Posidonia oceanica meadows are experiencing a progressive decline, and monitoring their sta- tus is crucial for the maintenance of these eco- systems. We performed a comparative analy- sis of bed density, totalphenol content and pro- tein expression pattern to assess the conserva- tion status of Posidonia plants from the S. Mari- nella (Rome, Italy) meadow. The totalphenol content was inversely related to maximum bed density, confirming the relationship between high phenol content and stressful conditions. In ad- dition, protein expression pattern profiles showed that the number of differentially expressed pro- teins was dramatically reduced in the latest years compared to previous analyses. Our re- sults support the usefulness of integrating solid descriptors, such as phenol content, with novel biochemical/molecular approaches in the moni- toring of meadows.
Protein denaturation method 21 : The reaction mixture (5 mL) consisted of 0.2 mL of egg albumin (from fresh hen’s egg), 2.8 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 6.4) and 2 mL of varying concentrations of ethanol and hydro alcoholic extracts of Bambusa arundinacae, so that final concentrations become(1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25µg/ml). Similar volume of double-distilled water served as control. Then the mixtures were incubated at (37±2) ºC in a BOD incubator (Labline Technologies) for 15 min and then heated at 70ºC for 5 min. After cooling, their absorbance was measured at 660 nm (SHIMADZU, UV 1800) by using vehicle as blank. Ibuprofen at the final concentration of (1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25µg/ml) was used as reference drug and treated similarly for determination of absorbance. The percentage inhibition of protein denaturation was calculated by using the following formula:
ABSTRACT: The crude oil, crude protein, crude ash, crude fiber, totalphenol and antioxidant activity values, peroxide values, specific gravity, the refraxtive index and acid value of Citrullus lanatus and their oils were determined. Fatty acid composition of seeds belong to both watermelon were determined by Gas Chromotography (GC). These oils are important sources of essential fatty acid, linoleic acid (63.19% to 72.03%). Oleic acid contents of seeds ranged between 17.55% (Forage watermelon kernel) to 24.65% (watermelon kernel). Cd, Cr, Mn contents of watermelon kernel were found between 0.02 to 0.09 mg/kg, 0.37 to 1.46 mg/kg and 6.08 to 11.31 mg/kg, respectively. Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S were found as major elements in seed samples. Totalphenol contents of watermelon seeds ranged between 0.13 mg GAE /100 mg to 0.30 mg GAE/100 mg. Antioxidant activity of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) seeds (5.06 and 13.90%) were found higher than those of normal seeds (1.31 and 4.42%). Peroxide values of watermelon oils ranged between 7.6 meqO 2 /kg to 11.7 meqO 2 /kg.
Methanolic extracts were tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents by performing the standard methods such as, Dragen-dorff’s test, and Hager’s test for Alkaloids, Xantho proteic test for protein, lead acetate test and alkaline reagent test for Flavonoids, Fehling’s test for carbohydrate, ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) test for Phenol and tannins, froth test for
Materials and Methods: Results showed that incubation at 32C changed the gene expression for resistance to WSMV and mosaic symptoms were observed in Adl-Cross. Totalprotein reduction in inoculated Adl-Cross was significant at 32C. Results also indicated that high temperature either prevented expression of genes or degenerated available proteins involved in resistance mechanism. Totalprotein in infected Marvdasht was significantly reduced as compared with healthy control plants. Since electrophoretic pattern indicated reduction of ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RBPC) subunits in infected Marvdasht, reduction of protein may have probably been due to a decrease in the synthesis of RBPC. Mean of phenolic compounds content in Adl-Cross was higher as compared to Marvdasht in both infected and non-infected plants. Totalphenol increased 2.8 and 4.06 percent in inoculated Marvdasht and Adl-Cross, respectively. The trend of increase in phenolic compounds indicated that their synthesis and accumulation was higher in Adl-Cross as compared to Marvdasht.
