Crop Size and Cultivar. The day/night evalu- ations demonstrated that the sunlight conditions of Data Set 5 did not degrade the system’s performance compared to night time performance. However, Data Set 5 yielded significantly less internode length measurements than Data Set 1 (Table 6), yet both data sets were captured with the camera view angle perpendicular to the solar azimuth angle. Both data sets appeared to have visually similar image contrast (Figs. 5a and 5e). A possible explanation for the dif - ference in performance was that the plants in Data Set 1 were physically larger than those in Data Set 5 (Table 6) and the image analysis algorithm was more reliable at detecting longer branches. For example, Data Set 5 consisted of a compact cultivar and a ground cover of 65%, whereas Data Set 1 consisted of a vigorous cultivar with an excessive vegetative growth habit and a ground cover of 90%.
Abstract— Wave Star has produced and installed a test and demonstration Wave Energy Converter (WEC) by Roshage pier near Hanstholm at the west coast of Denmark. The test unit is a prototype test section of a complete commercial WEC. After an initial period of finalizing the installation and testing, the WEC was launched for production in January 2010 and in May 2010 automatic unmanned operation was initiated. The number of operational hours per month has increased significantly during the following months, but experience with the initial period of continuous automatic unmanned operation has shown difficulties in ensuring the ability to be in daily operation 24/7/365. During the period from January 2010 to April 2011 the control software has been updated three times, and significant increases in the measured power levels have been confirmed. The measurement points have verified the expected level of harvested power, although further development of the control system is expected to increase the level further.
Abstract: The use of low-cost single GPS receivers and inertial sensors for auto-guidance applications has been limited by their reduced accuracy and signal drift over time compared to real-time kinematic (RTK) differential GPS units and fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) sensors. In this study, a prototype low-cost GPS/INS integrated system consisting of a triangle-shaped array of three Garmin 19x GPS receivers and an Xsens inertial measurement unit (IMU) to improve the accuracy of position and heading angle measured with a single GPS receiver was developed. A triangular algorithm that uses data collected from the three single GPSs mounted on the angular points of a triangular frame was designed. A sensor fusion algorithm based on the Kalman filter combining the GPS and IMU data was developed by integrating position data and heading angles of a triangular array of GPS receivers. The optimized values of two noise covariance matrixes (Q and R) for the Kalman filtering were determined using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method. As compared to the use of a single Garmin GPS receiver, use of the developed GPS/INS system showed improved accuracy performance in terms of both position and heading angle, with reductions in root mean square errors (RMSEs) from 2.7 m to 0.64 m for position and from 8.9º to 2.1º for heading angle. The accuracy improvements show new potential for agricultural auto-guidance applications.
Abstract-Many researchers claimed to use the term of a performancemeasurementsystem (PMS) to evaluate the business performance. However, these works have not adequately been classified in detail regarding the components they concentrate on, and what conditions are available in the empirical context they contemplate. This confusion is not pleasant because it affects the validity of new studies. This paper used a literature review as a methodology to address the issue of the differences between simple PMS and business performancemeasurementsystem (BPMS) and explain the proposed action should be taken to improve measurementsystem for SMEs in Malaysia. There are six main differences; goals, system and components, features, roles, process, and customer focus. Specifically, this paper clearly defined the significant to differentiate them. I argue that SMEs needs BPMS because SMEs are not a public agency or non-profit sector organizations as well as business activity is fundamental for SMEs. In conclusion, this paper sheds new light on the rarely acknowledged issue of BPMS with special attention to avoid the confusion between the two terms.
Test the validity of this research will use the Pearson product moment approach. In this study, measurement reliability is done by One Shot or measurement only once: here the measurement only once and then the results were compared with another question or measure the correlation between the answers to questions. SPSS provides the facility to measure the reliability of the statistical test Cronbach Alpha (α), which is a construct or variable value said to be reliable if the Cronbach Alpha (α) > 0.60 (Ghozali, 2006). To test for normally distributed data will be used for normality test equipment, ie one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Guidelines for a regression model that is free of multicollinearity are seeing the value of VIF. Regression model is good or not happen heteroscedasticity. This study will use a test that is regressing Glejser absolute residual values of independent variables. Data is said to not have any significance occurred heteroscedasticity if > 5%. 3.6. Hypothesis Statistics
The use of SMA information derived from the adoption of the SMA techniques such as benchmarking technique, integrated performancemeasurement, strategic planning, quality costing and competitors’ performance evaluation has provided strategic information that has acted as a tool to encourage competition and the adoption of the best practices. The use of strategic information has motivated organizational staff members to examine the relevant best practices of the benchmarking organization and to seek ways and means to adopt and improve upon its application in their own organizations. This has allowed the managers to plan and identify means and ways to increase revenue collection, reducing bad- debt as well as meeting the budgeted cost. For example, the benchmarking technique of SMA has enabled the Malaysian LGAs to introduce electronic payment that has allowed the members of the public to pay their rent, tax and fees online. Therefore, the online services have been made accessible to the members of the public at any time and from any place without being constrained by the Malaysian LGAs working hours. As a result, the use of SMA information has led to better revenue collection among the Malaysian LGAs.
