  and Brito and Carapuca  satisfies property 9 and the arguing for rejection of property 9 for Inheritance Complexity Metrics in Chidamber and Kemerer  and Kitchenham et al .
The virtual property exists depending on the Internet environment, so the contractual relationship between the user and Internet service provider is crucial for the acquisition and exercise of the property right, and the estab- lishment of the contractual relationship usually relies on the contract drawn up unilaterally by the Internet ser- vice provider, namely, the Internet user protocol, which is often used as the most important basis to determined rights and obligations of the parties owing to the lack of regulations for various legal relations concerning the Internet service. The electronic contract, although saving the transaction costs and improving the transaction ef- ficiency, limits the Internet users’ freedom, what’s more, the Internet service providers, also as the contract pro- viders, tend to reduce or waive their obligations and liabilities under the contract, empower themselves some special rights (for instance, service providers can modify and terminate the contract, and the Internet users are only kept informed of it), and limit the rights content and the way to exercise the right (limit the legal relief ways available for users) and so on, which create the situation where the rights and obligations of the contracting parties are seriously unequal and affect the scope involving the inheritance of virtual property.
The issue of muslims inheritence has been discussing since in recent years. This is due to the increased value of the estate, particularly involving muslims property unclaimed and completed by the beneficiary. Mafqud case is one of the causes of the deceased estate that could not be completed. In this context, the meaning of Mafqud is beneficiary who lost his life in which the status cannot be determined. This is not to be taken lightly as it can cause other problems such as Munasakhat (death plated). This article will discuss the theory and calculations of Taqdir and al-Jam’u, which are combined the calculation if beneficiary still alive and the calculation if beneficiary is dead. On the basis of this calculation, the least part of beneficiaries obtained between two destinies will be determined to solve the problem of distribution of the estate. The authors also discuss the application of the theory of al-Taqdir in some circumstances Mafqud case in detail. The data obtained in order to produce this article is from a literature review of previous studies and the view of Islamic jurisprudence. Therefore the authors suggested that the theory of al-Taqdīr should be used for the settlement of Muslim inheritance in Mafqud cases.
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should be abolished because these are against the principles of Islam. Her consent in marriage should be considered mandatory so that the problem of household matters would not take place. Women should be given their due share in property and inheritance so that she would be able to contribute to the society. She would also be able to spend money by giving a proper education and guidance to her children because their guidance and early training is mostly dependent on women. If a woman is properly educated in religious teachings, she would be able to train her children in a proper way. In Pashtun society, jirga plays a vital role in deciding the cases of murder, conflict over land or property etc; hence it should act like a legislative body for amending and abolishing those customs which have destroyed the social fabric of Pashtun society. Turbarwali is also a very dangerous and harmful concept and it has become a hurdle in the progress of the Pashtun society.
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In regard to the selection of mate for marriage, the children indifferent of the gender have the freedom to choose their mate for marriage. The decision making system among the surveyed households were found desirable since both men and women have an equal say regarding family matters. Further based on the data majority of the respondents supports gender equity but the interpretation of their response depicts something different. They do not discriminate their children in matters of educational attainment and affection but when it comes to the inheritance of property the priority goes to the male child, some household agrees to the equal distribution while in some households the female child would get a share in the property only if something is left out after distributing among the male children. Moreover since a girl child would leave the family eventually instead of a share in property they would rather give proper education that would enable her to be self-reliant. A high variation was found in the working trend of the respondents, while men gets adequate rest, the working hours of womenfolk do not correspond to that of rest. In case of housewives, after working tirelessly for the entire day they are expected to serve the husband without a word. While in the case of working women, they are not spared either, after the entire day of work outside they have to return to the unfinished household chores that awaits them.
Al-Mafqud will still be considered alive as long as there is no evidence, or prove of his death or until the judge does not confirm his death. Based on this principle he was entitled to inherit until there is confirmation and if there are heirs who will not receive an inheritance in one assumption, this heir cannot inherit the estate because there is a possibility that the missing are still alive. This means, if any heir Al- Mafqud died and left behind a number of properties he lost during the period, missing persons still has the right to inherit property. In this case, it will cause a severe crisis, as long as the status is not decided by the court, the other heirs cannot claim.
