These are useful supplements that some- times help certain groups of clients, but their full impact will only be seen decades later. Yet it seems that educating clients and spreading ‘financial literacy’ has become one of the most important consumer protectionapproach- es of the decade (oEcD, 2011, Atkinson, Messy, 2012 and Lusardi, Mitchell, 2011), and various financial industries embraced this solution (see for example Insurance Eu- rope 2017). We, however, have an uneasy feeling about this: It seems as if they are do- ing this to divert regulators from the more important areas of consumer protection. spreading financial literacy is indeed impor- tant, but it probably will not have tangible results in the coming decades, which means if financial industries take very visible steps in this area, they can avoid implementing sub- stantial changes for a long time.
In this paper, we proposed a user data protectionapproach in cloud computing environment in which we define trust metrics as a dynamic and flexible process that offers a new perspective for decision-making. The analysis shows that the performance of our approach is obvious and it can help achieve less privacy loss and more benefits. That the high fraud costs make the services and privacy provided both sides to get the maximum benefit, this approach can effectively pro- tect users' privacy and containment malicious service side, from another point of view, it is also beneficial to the security of the service side. The approach proposed in this paper exposes us to a number of possible research directions in the future. One direction that we will implement the approach to study the performance issues. We will take is to refine our approach to support mul- ti-services and to help us further optimize the approach.
These reforms, especially the greater openness to trade, would imply significant reduction in the levels of protection of Egyptian industries, and perhaps a lower dispersion of protections across industries, treating economic sectors more uniformly. One simple method of measuring protection to industries is to observe applied tariffs. But tariffs by themselves do not reveal all of the practical incentives arising from the trade regime that face real-world investors. One should look at the effects of trade policy on the net income – value added – generated by industries. A more accurate measure for practical policy analysis should account for both protections on the output side as well as tariff effects on the costs of tradable inputs. This is the effective rate of protectionapproach used in the present study to capture the incentives for resource flows between various sectors. The same nominal tariffs on final products can imply large differences in effective protection of industries, because industries differ with respect to their use of import-competing inputs and their cost structures are impacted differently depending on how such inputs are taxed at the border. In addition there could be non-tariff barriers (NTBs) related to policies that effectively raise the price wedge between a domestically sold good and its price at the border.
Summarizing the above, we note that we introduced an insurance oriented, financial protectionapproach to find what would be the burning cost of pro- tecting an income of USD 1 from a cyber-attack. We did that by assuming that a cyber-attack practically eliminates the digital life of an individual and is thus treated as a digital fatality, similar to a physical fatality. Not only did we follow a theoretical approach, but we elaborated that it can be applied also in practice. Our numerical example was applied to the cyber-attacks that we were recorded in Greece. Consequently, our population of interest was the Greek one. Consi- dering a loss of USD 1000 per individual, we found a lump sum cost of USD 4,381,215.44 to offer financial protection to the entire population of the country from cyber-crime, so as to cover for the losses that are anticipated to incur as a result of cyber-attacks. That is split to a charge of USD 0.41 per individual for a population of 10,816,286 people, which is the population of Greece (as of the 2011 census). Our findings can be easily extended to any population and to any assumed amount of protection that is sought. They can be easily used by the state, internet service providers, financial service providers, or any other provid- er that offers digital services so as to embed cyber-attack protection to their product. This is we trust the significance of our contribution in the scientific re- search in the field.
The metrics of interest for the evaluation of the protection scheme are the blocking probability, the sharing ratio (the mean number of connections that share the same protection channel) and the mean protection grade. The mean protection grade (or robustness) corresponds to the protection level offered to the connections. It was evaluated as the ”worst” #reserved channels #required channels value. Upon a single link failure, the number of protection channels, m, was compared to the number of lightpaths that have failed, i.e. the number of required protection channels. The number of required channels correspond to the number of correlated paths, denoted P and used in section 1. To illustrate what the worst value represents, Figure 7 shows an example of a link failure affecting two lightpaths and the protection paths employed.
Support for development and maintenance: Every developer faces a long list of challenges like, Errors or bugs to find and fix, frequent software upgrades, continuously changing usage patterns, and demands of users for high performance. Any reliable data protectionapproach must be able to handle these issues, which are usually overlooked in the literature on the topic [ 6].
Federal, State and Territory Governments have enacted a range of statutory laws to protect whistleblowers. The aim of these laws is to provide protection to those individuals in the private and public sector who report unlawful acts made by organizations, contractors and their employees. Provided the disclosure is made in ‘good faith’, the person making the disclosure is afforded protection from being sued for defamation, breach of confidence under their employment contract or for breach of their common law fiduciary duty. This paper has two purposes; first, the objective of the Australian Government in introducing new whistleblowing laws that extend protection to the consumer protection area and taxation, namely the Treasury Laws Amendment (Whistleblowers) Bill 2017 - Exposure Draft is examined. Secondly, an alternative approach to whistleblowing is considered. By way of contrast, a Singaporean approach which heavily relies on self-reporting and an internal investigation involving an Audit Committee of the corporation is critically examined to assess the potential for introducing a self-reporting approach in Australia. Our analysis finds that in Singapore, culture plays a role in the attitude of the Singaporean employee contemplating reporting unlawful activity and, more importantly in how the disclosure is treated by the corporation or public institution. This paper adds to the literature which examines alternative approaches and attitudes to whistleblowing by providing a comparative discussion of the Australian and Singaporean legal approaches.