Currently, the economy grows and develops with the various kinds of financial institutions. One of those financial institutions which seem to be a big role in the economy is a bank. The advanced development of banking industry is highly requiring a good performance. Banking performance is supported by each of its branch offices. The performance of its branch offices is determined by the people who led those branches. In measuring the performance of branch manager is designed a system which are developed to provide some directions for manager to evaluate and improve their perfomance in the next period. In measuring of its branch manager performance, top management can obtain an objective basis to provide reward and compensation in accordance with the achievement of each responsibility center to the company as a whole. It is expected to motivate and stimulate branch manager performance in every branch offices to work more effectively and efficiently. This research is purposed for evaluating the branch manager performance evaluation system in Bank Nagari.
After the full verification of all the systems, a possible upgrade is to install the cooling system for the beam filters. The cooling to liquid nitrogen temperature is not necessary for sapphire but for beryllium cooling increases the flux by ~125% as has been mentioned in chapter 3. Cooled beryllium is often used to get cold neutron beam. Therefore with the installation of a cooling system and a beryllium filter cold neutron imaging will be possible. Cold neutron imaging is better suited for some applications than thermal neutron imaging. One of the applications where cold neutrons are better suited is imaging of radioactive wastes which are encapsulated in thick lead casks . Lead has lower attenuation for cold neutrons than thermal neutrons. This makes the cold neutron images clearer even when they are placed inside the thick lead containers. Also with the cold neutron beam the difference in Bragg’s cut off for different materials can be utilized for imaging and differentiation of crystalline materials.
14. Neely, A.D.; Mills, J.F. Platts, K.W.; Richards, A.H.; Gregory, M.J. & Bourne, M.C.S. (1996): Developing and testing a process for performancemeasurementsystem design: in C.A. Voss(Ed.) Manufacturing Strategy: operation strategy in a global context, Papers from the 3 rd International conference of the European Operations Management Associations, London Business School , London, pp:471-476
Instead, a PMM view that is congruent with the SoS perspective would provide managers with the appropriate information at the appropriate times, enabling them to ‘navigate’ (DeLaurentis and Callaway 2004) their way through the multiplicity of options that they constantly face. The corresponding PMM practices may include encouraging and evaluating small-scale experimentation and rapid prototyping in order to observe the system’s response; collecting a wide range of performance data and actively searching for weak signals in the environment; employing simulation modelling in order to evaluate probable scenarios; creating an architecture for performance information that connects key decision makers; and providing training that is focused on reducing bias and improving the quality of decision making. In other words, a PMM approach that reflects the emergent nature of a SoS would need to enable managers to navigate the current situation and make improvements in the present rather than to predict and optimize a future state.
Abstract—In enhancing performance of civil services, the Government of Malaysia has taken extensive change initiatives to continuously reform the administration of public sector in Malaysia. The Government Transformation Programme (GTP) has been introduced in 2009 with the aim of improving overall performance of civil personnel and to improve delivery of services towards public at large. Among other change initiatives taken is the implementation of KPI to measure performance of civil personnel. The purpose of this study is to provide extensive review of past literatures regarding to financial management reforms in Malaysian public sector organization which bring to establishment of KPI. This study also aims to investigate the attitude of public sector managers towards KPIs in response to GTP. A total of 40 useable responses were collected from June to August 2012 using a web-based survey. Data was analyzed using Rasch measurement and Winsteps @ 3.72.3. The study indicates that the public sector managers highly recognize the positive attitude towards KPIs as an important driver towards successful implementation of change.
The problem of performancemeasurement system’s openness and fitness with external environment is not new. Most recent management accounting researches were based on contingency approach. Studies based on this approach were conducted by Hoque and Hopper (1994), Libby and Waterhouse (1996), Alam (1997) Dent (1996), Granlund and Lukka (1998), Laitinen (1999), Anderson and Lannen (1999), Wnuk and Sobanska (2000), Haldma and Laats (2000), Luther and Longden (2001). These studies were based on conceptual contributions by Innes and Mitchell (1990), Kellet and Sweeting (1991), Coates, et al. (1992), Cobb and Helliar (1995), Burns and Scapens (2000), Basti and Bayyurt (2008). Davidaviciene (2008), Markovic (2008), Gimzauskiene and Kloviene (2008, 2009), Strumickas and Valanciene (2009). Findings of that studies demonstrate that the changing environment of organisational performance has a direct impact on changes in performancemeasurement that in turn are realised in close connection with projects on re-organizing internal management systems (Valanciene, Gimzauskiene, 2007).
The photodetector mounted onto the fiber mount from Figure 6-6 is a single element planar diffused silicon photodiode with active area 10mm x 20mm from the photoconductive series of UDT Sensor (Figure 6-8). The spectral range extends from 350 to 1100nm, making this photodiodes ideal for visible and near IR applications. The detector was first operated unbiased and voltage was measured across the two leads for simplicity. This would not provide for a linear detection measurement as the amount of light on the photodetector increased beyond a single fiber. This is due to the fact the photodetector is operating at saturations with this zero applied voltage. An applied voltage would provide for a larger depletion region in the photodetector. This will create many more carriers to handle the greater number of electrons excited as the light intensity increased. This will provide for a linear detection rate, as the amount of light doubles so does the intensity measurement. To accomplish this, voltage was measured across a 1M-ohm resister as 5 volts drove the photodetector in reversed bias.
