It is a disease that causes fear, anxiety, depression and reduction in the quality of life of those who are diagnosed with the disease. These associated problems can affect adherence to medication and lifestyle changes, ([4-6]. It is therefore pertinent that diabetes management should require, not only the input of the patient and healthcare professionals but also the cooperation of family members who provide psychosocial support. Man is a bio- psychosocial being, who usually functions within a family system and is thus influenced by situations around him through social learning. It is therefore imperative for family members to be highly educated about the cause, characteristics and management of diabetes mellitus. This will enhance the ability of family members to effectively provide psychosocial support for the patient and help in the prevention of complications. This education is best conducted through an integrative platform that includes the patient and at least one family member. This will further help in concretizing individual management goals and in addressing psychosocial problems identified during the psychosocial assessment carried out at the first visit, as recommended by American Diabetes Association .
Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease that is associated with high cost and health care utiliza- tion. Attitudes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) toward diabetes have a significant impact on quality of diabetes care. Although the prevalence of diabetes in the Arabian Gulf region is alarming, little is known about attitudes of HCPs toward the disease. Methods: This study evaluates the atti- tudes of 337 HCPs toward diabetes in United Arab Emirates (UAE) including physicians, pharmac- ists, nurses and dietitians using the Diabetes Attitudes Scale (DAS-3). Data were analyzed descrip- tively and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparative analyses. Overall, HCPs groups demonstrated relatively adequate attitudes toward diabetes (mean = 3.80, SD = 0.45). Re- sults: The highest score reported by HCPs groups was on the need for special training subscale (M = 4.49, SD = 0.38) and the lowest score was seen on patient autonomy subscale (M = 3.31, SD = 0.45). Physicians showed significantly higher positive attitudes on need for special training, se- riousness of diabetes, value of tight glycemic control, and psychosocialaspects of diabetes than other HCPs groups (P values < 0.005); whereas nurses scored the highest on patient autonomy subscale. Pharmacists demonstrated the lowest negative attitudes among HCPs groups on all di- abetes attitudes subscales. Conclusions: We recommend conducting more continuing education programs (CEPs) on diabetes care in the UAE, with greater emphasis on patient autonomy. An in- terdisciplinary approach that is patients’ centered is needed to provide efficient diabetes care.
Faced with the articles used to support this research, it was observed that, although there are factors such as the need to conduct more researches on the use of drugs in old age, as well as focal interventions for this group, there was not, in any of the readings , proposals that would subsidize an intervention plan. However, these notes on the attention to be given in greater number to the subject allows to identify aspects that need to be placed in evidences, and consecutively worked out. Therefore, it would also be pertinent to think of a harm reduction policy oriented towards the older people, so that vulnerabilities related to substance use could be minimized, without necessarily proposing abstinence as a form of treatment. In this way it is possible to confirm the need to develop further studies and research on the various factors that accompany the use of psychoactive substances by older people. As mentioned by the authors referred on this study, it is appropriate for the benefit of mental health and care to the older people, the disclosure of the consumption of alcohol and other drugs by this public for the purpose of improving services and the way the society deals with this growing reality in the Brazilian context. Regarding the articles made available and selected from the access to the VHL database, no data were observed. Whether the onset of drug use occurred in old age or from earlier periods of life, nor the understanding of the elderly about the meaning of psychoactive use and its repercussions. Although there are innumerable times when one tries to find out the reasons for the appearance of dependence or abusive use of alcohol and other drugs, the causes tend to be multifactorial. With regard to age, the older the person, the greater the fragility, as well as the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCD). Today people live longer, and there has been a considerable increase in the diseases in question, and among them are musculoskeletal diseases, such as arthritis and arthrosis, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, mental disorders such as dementia and depression.