Prof. A.V. Deshpande in this paper has proposed a system to detect motion on animal intrusion in a farmland and ward it away with light. The author portrays the proposed strategy to shield farmlands from wild creatures by means of ubiquitous wired system gadgets, which is used alongside conventional strategies to improve the protection. Operational amplifier circuits are used basically for the discovery of creature intruding from the outside of fields. The checking plan is to give an early cautioning about the possible intrusion and harm by wild creatures. In their proposed work, fencing wire is used as a sensor. When there is interaction of animals with the open link an input signal is generated initially that shows that an animal is detected at fencing. For getting the resistance of fencing a microcontroller block is used. Entire procedure is constrained by microcontroller. The GSM module is utilized for sending SMS to the owner thereby cautioning that there is an intrusion.
Progress in digital data processing has resulted in numerous merits into the data transmission, copying, storage etc. However, some advantages can be disadvantages in other ways. The easy processing of digital multimedia has caused that the illegal digital copy can be made in exactly the same quality as the original, may be created at low cost and can be transmitted very easily through the internet . These reasons have established the question of ownership rights protection of
A more suitable approach for checking settings against policies is the RB approach, since most of the setting policies can be represented readily in the style of rules. It should be emphasised that the RB approach is used for validating protection settings directly against policy, and is complementary to the approach of using performance-based methods (i.e. MB methods) as discussed in Section 3 of this paper. The research on the use of RB approach for the settings validation against setting policies has been undertaken by the authors as reported in . The disadvantage of the RB approach is that it can only detect the problems defined in the rule base and it is difficult to identify potential problems during the operation especially when there are multiple devices involved in a scheme. The RB approach is also at risk of not being able to identify any shortcomings or errors in the protection settings policies, which may be identified by the MB approach – hence the complementarity of the two approaches.
After the brief analysis about the contribution of this policy to the security made, we established that generally there are two main streams in the considered area: The first one is when the human resource management system does not put accent on any subsystem of the business organization management system but considers the items in their completeness (which is not bad but the absence of accent leads to responsibilities „washing out“ and in the long run insufficient appreciation of the interrelations) (Harizanova М., Mironova N., Shtetinska Т. (2009)). The second relates to ensuring the personnel information data base security and not to the contribution of the security personnel to the over-all object security and strengthening the connections of the personnel system with all other subsystems of the organization management related to security (ISO-27001/27002:2005 sects. 8.1 – 8.3,Centre for the protection of National Infrastructure (June 2013),Information Security Human Resource Development Program (July 8, 2011)).
To elaborate, the first problem is the very limited number of variables, which hardly provides a meaningful picture of the legal protection of shareholders. 12 To be sure, one cannot take all aspects of shareholder protection into account. The company law of most countries consists of several hundred sections or arti- cles, so that the coding of all the details would lead to an unworkable index of several hundred (or more like thousand) variables. Thus, it is indeed necessary to construct a limited number of variables. But the selection of variables must be intelligible and wide enough to function as a proxy for shareholder protection in general, which is not the case with La Porta et al’s eight variables. They do not fully capture the most significant aspects of the law. 13 For instance, although the variables for ‘one share one vote’, ‘proxy by mail allowed’, ‘shares not blocked before the meeting’, and ‘share capital required to call an extraordinary shareholder meeting’, deal with different aspects of shareholders’ voting power, they miss the more crucial question of the extent of this power, i.e. the issues over which the shareholders in a general meeting can exercise decision making power. 14 Similarly, while the variable ‘cumulative voting’ may be important to the extent that it seeks to measure the power of shareholders in appointment of directors, it misses the more critical question of removal of directors and the ex- tent to which entrenchment is possible as also certain other aspects of the terms of directors, for example, their tenure, remuneration and so on. 15 Further, de- spite using the term ‘anti-director index’ 16 , the variables do not address the as- pects of law relating to issues such as composition of the board, extent of direc- tor’s self dealing or their disqualification at all. 17
To combat the ever-growing threats against their IT infrastructures, administrators understand the importance of endpoint protection technologies. However, this often translates into making sure each endpoint has installed on it an antivirus, antispyware, desktop firewall, intrusion prevention, and device control technology. Deploying these security products individually on each endpoint is not only time-consuming, but it also increases IT complexity and costs. Organizations then need to provide management, training, and support for a variety of different endpoint security solutions. Also, differing technologies can often work against one another or impede system performance due to high resource consumption.
