The innate species-specific defense reactions of the AAIS - fleeing, freezing or fighting - are rapidly acquired by young organisms [161, 162]. As a familiar principle in Psychology, striving towards pleasure and away from pain underlies all approach and avoidance behavior. Organisms approach sources of potential pleasure and satisfaction and studiously avoid potentially aversive stimuli and confrontations with danger. In infants and young children, the first reaction to continuing threat is to cry and then to freeze. The ability to fight or fright will not usually be available. Freezing allows better sound localization and visual observation of the environmental for potential threat. Lack of movement is also a form of camouflage reducing the risk of attracting predators. Traumatised children often develop a "sensitized" hyperarousal or "sensitized" dissociative pattern in association with freezing when they feel anxious. Freezing may escalate to complete dissociation .
Third, a number of studies support neither the psychological perspective nor the theological perspective, since they failed to find any consistent relationship between conventional religiosity and paranormal beliefs. For example, Ellis (1988) found few significant correlations between items concerned with superstitious belief (concerned with horoscopes and an outside force controlling a person) and items concerned with religious belief (concerned with a supreme being, guardian angels, and personal immortality) among 355 undergraduate students in the United States of America. For example, no correlation was found between belief in a supreme being and horoscopes guiding life (r = -.13, ns for males, and r = -.06, ns for females), while belief that prayer can influence the world was positively correlated with belief in an outside force controlling a person (r = .18, p<.05 for males, and r = .24, p<.001 for females). Thalbourne and O‟Brien (1999) found non-significant correlations between scores on the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale (Thalbourne & Delin, 1993) and the Haraldsson Religiosity Scale (Haraldsson, 1981) and the Wilson-Patterson Religion-Puritanism Scale (Wilson, 1975) among a sample of 127 members of the general public in the Adelaide metropolitan area of Australia. Krull and McKibben (2006) found a non- significant correlation between scores recorded on a battery of items concerned with religious beliefs (for example, God, heaven, hell, angels and the devil) and a battery of items concerned with paranormal beliefs (for example, astrology, crystals, ghosts, extra-sensory perception, and UFOs) (r =.10, ns) among a sample of 92 psychology students. Francis and Williams (in press) found a non-significant correlation (r = .06, ns) between scores recorded on the Short-form Francis Scale of Attitude toward
psychological or parapsychological processes, they lay outside the scope of sociological inquiry; there is certainly a substantial literature on the psychology of belief in the paranormal (for example, Irwin 2009). Sceptics and debunkers of the paranormal are a substantial, vocal and well organised group: the organisation called the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry publishes a monthly journal (The Skeptical Inquirer) which purports to offer scientific assessments of reported paranormal claims or events, but which routinely lapses into mockery and ridicule; consequently sociologists may be wary of engaging with the paranormal for fear of damaging their professional standing. It may be assumed that paranormal experiences do not merit sociological attention because people who report them are delusional, attention seeking, fraudulent, or liable to misinterpret everyday events and experiences so as to imbue them with a magical character, or are engaging in wish fulfilment, or suffer from psychological impairments, and so on. Finally, it may be argued that paranormal experiences raise profound philosophical questions about the nature of human existence to which the systematic study of social order can make no contribution.
