The effect of four modified mediums for apricot multiplication was observed in this study. A total number of 1864 single nodes of 20 Prunusarmeniaca L.varieties were established. ‘Velkopavlovická’, ‘Bergeron’, genotype 1128 and genotype LE 2927 Š9 were successfully transferred to aseptic conditions and multiplied. Modified MS medium (1962), DKW/Juglans medium, Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977) medium and Marino et al. (1991) medium were used for multiplication. Modified MS medium and modified DKW/Juglans medium were not suitable for apricot multiplication at all and explants did not grow. The best results were observed in the case of Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977) medium. Young plants multiplied well, were fresh and vital and no damage was observed. The highest number of new shoots was observed in the case of Marino et al. (1991) medium, however, new shoots in clusters were too dense and stunted.
Tree growth, flowering, yield and fruit quality of PrunusarmeniacaL. cv. Ninfa grafted on peach cv. Nemaguard [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and cv. Real Fino apricot (PrunusarmeniacaL.) as rootstocks were analysed in experimental orchard under organic and conventional management systems. The study was performed during 2012–2013 in the province of Seville (SW Spain). Cv. Nemaguard rootstock had larger cross-sectional areas of the trunk (TCSA), higher yields, began flowering earlier and lasted 2–4 days more. The organic management resulted in lower values of TCSA and yield, and flowering was delayed and shortened. Overall, cv. Nemaguard rootstock produced slightly larger fruit in size and heavier weight. In contrast, apricots from cv. Real Fino had slightly higher soluble solid concentration. Acidity and maturity index were similar, while colour and firmness showed high variability. In general, the organic system produced fruit with soluble solid concentration somewhat higher. In summary, in both types of management cv. Nemaguard worked better than cv. Real Fino in terms of tree vigour, fruit yield and bloom period.
Apricot (PrunusarmeniacaL.) is a important stone fruit occupies third position in order to importance, area, production and productivity grown in Kashmir. Leh and Kargil are principle area for dry apricot production, and it is main stay of their livelihood. Central leader and conventional vase trees usually grow faster and carry most of their crop in the upper periphery and thus reduce cropping efficiency. In apricot, if it is not properly trained large number of upright growing shoot emerged with narrow crotch angle left the tree weak. Appropriate crotch angle is very important to strengthen the branch and increasing cropping efficiency. The aim was to minimize environmental influence by training trees to increase uniformity of light interception within
This study presents results on the performance of apricot (PrunusarmeniacaL.) genotypes in Central Serbia. The research included observation and recording of biological (i.e. phenological) traits and in situ sampling of fruits from 1,210 grafted trees for determination of pomological and sensorial traits. A total of 14 genotypes were selected and compared with Hungarian Best (control cultivar). The difference in blossoming time between two years was one month. In 2006, blossoming time was found to be earlier in three genotypes, simultaneous in five genotypes and later in six as compared to the control. In 2007, bloom was earlier in four genotypes, simultaneous in four and later in six genotypes. Average fruit weight ranged from 41.34 ± 0.8 to 81.50 ± 4.1 g, T-5 being the only genotype having the fruit weight lower than Hungarian Best (49.07 ± 2.2 g). The content of soluble solids, total sugars, and mineral matter ranged from 15.72–18.88%, 11.53–14.99%, and 0.29–0.43%, respectively, and total acidity was 0.77–1.08%. The appearance and the skin colour of the genotypes were highly attractive. They have promising traits which suggest that they can be useful parents in apricot breeding programmes.
In this work the phenologial data about apricot (PrunusarmeniacaL.), variety Velkopavlovická, were used and three phenological phases were analyzed – ﬂ owering, ﬁ rst ﬂ ower and full ﬂ owering. In order to obtain complex information about values of degree days and temperature sums as precisely as possible two diﬀ erent data sources were used. First part of data came from phenological year-book during period 1927–1960 while the second part of data were collected by co-author of the study (Z. Bauer) at one experimental site during 1961–2008). Phenological data (about one phenophase – ﬂ owering) from period 1927–1960 were collected at 7 experimental sites – Lednice, Podivín, Valtice, Mikulov, Velké Pavlovice, Boleradice and Horní Bojanovice. Since 1961 the information about phenology (two phenophases – ﬁ rst ﬂ ower and full ﬂ owering were collected at only one experimental site – Lednice. More detailed information about phenological and meteorological input data were described by Černá (2011).