As a member of nuts, walnut is consumed from snacks to salads and desserts to entrees and an importantpart of human diet for centuries. Walnut biologi- cal and nutritional value is also enhanced by its valuable protein and rich in nutrient composition such as vitamins and minerals. The most important characteristic of walnut oil is the abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which makes it a unique food because of high amount of linoleic acid. Due to having valuable protein, vitamins and minerals it enhances biological and nourishment value, also. Recent epidemiological studies showed that con- sumption of walnut reduce cardiovascular diseases due to the rich in antioxi- dant properties, valuable fatty acids and tochopherols contents. In Turkey, walnut production and consumption increases year by year. The kernel of walnut genotypes shows variability in terms of their fat, fatty acid and toco- pherol profiles. In this paper, it was aimed to characterize 10 walnut ( Juglans regia L.) cultivars (Bilecik, Chandler, Hartley, Howard, Maraş 12, Maraş 18, Midland, Pedro, Şen and Serr) based on their fatty acid profiles using GC (Gas Chromatography), tocopherol and its isomers by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) and totalphenol content with spectrometric me- thods. Among the walnut cultivars “Hartley” was the highest linoleic acid (64.56%) and “Howard” was the α -linolenic acid 13.26 (%). The highest values of α (38.76 µg/g), β + γ (312.19 µg/g) and δ -tocopherol (40.77 µg/g) and totalphenol (349 mg GAE/100 g ext) content were detected in “Sen” cultivar. Ob- tained results might be significant for further breeding programme to im- How to cite this paper: Kafkas, E., Burgut,
In present study efforts were made to determine protein Linn. Proteins are made up of amino acids, and they are the “building blocks” of life. Our skin, muscles, tendons, cartilage, even hair and nails, are all because of protein. Protein helps to form enzymes, hormones, antibodies and new tissues. It replaces old cells with shiny new ones, and it transports important nutrients in and out of those cells. The human body can manufacture all but nine of the 22 amino acids that make up proteins. These nine amino acids are known as “essential” amino acids, and therefore must be derived from what we eat. In our present study it was evaluated Linn is protein rich which is evident from of leafs of Mirabilis jalapa Linn contain 5800 micrograms or 58mg of protein. But there are limited evidences that the leaves of Mirabilis jalapa Linn are 1976; Facciola, 1990; Manandhar, . There are few reports that it can be used as an emergency food, only eaten when all else fails (Kunkel, 1984). Research in the edible nature of Mirabilis jalapa leaves is further necessary since it has high amount of protein content.
In the present study, the DI of root rot was significantly reduced in plants inoculated with AM fungi. These results is in accordance with the study of many authors who have shown that the inoculation of economically important tropical plants (beans cucumber, cocoa, etc.) with AM fungi has significantly reduced the severity of the disease caused by soil borne pathogens (Chandanie et al., 2006; Martinez et al., 2011; Tchameni et al., 2012; Eke et al., 2016). During the evolution, plants have developed many strategies to defend themselves against biotic stress. Among them, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) plays an important role in the plants defense against pathogens. SAR occurs in plants in response to colonization of AM fungi (Pozo et al., 2002). Moreover, some biochemical and physiological changes has been associated with AM colonization. These changes are characterized by the production of antimicrobial compo- nents such as phenolic components and oxidative enzymes. The synthesis of defense metabolites, such as phenolic compounds and oxidative enzymes are the most common mechanisms used by the plants in response to the infection with inducing agents. This phenomenon was obtained in this work by increasing the activities of the defense enzymes PAL and PPO and totalphenol content in infected plants colonized by AM fungi. In response to the infection, plants synthesize phenolic compounds called phytoalexins (Heath, 1996). This reaction, also called immune response, is characterized by a thickening of the wall by deposit of lignin (polymer of aromatic compounds) and consequently limiting the process of the invasion of pathogenic agents (Abdel-Fattah et al., 2011). During microbial invasion, PPO catalyzed the conversion
Determination of total phenolic contents Total phenolic contents of extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method (26). Folin-Ciocalteu (Merk) reagent diluted to ten- fold with distilled water. Then 5ml of this so- lution was added to 1ml of each extract (1 mg.ml -1 ) and allowed to stand at room tem- perature for 10min. A 4ml sodium bicarbonate solution (75g.l -1 ) was added to the mixture. After 30min at room temperature, absorbance was measured at 765nm using a UV spectro- photometer (Pharmacia Biotech). Total phe- nolic contents were quantified by calibration curve obtained by measuring the absorbance of a known concentration of Gallic acid (GA) standard (20–200mg.l -1 ). The concentra- tions are expressed as milligrams of Gallic acid equivalents (GA) per gr dry extract (22, 27).