Usually A represents a mathematical property that a certain set of objects may possess; for example A may be the class COMPARABLE, equipped with such operations as infix "<" and infix ">=", representing objects to which a total order relation is applicable. A class that needs an order relation of its own, such as STRING, will inherit from COMPARABLE. It is common for a class to inherit from several parents in this way. For example class INTEGER in the Kernel Library inherits from COMPARABLE as well as from a class NUMERIC (with features such as infix "+" and infix " ∗ ") representing its arithmetic properties. (Class NUMERIC more precisely represents the mathematical notion of ring.) What is the difference between the structure and reification categories? With reification inheritance B represents the same notion as A , with more implementation commitment; with structure inheritance B represents an abstraction of its own, of which A covers only one aspect, such as the presence of an order relation or of arithmetic operations. Waldén and Nerson note that novices sometimes believe they are using a similar form of inheritance when they are in fact mistaking a “contains” relation for “is” — as with AIRPLANE inheriting from VENTILATION_SYSTEM, a variant of the “car-owner” scheme, and just as wrong. They point out that it is easy to avoid this mistake through a criterion of the “absolute” kind, leaving no room for hesitation or ambiguity:
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The cytological data (Figure 1), in combination with molecu- for fit to six single-dose (1–6) and four double-dose (7–10) lar marker tests of progeny indicating that sexual P1 produces inheritance models (Table 1). Model parameters differ in predominantly haploid (n ⫽ 9) gametes, were interpreted allele dosage [single dose (SD) vs. double dose (DD)], selec- (Noyes 2000b) to indicate that microsporogenesis in aga- tion (neutral vs. complete), and segregation type (chromo- mospermous P2 yields functional gametes that are approxi- some vs. chromatid). Selection models (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) mately haploid (n ⫽ 9) and diploid (n ⫽ 18). Complete details assume complete elimination of gametes bearing either a sin- on the origin of the parental plants, the cross, paternity analy- gle (A) or double dose (AA) of an allele in the absence of a sis, and chromosome counts are provided elsewhere (Noyes wild-type (a) allele. Consequently, the expected frequency of
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So far, the Doubly Uniparental Inheritance of mito- chondria (DUI), observed in some bivalve molluscs, is the only known evolutionary stable exception to Strictly Maternal Inheritance (SMI) typical of metazoans. In DUI animals, two mitochondrial lineages are inherited, one through eggs (F-type), the other through sperm (M- type) (reviewed in ): in male embryos, mitochondria derived from the spermatozoon form an aggregate that enters the primordial germ cells (PGCs), while in female embryos, sperm mitochondria are dispersed and/or de- graded [23-26]. The two mitochondrial lineages have evolved independently for million years (for example >200 in unionids; see ), accumulating up to 50% of sequence divergence . DUI females are generally homoplasmic for F, while males are heteroplasmic in their soma and homoplasmic for M in sperm. Since eggs do not transmit M [28,29], germ line mitochondria of DUI males are ap- portioned from the four/five mitochondria of the fertiliz- ing spermatozoon , which carry a few hundred mitochondrial genomes  that must be functional and successfully inherited (proved by the long evolutionary persistence of DUI ). Thanks to its features, DUI pro- vides a unique and evolutionary stable system to study mitochondrial inheritance, heteroplasmy, mitonuclear co- evolution, genomic conflicts, and many basic aspects of mitochondrial biology [2,22,30]. Since in DUI species sperm mitochondria are inherited through male lineages, the need for M mitochondria to function both as energy supply for sperm swimming and as genetic templates rep- resents an ideal situation to study the relationship between mitochondrial activity, mtDNA damage and faithful trans- mission of mitochondrial genetic information.
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Genetic epilepsies could further divide into four subgroups according to the mechanism of inheritance: (1) genetic epilepsy with Mendelian inheritance, (2) epilepsies with complex inheritance, (3) genetic epilepsies associated with cytogenetic abnormalities and (4) Mendelian disorders in which epilepsy is one of the manifestations. The former class is thought to account for a small number of epilepsies, and the disease occurrence could be tracked through generation. A proper pedigree analysis will affirm whether the phenotype is dominant or recessive, autosomal or X-linked (Figure 1). 11 Epilepsies with complex inheritance are
The Right to property and social function: The Right of Property is considered one of the fundamental rights conquered by humanity. They are about the first generation rights and are related to the struggle for freedom and security of the individual with respect to the state (Alexy, 2017). However, the right to property is a right that has great difficulty in being established, since limits need to be drawn so that there is no misuse of this right (Dutra, 2017). Thus, there are restrictions imposed by the Federal Constitution of 1988 with respect to property rights, such as the care of the social function, contained in sections XXII to XXIV in Article 5 (Brazil, 1988). The concept of the social function of property refers to the middle ages and acquires prominence from the nineteenth century as a consequence of the growth and diversity of economic activity, and the need for the right of private property to have a connection with contributions to society. This means that ownership of a good, which meets the needs of the owner, must also serve the interest of the collectivity (Chalhub, 2003). As presented, the Federal Constitution of 1988 in Article 5, paragraphs XXII to XXIV, the right to property of the individual provided that it serves its social function and guarantees indemnification in cases of expropriation in case of public utility. In Brazil, the social function of property is described in article 170 of the Federal Constitution of 1988, related to the guarantee of existence worthy of the human being and social justice (Brazil, 1988). In this sense, it is up to the state to assess whether the concession of the right to private property is in agreement with the service of the collective interest (Melo, 2013).
Although the inheritance and the heritability of craniofa- cial features have been well documented, the inheritance of these structures in Colombian families with class III maloc- clusion has been not reported yet. The phenotypic heterogene- ity and the variable expression present in this malocclusion could contribute to the fact that the orthodontic therapy in class III malocclusion has not showed consistent results. Moreover, class III malocclusion is a phenotypic manifesta- tion in several pathologies and syndromes. Some cranyosin- ostosis and cleft lip/palate show relative prognathism, not only in affected individuals but also in unaffected parents. These are strong reasons to conduct studies to attempt to clarify the inheritance phenotype in this malocclusion.