Apricot ( PrunusarmeniacaL .) is one of the most important export crops in Hebron of Palestine. In this work, we analyzed the mean monthly temperature and precipitation using data from one weather station of the Palestine Meteo- rological Department, recorded in the period from 1993-2014, with the same years of plant production (rain-fed) from the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS). Statistical analysis included a bioclimatic analysis of Pales- tinian meteorological station for the period previous by using bioclimatic classification of the Earth of Rivas Martinez Salvador, with regard to simple continentality index, compensated thermicity index, annual ombrothermic index, water deficit and soil water reserve. In concluded, climate and biocli- matic factors play a key role in apricot production, when we analyzed of va- riance (ANOVA), with a standard coefficients (95% confidence interval), re- veals significant differences, in case of the bioclimate factors as simple ther- micity index and climate factors as precipitation, whereas there are no signifi- cant differences between the apricot yield and the reset of climate, bioclimate factors. However, the optimum of the plant production is achieved with val- ues of simple thermicity index between (14 - 18), annual ombrothermic index (2.5 - 4.5), compensated thermicity index (250 - 450), precipitation more than 750 mm, mean monthly temperature (15.4˚C - 20˚C), and inframediterra- nean, thermomediterranean and mesomediterranean of thermotype in He- bron of Palestine.
A pricot (PrunusarmeniacaL.) is the fruit rosa- cea tree (Family Rosaceae) that is domesticated roughly 5000 year ago (Ali et al., 2011; Sochor et al., 2010). The fruits are widely used as a folk medicine especially in Japanese and Chinese prescription (Mi- tani et al., 2013; Miyazawa et al., 2006). It is often used as anti-asthmatic, anti-anameic anti-cancer, pre- scribed medicine for disorder of stomach and intes- tine, quick recovery from fatigue, cough and diarrhea and many other have already been discussed (Garcia
Due to constant release of toxic substances into air environment, it is necessary to know how they act in the organisms, present there, in order to avoid possible imbalance in the ecosystem. The present study aimed at comparing the suitability of known biomarkers of plant stress in reflecting the level of air pollution. Different biomarkers such as TBARS, gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, proline, and soluble sugars of apricot (PrunusarmeniacaL.) leaves changed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in polluted area, in comparison to control plants. According to these results, these biomarkers indicated that air pollution in the industrial site of Sfax was quite hazardous and had to be controlled.
Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors are commonly approved for the Alzheimer’s disease therapy which should restore the original levels of acetylcholine in the brain. In this work, a suitable purification procedure of ChE inhibitors from wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) and apricot (PrunusarmeniacaL.) fruit is presented. Activity-guided purification was based on ultrafiltration (0.2 µm → 5 kDa → 3 kDa) of water extract from fruit followed by preparative chromatography (Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC-C18) and analytical HPLC-C18. At every stage of purification, anti-ChE activity was measured in each fraction using Ellman’s colorimetric method. The most active ChE inhibitor purified from both fruits was quercetin and the chemical structure was confirmed by infrared (IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) spectroscopies. The fast purification procedure can be used for isolating phenolic ChE inhibitors from other fruits from the
Apricot (PrunusarmeniacaL.) is classified under the Prunus species of Prunodae sub-family of the Rosaceae family of the Rosales group. This type of fruit is a cultivated type of zerdali (wild apricot) which is produced by in- oculation. Apricot has an important place in human nutri- tion, and can be used as fresh, dried or processed fruit. As known, the fruit of apricot is not only consumed fresh but also used to produce dried apricot, frozen apricot, jam, jelly, marmalade, pulp, juice, nectar, extrusion products, etc. Moreover, apricot kernels are used in the production of oils, benzaldehyde, cosmetics, active carbon, and aroma perfume (Yildiz, 1994). Apricot is rich in minerals such as potassium, and vitamins such as b-carotene which is the pioneer substance of mineral A, is necessary for ephithelia tissues covering our bodies and organs, eye-health, bone and teeth development and working of endocrine glades (Hacise- ferogullari et al., 2005).
The fruits of apricot (PrunusarmeniacaL.) are charac- terized by high contents of nutrients and phenolic com- pounds such as neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids, proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers, several quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, and cyanidin 3-glucoside as the main pigments . The phytochemical composition of stone-fruits strongly depends on the cultivars and on fruit parts (skin and flesh) . Many studies have dem- onstrated that the phenolic compounds possess a wide range of health benefits, such as free-radical scaveng- ing property, anticancer activity, prevention of coronary heart diseases and antiviral properties [6–12].
Apricot is one of the most popular temperate fruit tree species having a large genetic variability with a strong interaction among cultivars and their area of cultivation (Bailey and Hough, 1985). Depending on the classification system, the number of apricot species ranges from 3 to 12. Six distinct species are usually recognized: P . brigantina Vill., P . holosericeae Batal, P . armeniacaL., P . mandshurica (Maxim), P . sibirica L., Japanese apricot P . mume (Sieb.) Sieb. & Succ. Vavilov placed apricot in three centers of origin: the Chinese center (Central and Western China), the Central Asiatic center (Afghanistan, northwest India and Pakistan, Kashmir, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Xinjing province in China and western Tien-Shan), and the Near-Eastern center (interior of Asia Minor). Kostina further divided the cultivated apricot according to their adaptability into four major ecogeographical groups : (1) the Central Asian group, (2) the Iran-Caucasian group, (3) the European group, and (4) the Dzhungar-Zailij group. Many local cultivars are grown in the different areas and producing countries; however, these cultivars lack important traits that needed by modern production and marketing systems.