Information regarding the antioxidant activity of underutilized crops will help in understanding their role in combating chronic degenerative diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to estimate and compare the totalphenol, total flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and DPPH in five underutilized crops of the state of Uttarakhand, India. Among grains dehusked barnyard millet and amaranth seeds were taken, while among pulses, black soybean, rice bean and horse gram were studied. All evaluations were done for the sample in their raw state, as well as after thermally processing them in the covered pan, pressure cooker.
hand, plant showed an extensive spectrum of biologically active compounds (Liu et al., 2008; Khan, 2009; Arora et al., 2012; Gavatia et al., 2012). E. offiinalis is frequently used to prevent enzyme catalysed browning reactions due to its abundant content of ascorbic acid (300-900 mg%). It holds the copper prosthetic group of polyphenol oxidase and reducing quinines back to phenols before forming dark pigments (Newman et al., 2011). Thus the present investigation was aimed to integrate E. officinalis into Solanum anguivi L. extract at different ratios to prevent the enzymatic browning reaction or polyphenol oxidation and to identify the best out of three combinations according to its physico-chemical properties, screened phytochemicals, total antioxidant activity and in vitro antibacterial activity.
The present study indicated that B. platyphylla contains considerable amount of total polyphenols and flavonoids and exhibited good antioxidant activity by effectively scavenging various free radicals. The antioxidant and biological activities might be due to the synergistic actions of bioactive compounds present in them. However, it is still unclear which components are playing vital roles for this activity. Therefore, further studies are still needed to elucidate mechanistic way how the plant contributes to this property.
We, now realize that many of the diseases are due to the oxidative stress (OS) that arise from the imbalance between formation and neutralization of prooxidants. Free radicals such as hydroxyl, peroxyl and superoxide radicals stabilize through electron pairing with biological macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and DNA in healthy human cells and cause protein and DNA damage along with lipid peroxidation, which causes OS. This damage is potential contributor to the pathogenesis of diseases like cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, ageing and inflammatory diseases 7 . Human body combats the toxic effects of the ROS (reactive oxygen species) regularly by a number of endogenous defense and protective mechanisms which include various enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Antioxidative compounds taken as foods, cosmetics and herbal medicine strengthen this self-defense mechanism. 8
2. Determination of Total Flavonoids Content: The flavonoids content was determined using a method as described by Kumaran and Karunakaran 30 using quercetin as a reference compound. 1 mg of plant extract in methanol was mixed with 1ml aluminium trichloride in Ethanol (20 mg/ml) and a drop of acetic acid, and then diluted with Ethanol to 25 ml. The absorption at 415 nm was read after 40 min. Blank samples were prepared from 1 mg of plant extracts and a drop of acetic acid, and then diluted to 25 ml with ethanol. The absorption of standard quercetin solution (0.5 mg/ml) in methanol was measured under the same conditions.