Madhumeha is a disease entity described in Ayurveda which has clinical features very similar to diabetes mellitus. Besides the various aetiological factors, Ayurveda has specially described some psychological aetiological factors i.e. Krodha (anger), Udvega (anxiety) and Shoka (grief) which play an important role in the pathogenesis of Prameha roga. The objective of the present study is to assess the role of psychosocial factors in the aetiopathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus. The present study was conducted in 160 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The results were assessed by using psychological parameters namely Psychosocial stress scale,
Dr Carol Sullivan, Dr Mazin Alfaham, Dr Iolo Doull, Dr Vas Falco and their teams of specialist nurses for their help in recruiting children with asthma. Dr Huw Jenkins, Dr Mike Cosgrove, Dr Peter Dale and Karen Bryant-Dav- ies for their help in recruiting children with inflammatory bowel disease. Dr Dewi Evans, Dr Malachy O'Hagan, Dr John Gregory, Dr Phil Edwards, Liz Aldicott, Dawn Wood, Geraldine Philips, Lesley Lowes, Corinna Bret- land and Rachel Harris for their help in recruiting children with diabetes Dr Martin English, Dr Alison Leiper, Dr Jacqueline Cornish, Professor Anthony Oakhill, Janet Powell, Ruth Elson, Sue Crooks and Alena MacEvoy for their help in recruiting children who had survived cancer.
Abstract: Background and objectives: Suicide is a topical issue in Lithuania and all around the world. It is the second most common cause of death among young people. There is a lack of research studies on the psychosocialaspects of adolescent suicide in Lithuania. This study aimed to evaluate demographics, life circumstances, and health conditions as possible suicide causes in adolescents. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed at the Children’s Hospital (Vilnius University Santara Clinics). Medical documentation of adolescents treated in this hospital after suicide attempts from January 2011 to April 2018 were analyzed. Results: There were 117 cases of hospitalization due to suicide attempts during this period, and 102 cases were included in the study. There were 83.8% female and 16.2% male patients with an average age of 15.02 ± 1.9 years (p = 0.405); 40.6% of patients lived in divorced families, 17.7% lived in orphanages, 4.2% lived in foster care, 36.4% suffered from parental alcoholism, and 17.2% experienced had suicide in their close surroundings. They had comorbidities (girls 72.5%, boys 68.8%), mostly depression (31.3%), were suffering from bullying (54.1%) or violence (26.0%), and 85.4% showed signs of other types of self- harm (girls more often (p < 0.001)). Most of them chose to cut for suicide attempts (86.0% girls, 56.2% boys). In 52.8% of cases, the attempt was spontaneous and 34% relapsed. Thirty-four events occurred in March (18.9%) (p = 0.688). Conclusions: Our study revealed the possible circumstances related to adolescent suicide. Female gender was more common overall and males were more likely to carry out more potentially lethal methods. Other common associated factors were a lack of prosperity in family life, experience of bullying, violence, comorbidities, and the early spring period. Signs of any self-harm could be an indicator of later suicide attempt.
Body image distortions are a well-established feature of clinical eating disorders, which have also been associated with dieting in adolescents. Such distortions have most commonly been measured in terms of asking individuals whether they perceive themselves to be overweight, normal weight or underweight, and comparing their responses to their actual body weight status. It is quite common for young women to feel themselves to be overweight when they are not (e.g. Grigg et al 1996) and dieters may be more prone to such distorted self-view than non-dieters. A method o f assessing more perceptual aspects o f body image distortions has been to use computer or video generated photographic images, which can be manipulated to look fatter or thinner. These methods have often been successful in demonstrating distorted body perceptions in eating disordered patients (e.g. Probst et al 1998), although some studies have not been able to observe such effects even in clinical groups (Pappas 1993; Fernandez et al 1994). Few studies have examined perceptual distortion in dieters, and results have been mixed. One study which compared the accuracy of body size perceptions of a group of restrained and a group of non restrained adult women using three different body size estimation methods, found no systematic differences in over or underestimation of body size between the two groups, although the restrained eaters were somewhat less accurate overall (Lautenbacher et al 1991). In contrast, another study (Gruber et al 2001) which made use of a computer programme which allowed women to indicate their perceived body size from figures of known body fat and muscularity levels, reported that young women over-estimated their level of body fat in comparison both with their measured levels of body fat and with non dieting women. This study did not find any differences in ideal body weight between dieters and non-dieters, and concluded that higher levels of body dissatisfaction in dieters is due to a perceptual distortion rather than an lower weight ideal.