Let B(H) be the algebra of all bounded linear operators acting on an inﬁnite dimensional separable complex Hilbert space H. As an easy extension of normal operators, hyponormal operators have been studied by many mathematicians. Although there are many unsolved interesting problems for hyponormal operators (e.g., the invariant subspace problem), one of recent trends in operator theory is studying natural extensions of hyponormal opera- tors. So, we introduce some of these non-hyponormal operators. Recall [, ] that T ∈ B(H) is called hyponormal if T ∗ T ≥ TT ∗ , and T is called paranormal (resp., ∗-paranormal) if T x ≥ Tx (resp. T x ≥ T ∗ x ) for all unit vector x ∈ H. Following  and ,
In other academic circles, as well, the paranormal was being taken seriously. It received a major boon in 1969 when eminent anthropologist Margaret Mead con- vinced the American Association for the Advancement of Science to bestow ‘Associate status’ on parapsychology. In her preface to a book by Russell Targ and Harold E. Puthoff, entitled Mind-reach. Scientists Look at Psychic Ability (1977), Mead main- tained that the authors provided readers with a ‘clear, straightforward account of a set of successful experiments that demonstrate the existence of “remote viewing”, a hither to unvalidated human capacity’. Her belief in the reality of psychic phenomenon had been bolstered by the fact that Targ and Puthoff were respectable, university-based physicists—they were, Mead reminded readers, experts in ‘the hardest of the hard sciences’. They also did not ‘appear to be … true believers who set out to use science to validate passionately held beliefs’. 16 This was a weighty endorsement from one of
implications of out-of-body experiences (OBEs) for our understanding of consciousness, the filter theory of consciousness can be effectively used. This is a theory which suggests that the brain is a conduit for consciousness, rather than a store. Exploring radical or controversial ideas such as these appears to promote much more inquisitive and freer thinking. It seems to help students think more creatively and independently. A subject with controversial elements (e.g., the paranormal, the occult, religion) can, in line with Meyer’s (1986) ideas about posing controversial questions, help to foster critical being particularly well as there is plenty of room for discussion and inherent ambiguities in these subjects. These moments are important for several reasons. Firstly, they break up the lecture and provide a different focus which is fundamental for effective and active learning. Secondly, they promote dialogue and interaction between the students. “Critical thinking is a social activity” and dialogue in this way encourages the practical demonstration of the fact that there are “different views of the same idea” (Moon 2008, 132). These moments can help students to shift their thinking and demonstrates multiple perspectives. Embedding this active engagement aims to engender a critical ethos throughout.
telepathy) to an anomalous event, the narrator encourages the listener to supply their own label and this may increase their commitment to the corresponding explanation. As another example, Wooffitt (1992) identified a structure frequently used in accounts of paranormal experiences along the lines of “I was just doing X, when Y”, where X refers to a normal, mundane everyday activity and Y refers to an unusual experience of an ostensibly paranormal phenomenon. This establishes the normality of the setting and of the state of the mind of the speaker, and so avoids any potential undermining of credibility that might occur if the narrator was believed to have been intoxicated or especially seeking out an unusual experience. Finally, the influence of perceived source credibility could be manipulated, for example by presenting the narrator as a person of higher or lower status to see how this affects the influence of their narrated account.
The second set of the American corpus usually displays the indicator “Based on True Story or Events.” The aim of displaying such a sentence means that the films were inspired by true events. For example, in The Amityville Horror, Ed Warren, Lorraine Warren and Robert David (2014) commented that on 13th November 1974, before the Lutz family moved in into the Amityville house, one of the sons of the Defeo family, Ronald Defeo Jr used a rifle to murder six family members brutally. Thirteen months after tragedy, the Lutz moved into the house. Some say they did not know about the murder and some say they did hear grim rumors surrounding the house. Unluckily for them, Kathleen and George Lutz immediately experienced psychological disintegration which involved drastic changes in their behaviour and became easily agitated without reason which had something to do with demonic possession. Additionally, other occult happenings also began to appear such as the severe drop of the temperature, emergence of vapory apparitions, and turning of the crucifix in the house in reverse. Due to the unexplained disturbances, they decided to move out from the house. According to Robert E. Bartholomew and Joe Nickell (2015), the film The Conjuring was inspired from the story of Roger and Carolyn Perron and their five daughters who accidently bought a haunted farmhouse house in 1971, which was located in a rural area in Rhode Island. At first, Roger was extremely sceptical about paranormal activities in his home but following numerous occult hauntings such as the clock mysteriously stopping at a certain time, family members sleepwalking and the appearance of spirits or apparitions, he was convinced of the existence of sinister presence. Furthermore, according to June Pulliam and Anthony J. Fonseca (2016), the Perron’s case has involved and was solved by the famous supernatural investigators, Ed and Lorraine Warren. By drawing on true stories, The Conjuring blurs fiction with reality.