To investigate the Mendelian inheritance of the SSR loci, we compared maternal heterozygous mother tree genotypes with their seeds, using the method described by Gillet and Hattemer (1989). The assumptions of the method are that the loci have regular segregation and their alleles follow Mendelian inheritance patterns, which are based on the following conditions: i) regular meiotic segregation during ovule production; ii) random fertilization of ovules by each type of pollen; iii) absence of differential selective viability in the progenies prior to the investigation by genetic markers; iv) a co-dominant relationship between alleles. The method further requires that all progeny of a tree possess a maternal allele. In cases of a heterozygous mother tree (e.g., A i A j , i≠j), the following are required: a) each one within progeny must have one allele of the maternal tree, A i or A j ; b) the number of heterozygous progeny A i A j (n ij ) must be equal to the sum of the number of homozygous progeny A i A i (n ii ) and A j A j (n jj ): n ij = n ii + n jj ; and c) the number of heterozygous progeny A i A k (n ik ) must be equal to the number of heterozygous progeny A j A k (n jk ), or n ik = n jk , in other words, k≠i, j. The observed segregation of each progeny from a heterozygous maternal tree for a given locus was statistically compared to that expected for the segregation hypothesis of 1:1, using the G-test (Sokal and Rohlf, 1981):
The uncertainty, however, has not been put to rest for same-sex partners who resorted to adult adoption as an alternative to marriage. In the wake of the Court’s decision, the risk taken by same-sex couples who adopted has come sharply into focus: absent fraud or undue influence, adoption cannot be annulled. 10 Thus, gay and lesbian couples who resorted to adult adoption to preserve inheritance and other family rights in lieu of marriage in the pre-Obergefell era became “stranded in a kind of limbo” or even subject to prosecution under state criminal incest statutes. 11 The question of whether same-sex partners who previously used adult adoption for its legal benefits can now exercise their constitutional right to marry currently rests in the hands of judges in the state court systems, who have the power to vacate adoptions. 12
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In accordance with Lopes et al. (2002), there are difficulties in acquisition of productive and precocious genotypes. The genotypes 44, 106, 112, 113 and 126 were selected in all of the characters, except for the number of days for flowering and number of days to maturity. It indicates that they are productive material, but they are not among the most precocious. In conclusion, the character number of days to maturity was high heritability and influenced by two genes, with partial dominance between them. The number of pods per plant and grain production presented high heritability, polygenic inheritance with around seven genes involved in the character and absence of dominance. The population F 2 have transgressive segregates for involved characters on precocity, compound of
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Ornamental use is based on the fact that it has several relevant traits that can be selected, including smaller plants, high leaf density, leaf color, flower and fruit color and various fruit shapes (Carvalho et al., 2006; Stommel and Bosland 2006; Rêgo et al., 2016). In addition to these aspects, pepper plants are easy to grow. As they are perennials, peppers are suitable for growing in pots (Neitzke et al., 2010). The demand for pepper plants is growing in Brazil, especially because their cultivation is of great social importance, as it involves a great deal of family farming labor (Nascimento et al., 2006; Finger et al., 2012). Although some ornamental pepper cultivars are currently on the market for production, such as Calypso, Pirâmide and Espaquetinho, there is a need for studies to develop new varieties to help take advantage of this market. This requires a study of inheritance of traits of interest from an ornamental point of view. Knowledge of the genetic control of a trait is of great importance for breeding programs helps develop appropriate procedures for use in selection and breeding programs (Cruz et al., 2012). Several genetic designs are available to this end, particularly diallel crossing (Cardoso et al., 2015).
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The study of microsatellite locus inheritance was based on the method described by Gillet and Hattemer (1989), which compares the genotype of a heterozygous maternal tree with the segregation of its open-pollinated progenies. This method assumes that all loci have regular segregation and their alleles follow Mendelian inheritance patterns based on the following conditions: i) regular meiotic segregation during ovule production; ii) random ovule fertilization by a type of pollen; and iii) no selection between the moment of fertilization and the genotyping of seeds. The model also assumes a co-dominant relationship between all alleles. The method further requires that all progeny of a tree must possess a maternal allele, and in cases of a heterozygous mother tree (e.g., A i A j , i ≠ j, the following are required: a) each individual within progeny must have one allele of the maternal tree, A i or A j ; b) the number of heterozygous progeny A i A j (n ij ) must be equal to the sum of the number of homozygous progeny A i A i (n ii ) and A j A j (n jj ): n ij = n ii + n jj ; and c) the number of heterozygous progeny A i A k (n ik ) must be equal to the number of heterozygous progeny A j A k (n jk ), or n ik = n jk , in other words k ≠ i, j. The observed segregation of each progeny of the heterozygous maternal tree for a given locus was statistically compared to that expected for the segregation hypothesis of 1:1, using the G-test (Sokal and Rohlf, 1981):