planted. Scions for this collection were received from the Czech Republic, Ukraine, Canada and USA. Twenty-one genotypes in which complete observations were carried out from 1994 to 1997 were chosen for evaluation from a larger collection. The genotypes with the letters LE and M at the beginning of their name are hybrids from a breeding program of the Faculty of Hor- ticulture in Lednice of Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno. These genotypes were chosen as promising ones during pre-selection in hybrid orchards and they were propagated for the so called station tests. The most important of them that undergo the process of registration have new varietal names in this paper, and the original identification numerical code with the initial letters LE is given in brackets after the name. It is e.g. the cultivar Lemeda (LE-962). Cv. Velkopavlovická, clone LE-6/2, was used as control. An apricot (P. arme- niaca L.) seedling was used as rootstock. The orchard was established on Fluvisol of sand-loamy texture. In the period 1994–1997 average annual temperature in Lednice experimental locality was 9.56ºC, average an- nual sum of precipitation amounted to 537 mm. It was a warmer period than the long-term average. Average temperature over 80 years is 9.0ºC in this experimental locality. Average annual precipitation for this period is
of cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. Therefore, a novel approach to suppress anti-apoptotic genes is using of apri- cot ( PrunusarmeniacaL.) in cancer cells [2, 3]. c-FLIP gene, is an important component of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), antioxidant, structurally similar to caspase-8 and contains two death effector domains (short ( c-FLIPS ) and long ( c-FLIPL ) based on their size) and a caspase-like domain [4, 5]. The expression of c-FLIP in breast cancer is associated with chemotherapy and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance and is overexpressed in many types of human tumor compared with matched normal tissue, sug- gesting that c-FLIP may contribute to tumorigenesis in vivo . Bax gene, plays the key role in apoptosis pathway and is the gateway to the mitochondrial pathway of apop- tosis. It has been suggested that the Bax determine cell fate, survival or death, when exposed to apoptotic stimuli
Botanical Garden in Novosibirsk under Dr Simagin’s leadership (personal communication, 24.8.1996). More productive, winter-hardy, late-blooming cultivars of European bird cherry with big and sweet fruits are obtained. Dr Simagin has aimed to postpone the blooming period of bird cherries, since local plant origins often suffer from spring frost in Siberia. Late-bloomig cultivars could avoid frost injuries and yield loss. He has crossed Prunus virginiana and P. padus with good results (Simagin 1998). Two Siberian cultivars of European bird cherry (Prunus padus ‘Black Brilliance’ and Memory of Salamatov’) with sweet fruits and 17 seedlings of the cultivars or crossing of Prunus virginiana and Prunus padus were given by Dr Simagin for the comparative studies. This plant material was also planted in Muhos. Simagin’s breeding material is also interesting in the perspective of climatic warming in northern Scandinavia. Heide (1993) claims, that the climatic warming will bring the bud-burst of deciduous trees forward. As a result, growing seasons will be prolonged, but the risk of frost injuries will also increase in spring.
reached 1,109 mg/l for the cultivar Valjevka and 628 mg/l for Stanley. The results of single fruit analysis showed a steeply increasing concave curve of ethanol production in the period of anaerobic conditions, followed by the phase of a drop of the production rate in air stored fruit. The concentration of oxygen at a level of 0.9% (ultra low oxygen – ULO) does not physiologically harm the tissues of plums by producing mostly negligible content of ethanol and acetaldehyde, but an ethanol increase to half concentration after 31 days was observed to compare with anaerobic conditions in the cultivar Valjevka. From this aspect plums seem to be relatively sensitive to low oxygen. The post-storage period was extended up to 53 to 63 days, respectively. The senescence caused an increase in ethanol production rate that was exponentially increased after 20 days of cold storage atmosphere. The final concentration after 53 days was still higher for cv. Valjevka than for cv. Stanley at the respective content of 828 mg/l and 498 mg/l. Skin firmness was differentiated for both cultivars, and softness was higher for the cultivar Valjevka.
Plum pox virus (PPV), the causal agent of the sharka disease, is the most important viral disease in plums. To under- stand plant defense response against PPV-infection, changes in the composition of phenolics were studied in plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.). The phenolics were determined in visually undeformed and necrotic tissue during the last three ripening stages. The results indicated a significantly modified composition of anthocyanins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids, in necrotic tissue the most. The phenolics differed significantly also between developmental stages and give insight into the phenolic profile of fallen unripe fruit. This study shows how PPV infection induces the biosynthesis of flavonoids in plum fruit.