Ten improved mulberry varieties, viz. V1, C1730, C2016, C2017, Anantha, RFS-175, Thallaghatapura, Vishala, S1 and S1635 were evaluated for physiological and biochemical parameters under irrigated conditions in the alluvial soils of Gangetic plains of West Bengal as per zonal schedule. Leaf area, leaf fresh weight, % moisture content and moisture retention capacity were found to vary significantly among the varieties tested. Moreover, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, physiological water use efficiency, stomatal conductance and biochemical parameters, viz. total chlorophyll, total soluble sugar, nitrate reductase activity, total soluble protein and phenol content also showed significant variation among the tested varieties. Among the varieties S1635 was recorded to have higher leaf area (305.70 cm 2 ),
Totalphenol estimation was carried out by Folin-Ciocalteau method (Mayr et al.,1995). A known quantity of fresh tissue was chopped and put in boiling 80% methanol for 20 minutes and refluxed. The refluxed matter was homogenized and homogenate was filtered and centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 minutes. The supernatent was collected and made up to a known volume by 80% methanol. An aliquot was pipetted and made up to 3 ml with methanol. 0.5 ml Folin-Ciocalteau reagent was added and kept it for 30 minutes. 2 ml of 20% sodium carbonate was added and mixed thoroughly. The tubes were kept in a water bath for 2 minutes, cooled, centrifuged and read the absorbancy at 650 nm against a blank. The amount of totalphenol was calculated against standard value of catechol and expressed in mg/g.
within 15 days of culture (Fig. 1a, b). The prominent seedling developed on MS basal medium supplemented with 4.92 µM 2iP+1.44 µMGA3 showed significant growth response of 61.6±2.8% germination with an average shoot length of 5.43±0.05 cm and an average root length of 3.76±0.25 cm and healthy seedlings were developed after 40 days of culture (Fig. 1c). The in vitro seedlings were used for further experimental studies.The growth of callus development varied from cotyledonary leaf and hypocotyl explants. Explants inoculated on MS medium supplemented with an individual concentration of 2,4-D, NAA, BA, and 2iP. Cotyledonary leaf explants inoculated on MS medium containing 4.92 µM 2iP was noticed to be significantly higher than hypocotyl explants (Fig 1f). A total of 53 combinations of auxin and cytokinins were tried for optimum callus biomass production. The hormone combination for optimum callus biomass production was standardized, and the callus biomass was 186.22 g/L FW and 15.54 g/L DW in MS solid medium supplemented with 4.52 µM - 2,4-D, 2.22 µM – BA, and 4.92 µM - 2iP after 24 days of culture (Fig.2a). This standardised callus has been used for further experimental studies. In the present study, phytochemical screening was performed with ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether, acetone and aqueous seed and callus extracts of Mucuna pruriens. The ethanolic seed and callus extracts of Mucuna prurienswere rich in terpenoids, quinones, saponins, Cardiac glycosides, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, coumarins, tannins and alkaloids (Table 1 & 2). Phytochemical constituents such as tannins, phenols, alkaloids and several other aromatic compounds or secondary metabolites of plants serve as defense mechanism against predation by many micro-organisms, insects and herbivores (Britto and Sebastian, 2011).
ABSTRACT: Urena lobata is a traditionally important plant and used for the treatment of many diseases such as leaf parts of the plants were used to cure septic ulcer and sores. The present study was undertaken to estimate the totalphenol, total flavanoids content and antioxidant activity of Urena lobata leaf extracts. The totalphenol and flavanoids content was determined by using standard protocol. Phenolic content shows the highest value of 25.00 ± 0.008 mg/g in methanolic leaf extract as compared to the flavanoids content of 8.66 ± 0.005 mg/g. Different concentration of methanolic extract were subjected to antioxidant assay by using DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method and H 2 O 2 (Hydroxyl) method. In DPPH model IC 50 value for methanolic extract was found to be 719.1 ± 1.2 µg/ml in
µg/mL) were taken into different marked test tubes. Then 3 mL of methanol was added to each of the test tubes followed by 200 µL of 10% aluminium chloride solution and 200 µL of 1 M potassium acetate solution. Finally, 5.6 mL of distilled water was added to the test tubes. After this the test tubes were incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature to complete the reaction. Absorbance of the solution was measured at 415 nm using UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV PC-1600) against a blank. Total Flavonoid content of the extract was expressed as Quercetin equivalents (QE).