I declare that this thesis entitled “The Development of A Payroll SystemPrototype” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.
pions (black triangles) as a function of the last number of triggered (fired) layer in the prototype in data and MC, respectively. Distributions in data and MC have a similar shape, although they are different in numerical terms. The experimental data permit us to make an initial / preliminary rough estimate of the pion-to-muon separation at low ( ∼ 0.5 GeV) momentum. So, the overlap of the pionic and muonic spectra after layer # 7 (to keep high e ffi ciency for muon registration, 93%) gives us ∼ 22% of pion contamination. Whereas for the MC model we have contamination of pions 27% at 99% of muon e ffi ciency. We assume now that the observed di ff erence is caused by the secondary muons present in the beam due to pion-to-muon decay, and we plan to discriminate them in further runs by direct measurement of incoming momenta at the final focus of the beam. The depth of particle penetration will be used for particle identification in the Muon System at low ( ≈ 1 GeV/c) momenta.
respect that region. Thus, one way of speeding up face detection is to trim down the image boundaries using ROI. The classifier cascade is just the Haar feature cascade that we loaded with cvLoad() in the face detect code. The storage argument is an OpenCV ―work buffer‖ for the algorithm; it is allocated with cvCreateMemStorage(0) in the face detection code and cleared for reuse with cvClearMemStorage(storage). The cvHaarDetectObjects() function scans the input image for faces at all scales. Setting the scale_factor parameter determines how big of a jump there is between each scale; setting this to a higher value means faster computation time at the cost of possible missed detections if the scaling misses faces of certain sizes. The min_neighbors parameter is a control for preventing false detection. Actual face locations in an image tend to get multiple ―hits‖ in the same area because the surrounding pixels and scales often indicate a face. Setting this to the default (3) in the face detection code indicates that we will only decide a face is present in a location if there are at least three overlapping detections. The flags parameter has four valid settings, which (as usual) may be combined with the Boolean OR operator. The first is CV_HAAR_DO_CANNY_PRUNING. Setting flags to this value causes fl at regions (no lines) to be skipped by the classifier. The second possible flag is CV_HAAR_SCALE_IMAGE, which tells the algorithm to scale the image rather than the detector (this can yield some performance advantages in terms of how memory and cache are used). The next flag option, CV_HAAR_FIND_BIGGEST_OBJECT, tells OpenCV to return only the largest object found (hence the number of objects returned will be either one or none).* The final flag is
In this study we have performed a comprehensive measurement study of the desert terrain. Propagation models are fitted for the measured data. Furthermore, in contrast to , in our study, we investigate the WiMAX technology (that is competing with 3GPP’s long-term evolution (LTE) as beyond 3G technology ) in the 2.5 GHz band. Our measurement efforts can be adopted for network planning and optimization. These efforts have been motivated by the work in , among other references. The authors (in reference ) have stressed the importance of careful evaluation of technology to aid network design and optimization. However, their study was limited to fixed WiMAX system in contrast to our mobile WiMAX. Among the benefits of our effort for accurate propagation model for desert environment is to assist network operators not to over- or under-engineer their networks, which is not a cost-effective way of managing link budget. For the design of power-efficient networks it is essential that every fraction of decibel (en- ergy) is utilized effectively through adoption of the most suitable model in link budget. This power consciousness is a valuable effort towards reducing power consumption which has both positive environmental and cost impacts.
out a survey and identified 14 categories of R&D performance measures. Most of the measures identified from this categorisation, are output based. Griffin and Page (1993) classify the measures into four groups: customer acceptance; financial; product level; and organisation level. The categorisation of R&D performance measures according to Kaplan and Norton’s (1992) Balanced scorecard (BSC) i.e. according to financial, customer, internal business process and learning and growth perspectives can be identified in number of instances (Yawson et al, 2006; Bremser and Barsky, 2004; Kerssens-van Drongelen et al, 2000; Kerssens-van Drongelen, 1999; Kerssens-van Drongelen and Cook, 1997). The use of BSC provides an integrated PMS to implement the strategy while comprehensively and appropriately covering the vital areas of PM in the R&D environment (Yawson et al, 2006; Bremser and Barsky, 2004; Kerssens-van Drongelen et al, 2000). Godener and Soderquist (2004) identify three more classifications to measure performance, in addition to the four perspectives used in the BSC. They are strategic (strategic goal satisfaction), technology management (generation of new competitive products) and knowledge management (return on investment in terms of knowledge creation, knowledge transfer and knowledge exploitation). Coccia (2004) measures the performance of public research institutes using five measures (training, finance, national publications, teaching, international publications). In another study, the application of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model for a research organisation can be identified by assigning performance measures for customer, people, social and business attributes (Weggeman and Groeneveld, 2005).