The amount of data managed by IT departments continues to accelerate. This growth and the need for better availability of business-critical data are forcing application owners, storage managers and IT organizations to look at new methods for enhancing protection and recovery. Many have turned to native array-based snapshot technologies, which combine frequent recovery points and minimum operational disruption, to improve RPOs and RTOs within the storage system. However, users have discovered that snapshot management varies significantly by storage platform and often results in additional complexity and risk. Current array-based tools often:
Voltage SecureData also provides tokenization. Tokenization replaces data values with a “token,” or random string of text. Voltage Secure Stateless Tokenization (SST) technology is an advanced, patent pending, data security solution that provides enterprises, merchants and payment processors with a new approach to help assure protection for payment card data. Voltage SST technology is “stateless” because it eliminates the token database which is central to other tokenization solutions, and removes the need for storage of cardholder or other sensitive data. Voltage Security has developed an approach to tokenization that uses a set of static, pre-generated tables containing ran- Voltage SecureData employs standards- based encryption methods. In Voltage SecureData, the FPE functions utilize AES-256. FPE is published as mode of AES on the US Government National Institute of Standards (NIST) Website for AES modes development, as Feistel Finite Set Encryption Mode FFSEM, extended as FFXNIST. For tokenization, SecureData utilizes NIST 800-57 AES Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode in the token generation table. As a company, Voltage Security contributes new standards as they are developed. Figure 5. Example of referential integrity. A SSN or National ID links three databases.
Despite the advances concerning the impact response of fences obtained from the numerous experimental and numerical investigations held during the last two decades, limitations concerning their design can be identi- fied. First, the results obtained mainly concern centred impacts, by a normally impacting rock without rota- tional velocity. Second, improvement concerning the design of rockfall protection fences mainly concern high energies, whereas the design for energies less than 200 kJ have been insufficiently studied while they concern a large number of sites. Third, the fence design rarely considers the specific loading conditions of the fence, in terms of impact point location, impact angle, and velocity in their implantation site as obtained from rocks propagation simulations. The variability of the loading conditions is moreover generally not accounted for be- cause it would require performing Monte Carlo simulations using numerical models of fences. Indeed, this is not possible in practice because of unaffordable computational time.
In order to gauge the Directive’s role in inter-instrumental integration, it is necessary to first consider previous approaches to water quality law by the European Union. Traditionally the EU approach was a sectoral one and legislation tended to be based on one or more of three control techniques: Where substances were considered inherently dangerous, an emissions control approach was adopted. Otherwise, quality objectives were employed and waters classified by end use (e.g. shellfish waters and bathing waters). With this second category of instruments the emphasis was on the impact of pollutants on a specified quality standard. A third group of measures sought to regulate the activities that can result in water pollution (e.g. treatment of sewage). The first phase of early EU water legislation introduced quality objectives for drinking water, freshwater fish waters, shellfish waters, bathing waters and ground waters. The Dangerous Substances Directive 8 , on the other hand, primarily adopted an emission control approach but with a parallel alternative option for member states to work with limit values for quality. By 1988, it was recognised by the European Commission that there were gaps to be filled. The second phase of water legislation, therefore, addressed sewage and agricultural sources through the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 9 and the Nitrates Directive 10 . Drinking water quality objectives were further tightened in a revised Drinking Water Directive of 1998 11
Abstract— The differential relay is used for detecting the faults within the transformer. But, a conventional differential relay has many demerits. In recent times, the false counter of differential relay has been reported where it was not at all required. This brings urge among researchers for the development of advance classifier algorithm which clearly states about the faults and disturbances and helps to avoid the false tripping at times of disturbances. In this paper, Authors have used the approach based on pattern recoganization of all possible operating conditions of transformer and using support vector machine (SVM), the classification of faults and disturbances has been carried out. The proposed scheme gives good results as compared with conventional differential protection method and overall efficiency of the system found out to be 92.89%
Although documented incidents of discrimination or stigmatization on the basis of genetic information are largely limited to highly hereditary Mendelian disorders, these rare incidents have generated substantial media coverage and significant public concern [46, 47]. Several studies demonstrate that anxiety over genetic discrimin- ation deters people from participating in promising research projects and even from undertaking clinically relevant genetic testing, even when anti-discrimination legislation has been in place for many years [48–51]. Mis- perception could be attenuated by providing more access- ible information on privacy and anti-discrimination protections and their limitations, and a more balanced account of occurrences of genetic discrimination. Individ- uals might also be willing to accept the low risk of re- identification if the risks and benefits of the research are carefully explained and researchers pledge to protect the confidentiality of information to the extent possible. Infor- mation about data sharing and its risks ought to be provided during the consent process, as even consent to the broad research use of data may not be understood by participants as also implying consent to the widespread international sharing of data. This presents challenges as the risks or method of data sharing may not be known in advance. Representations of absolute protection should be avoided. Participants should also be informed that the sharing of health and other information via social media and other internet platforms may allow them to be matched to their anonymized research data. Such a pa- tient/participant-centered approach would be respectful of participant autonomy and dignity, focusing on education and transparency, and not promising unrealistic levels of protection. The Personal Genome Project (PGP) pio- neered a route for openly sharing integrated genomic, environmental and medical or trait data  in 2005, which was subsequently implemented in four countries (USA, Canada, UK and Austria). PGP successfully ad- dressed many issues using an innovative open consent protocol . Despite the explicit risk of re-identification, only 3.8 % of participants have withdrawn from the PGP over the past 10 years , suggesting high levels of par- ticipant acceptance and low levels of adverse risk from openly shared data.