This is only one way in which absorption may lead to reports of ostensibly paranormal experiences. As shown by Glicksohn and Barrett (2003), absorption is also correlated with hallucinatory tendencies that could also account for many ostensibly paranormal encounters. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence (for reviews, see French, 2003; French & Wilson, 2006; French & Stone, 2014) indicates that absorption correlates not only with paranormal belief and reports of subjective paranormal experiences but also with susceptibility to false memories. This raises the possibility that at least some reports of ostensibly paranormal experiences might be based upon false memories of apparent events that in fact never took place at all. Reality monitoring refers to the psychological processes involved in
Educational psychologists were quick to appreciate the potential of qualitative methods for studying classroom behaviour and communication (e.g., Spector, 1984). Moreover, the way in which much Qualitative Psychology acknowledged the workings of ideology allowed researchers to engage with and study the politics and processes of exclusion, discrimination, and disability pertinent to educational institutions (e.g., Kastberg, 1998). Educational psychology has tended to draw on qualitative methods associated with Social Anthropology and Sociology (e.g., ethnography: Biewer, 2002). However, it has also utilised approaches that are more recognisably psychological, such as observational methods, to investigate collaborative and small group working and the behaviour of both children and teachers in the classroom. New professional doctorates, such as the
• What do Constructivism and Positive Psychology , both movements of recent coinage, share? On some fundamental metaphoric assumptions, constructivism shares with positive psychology the humanist legacy, and an acknowledgement of the creative potential in human beings. Through practical approaches focusing not on the need of treatment and
with the common pattern of left hemisphere dominance (e.g. right visual field) for the vocabulary processing in non-believers, those believing in paranormal phenomena more tend to have right-brain processing. Additionally, Pizzagalli et al., (2000) reported that the resting EEG pattern results in more right hemisphere processing in the believers. Pizzagalli et al., (2000) investigated the relationship between far-fetched motives and found that the ability of the believers to perceive the information is indirectly associated with the left visual field or the right hemisphere. Thus, based on the evidence, those who believe in paranormal phenomena may have a stronger tendency towards perceiving and recognizing a pattern in random motives. This can be due to the wrong concept of true random or a tendency towards establishing com- munications between different concepts.
that emphasised scepticism toward beliefs which were considered superstitious. While there was a fascination with ghosts and spectres – reflected in much of the Gothic-revival literature produced at the end of Scott’s life and afterward – the topic was approached with both doubt and, in some cases, derision, from authors of the day. It was not until Victorian era Spiritualism 16 had grown to become such an influential aspect of British (and American) society that the paranormal became approached through the scientific perspective. The Victorian era Spiritualism obsession ignited an intellectual dispute between scientific and paranormal communities, where the use of revolutionary instruments and inventions became appropriated by spiritualists to prove the existence of ghosts. The adoption of scientific devices to support paranormal theory angered scientists and philosophers, sparking intense debate across written media. This conflict between scientific and spiritualist communities, as well as the use of devices to support the presence of paranormal entities, is a debate that continues to be a critical aspect of contemporary ghost culture. By approaching this subject from a historical perspective, I intend to offer a foundation for the topics I discuss throughout this thesis, and how aspects of Spiritualism and the tourist industry emerged and created the unique, vibrant ghost culture I examined during my fieldwork in Edinburgh.
Abstract As China becomes a more international platform, studying abroad is an increasingly popular choice for Chinese students. Business is the most popular major Chinese students choose when studying abroad but a growing number of Chinese students are interested in psychology. To ensure a meaningful experience, it is essential to understand the differences of curriculum and instruction between Chinese universities and American universities. As is the case with many international students in American universities, Chinese students often face language issues. However, they might also encounter other issues related to the difference between American and Chinese culture. These cultural differences can add pressures to many Chinese students, which can negatively impact their academic progress.
Fourth is the challenge clinical psychologists are currently facing in relation to their role as therapists, as therapeutic interventions are increasingly offered by other professions, often at a lower cost. In the UK, this role is being challenged by therapists trained in specific modalities, in the US, this role is challenged by counsellors and social workers. Often, these therapists are trained in specific modalities and use protocol-based treatments. However, research suggests that individualised, formulation-based interventions which respond to the changing needs of the client may producer faster and more effective results (Bickman, Kelley, Breda, de Andrade, & Riemer, 2011; Litt, Kadden, & Kabela Cormier, 2009; Weisz, Chorpita, Palinkas, & et al., 2012). Positive psychology has developed, and is continuing to develop a wide range of short and long-term interventions, which can be used flexibly in isolation or alongside other interventions. As such, the positive psychology research literature contains a treasure chest of techniques which clinical psychologists can draw on to tailor their treatment approach to the changing needs of individual clients,