The above data make it clear that the treatment of diabetes can, to a large extent, be inappropriate "through the fault" of the patients themselves. This state of affairs is significantly influenced by psychological factors related to the treatment of patients with diabetes. Often in an indirect, but essential way, they determine the positive course of the therapy process, influencing the patient's attitude towards their disease, motivation for treatment and health behaviors manifested by the patient. It must not be forgotten that the treatment of diabetes is primarily based on the active role of the patient. Therefore, the motivation and attitude shown by the patient himself towards his or her health condition and the treatment process, as well as taking into account subjective, psychological aspects that may disturb the therapies are extremely important. Even if ideal conditions for treatment were created for the patient, they would not bring the expected results, if at the psychological level the patient manifested various mental and cognitive barriers that are not appropriate for therapy.
There is an apparent perceived con lict between aspects of training in histopathology are deemed to be useful learning experiences and those processes that are necessary for providing a service to patients and clinicians and this is a phenomenon documented across medicine [19,20]. Although not stated explicitly, there was a concern that introduction of graded responsibility into training was a way of getting more direct service provision out of trainees and that this would likely revolve around simple specimens of little educational value.
Many consequences have been suffered by the Jordanian diabetics including psychosocial conse- quences such as poor quality of life and increased depressive symptoms (6), sexual dysfunction (7), and long-term physical complications (3). The seriousness of DM complications, the lack of cure, and the high cost of health care mandate different approaches in dealing with this devastat- ing illness, in which patients' self-management is considered the key to promoting patients' health and healthcare services. Further, self-management was considered as the foundation of the chronic care model for patients who are suffering from chronic illnesses (8). Self-management includes activities and lifestyle changes undertaken by indi- viduals for health promotion and management of life with an illness (9).
The present study has some limitations that need to be considered when interpreting the findings. First, this review was restricted to studies published in English and to studies published in referred journal articles. However, there may be studies published in Arabic or French (espe- cially by researchers from Lebanon, Tunisia, Morocco, Algiers where French is widely spoken) or published as conference papers, master or doctoral theses, book chap- ters, etc. In addition, the studies originated from only 9 out of 22 Arab countries. These countries are quite diverse not only in terms of religion, history, economics, and politics but also in living standards and health care services. Finally, many studies reviewed involved non-probability or small samples. Therefore, caution should be exercised in making generalizations about psychosocialaspects of bronchial asthma in Arab countries.
After getting clearance from the Institutional Review Board and the Ethical Committee, the study was undertaken from December 2013. Out of 654 children attending pediatric OPD 202 children were identified to have constipation by applying Rome III criteria which constitute 30.88%. The demographic profile, socioeconomic status, presenting complaints, psychosocialaspects affecting normal bowel pattern, behavior, like temper tantrum, marital disharmony, sibling rivalry, school phobia, aversion to use school toilet were collected and recorded in a pre-structured proforma (Annexure I). The diet pattern of these children was also recorded in a diet chart (Annexure III), concentrating on the regularity of breakfast, vegetable and fruit intake, junk foods in the form of baked or fried items and regarding the consumption of milk. Stool frequency and type of stool passed was recorded for a period of one week, with Bristol stool chart being the reference for type of stool passed.
Counseling is a skill that is underused in the man- agement of behavioral problems. With a combined knowledge of psychosocial issues, interviewing skills, and diagnostic understanding, pediatricians can effectively counsel patients and families and im- prove many of the behavioral problems they encoun- ter at early stages of their presentation.
Regarding to the increasing prevalence of diabetes in Iran, further intervention for treating and managing the diabetes seems to be critical. Thus, the medical nutrition therapy has the main role in treating and preventing diabetes . The consumption of artificial sweeteners among diabetic patients is growing. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the effects of artificial sweeteners on fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 hours postprandial blood glucose (2hPP), Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI).