Using case studies, applied examples, original source material, and her own inimitable pedagogical style, Nancy Murdock succinctly elucidates fifteen of the most influential and ground-breaking theories of psychotherapy and counseling. With this articulate guide to counseling theory, students will grasp complicated historical theory and not only understand the historical footing and uses of each, but will learn how these theories have informed each other and contributed to modern practice, while applying it to their own professional counseling experience. Examining the historical roots, evaluations, and lasting effects of Existential, Gestalt, Behavior, Cognitive, Reality, Feminist, Family, Narrative, and Solution-Focused Therapy and much more, this text equips students with the history and application necessary to bring theory to life.
This study has important implications for the education of future therapists as well. Models of training in psychotherapy and counseling can be developed from the ABCDE- model. The individual aspect of our model of integrative psychotherapy can be learnt in a master program for psychologists, while future therapists can decide which kind of specialization fits to their emotional and cognitive styles. Integrating different concepts into the curriculum of studies for future psychotherapists may also encourage the thoughtful communication among therapists with different educational backgrounds and allow the successful integration of multiple theoretical concepts in the therapeutic practice, with important benefits for the patients and clients. Furthermore, the benefits of competent method integration for a great number of patients should be manifest to therapists adhering to methods like cognitive-behavior therapy or psychodynamic therapy.
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The fees for these psychotherapeutic services in Ontario vary from $35 per hour to $300 per hour depending on the qualifications and experience of the therapist and geographical regions.(33)(34) The average hourly rate is $150.(33) Depending on the presenting mental illness, therapy usually entails multiple appointments for complete treatment. This can result in huge therapy costs. Ontarians also have access to insured psychotherapy or counseling services by psychiatric nurses, social workers and clinical psychologists through family physicians who are part of a Family Health Team and/or available through some hospital clinics on an outpatient basis. Family Health Teams are a primary health care model where physicians are paid per capita for enrolling patients in their practices. The Ministry of Health and Long-term Care (MOHLTC) provides fiscal support for allied health professionals to serve the needs of the patient population in the Family Health Team. These allied health professionals for example can be dieticians, occupation therapists, nurse practitioners, psychologists, social workers etc., based on patient population needs. The government introduced Family Health Teams in 2005 to strengthen health care at the grass roots level and to improve access to other services such as occupational therapists, social workers, dieticians, etc. There are approximately 200 Family Health Teams as of 2010 serving millions of Ontarians, which is approximately 40% of the provincial population.(35) Although, this model improves access to
Empirical studies have demonstrated that many people turn to religion as a resource in their efforts to understand and deal with the most difficult times of their lives. Surveys  indicate that 70- 80% use religious or spiritual beliefs and activities to cope with daily difficulties and frustrations. Studies indicate that the outcome of psychotherapy in religious patients can be enhanced by integrating religious elements into the therapy protocol. There was a time when the realm of spirituality and religion was clearly separate from the counseling process. Indeed, many practitioners were hesitant to broach the topic of their clients’ religious or spiritual concerns, lest they be seen as inappropriately mixing counseling with spiritual- religious matters, which were viewed as the domain of the clergy, not of the counselor. Nevertheless, counseling psychologists are expected to consider their clients from a holistic point of view. For this holistic perspective, attention needs to be given to matters of body, mind, and spirit. Hence, with the development of the central importance of the multicultural dimensions in counseling, religion and spirituality have been given increased attention as a requisite for more deeply understanding a client’s cultural background. Currently, awareness of and willingness to explore spiritual and
Islam in the holistic capacity functions as a guidance to gain social advantages. The religion then offers a psychotherapy model that can free both individuals and community from insolence that handcuffs. Islam provides a way out for human beings to gain well-beings both physically and mentally, and to reach the great mental health. The religional so provides an accurate methodology to cope with mental illness that plagues the majority of teenagers and adults in various countries around the world. Mental illness threatening younger generation is due to different effects in various levels and personal backgrounds. Social problem such as prostitution, theft, robbery, gambling, and the use of addictive substances, is a common issue that has damaged the mental and personality of human beings. There- fore, Islamic psychotherapy becomes a valuable offer to solve the problem. Islamic psychotherapy is a spiritual psychotherapy model that synergizes and integrates with other sciences such as psychology and counseling. It is a psychological treatment methodology that uses Islamic sources, the values of Islam, and anything taken from Islam as dimensional holistic systemic approach in order to achieve social advantages effectively and efficiently.
Psychotherapy provided Anne the opportunity to challenge her script beliefs and understand the components of her script system. “The Script System “(Erskine, 2010), an integral part of Integrative Psychotherapy, allows for unconscious relational patterns to be examined. Such beliefs as “no one loves me, there is no one there to help me, life is confusing”, left Anne overwhelmed and contributed to her thinking that she had to do most things by herself, in addition to feelings of bewilderment a great deal of the time. The therapeutic relationship, although at times creating a juxta-position where she was now experiencing what was needed in the relationship with her mother, permitted her to get in touch with repressed feelings and needs. To be in the presence of another, to be seen, to be heard, to be understood, were all important and much needed for Anne to fill in the gaps of her past. Beliefs about herself, others, and the quality of her life, as well as a better understanding of her feelings, sensations, behaviors, fantasies, needs and desires were addressed. With the use of the models of the “Self-in-Relationship” and the “Script System” as a guide, she was able to construct her narrative, resulting in a sense of continuity and confidence.
I have explored with selected examples how my work as a Body Psychotherapist represents a humanistic and holistic approach to psychotherapy. As a humanistic psychotherapist I have a holistic view of the human being and address how body and mind are intrinsically related. Most of us need help in contacting and learning to trust the knowledge of our body. I see my role as Body Psychotherapist as facilitating a process in discovering the innate wisdom of the body and its potential for well-being, creativity and choice. Psychotherapy often focusses more on verbal and mental processes and communication while Body Psychotherapy brings an awareness to the subtle body processes, sensations and feelings, present, but sometimes hidden in the language of the body.
Psychotherapy and Counselling are professional activities that utilise an interpersonal relationship to enable people to develop self understanding and to make changes in their lives. Professional counsellors and psychotherapists work within a clearly contracted, principled relationship that enables individuals to obtain assistance in exploring and resolving issues of an interpersonal, intrapsychic, or personal nature. Professional Counselling and Psychotherapy are explicitly contracted and require in-depth training to utilise a range of therapeutic interventions, and should be differentiated from the use of counselling skills by other
Interventions: All interventions were manually guided treatments. Included: 1) individual drug counseling plus group drug counseling 2) cognitive therapy plus group drug counseling 3) supportive expressive therapy plus group drug counseling 4) drug counseling alone. Treatment included up to 36 possible individual sessions and 24 group sessions over 6 months. Subjects were assessed monthly during active treatment and at 9 and 12 months after baseline.
So far we have talked about the psychotherapeutic role of utopia as a literary genre, but there is another side to the coin - the moment of utopia in professional psychotherapy. Social psychotherapy as a desire to harmonize the inner world of many people, although it does not build images of an ideal society, always includes a utopian component. In this context, social psychotherapy, firstly, directs people to change their consciousness and behavior in view of a better future, and secondly, where it comes to psychological self-help, it suggests that, with the support of professionals, a person will achieve his own mental well-being.
We do not yet know the outcome of this trial. However one conclusion that has already been drawn from clinical experience of delivering it (and from a previous study Trowell (2012), is that not only may a fixed term of once-weekly treatment for a year not be harmful, compared with treatments without a predefined ending, but that it may even be beneficial especially to adolescent patients.It seems likely that training in time-limited therapy will now be added to the training requirements of the child psychotherapy profession. Should this trial prove successful in terms of
Finally, an important and ongoing issue remains the roles of traditional and Western approaches to the provision of mental health counseling services in the country. In traditional Botswana cultures, mental health care was provided by families and as well as by traditional healers. Mental symptoms were believed to be the result of the evil deeds of enemies or spirits, and traditional practices and ceremonies were used to treat these problems (Sidandi, et al.,1999). To this day, counseling and mental health services are provided to clients who may very well be consulting traditional healers simultaneously. The experience of dealing with the HIV/AIDS epidemic has revealed some of the flaws in contemporary counseling approaches that have limited utilization of, and sensitivity to, traditional cultural values and practices. There is thus a growing awareness among counseling professionals of the importance of incorporating such values and practices in order to keep counseling culturally relevant. Understanding the influence of traditional beliefs and treatment approaches on both those who provide services and those who receive them, and a strategy for integrating the two systems effectively are thus important considerations as the profession in the country grows and expands.
The sharing of emotional material is central to the process of psychotherapy and emotional problems are a primary reason for seeking treatment. Surprisingly, very little systematic research has been done on patterns of emo- tional exchange during psychotherapy. It is likely that a major reason for this void in the research is the enormous cost of annotating sessions for affective content. In the field of NLP, there have been major strides in the cre- ation of algorithms for sentiment analysis, but most of this work has focused on written re- views of movies and twitter feeds with lit- tle work on spoken dialogue. We have cre- ated a new database of 97,497 utterances from psychotherapy transcripts labeled by humans for sentiment. We describe this dataset and present initial results for models identifying sentiment. We also show that one of the best models from the literature, trained on movie reviews, performed below many of our base- line models that trained on the psychotherapy corpus.
Further research has highlighted the complexities in regard to older adults attending psychotherapy services. Hayslip, Schneider and Bryant (1989) undertook a study focusing on older women’s perceptions of counsellors of the same gender. Ninety- six women served as pseudo-clients in an analogue study in which they were presented with counselling vignettes. They found that the participants would have perceived younger counsellors more positively when discussing intimate topics, whilst preferring older counsellors for discussion of less intimate issues. This perhaps highlights the complexity of the issue of older clients not readily disclosing emotional difficulties. However, criticism could be levelled at this study for using artificial scenarios rather than obtaining phenomenological data of real counselling encounters. Nevertheless, the study was helpful in highlighting the counsellor’s gender and age in older women’s disclosure of intimate topics which informed the current study. In the present study, attention was paid to how stories of counselling included the counsellor’s age and gender and the narrator’s interpretation of these factors during their counselling process.
In an effort to provide people with dementia with the time and space to make sense of the changes in their lives, there has been a steady increase in the use of psychotherapy and counselling with people with dementia. A wide range of individual psychotherapeutic work with people with dementia has been described including psychodynamic (e.g. Sinason, 1992), cognitive-behavioural (e.g. Teri and Gallacher-Thomson, 1991) and humanistic approaches (e.g. Goudie and Stokes, 1989; Stokes and Goudie, 1990). However, probably the single most common means of using psychotherapy as a way of intervening with people with dementia has been through group work. The review by Cheston (1998a), for instance, identified over twice as many reports of groups compared to work with
What I want to trace here is how these attributes appear in a certain kind of relationship to psychotherapy that I like to think of as ‘austere’; that is, as difficult and rather relentless, because it refuses to get taken up with the emotionality of the moment of encounter. One of the criticisms that might be levelled against systemic family therapy is that it is too ‘cognitive’ in the sense of being concerned primarily with what people think and with the stories they tell about themselves and their predicaments, rather than paying sufficient dues to emotionality and the affective underpinnings of psychotherapy. This links with the kind of reflexivity that distinguishes systemic from psychoanalytic approaches. In the former, the issue is primarily one of externalising the impact of the therapist on the system which she or he joins, and deploying that impact in such a way that the system can be helped to reorient itself productively.
voice and adopted the perspective of the multilingual clients (see however Espin, 2013). Such an emic approach allows researchers to explore participants’ perspective, their interpretation of behaviour, events and situation using their own language (Pike, 1964). The present study aims to fill this gap. It was prompted by an initial investigation into the experiences of monolingual and multilingual therapists with their multilingual clients (Costa & Dewaele, 2012, 2013). The research described in this paper aims to open up the discussion about multilingualism and therapy; to listen to and to convey the voice of the multilingual client; and to compare and contrast the views of multilingual clients with the views of multilingual therapists. The literature reviewed below characteristically presents the opinion that multilingualism can be a useful resource which psychotherapy can draw upon. Where there is a possibility of code-switching (defined as ‘changes from one language to another in the course of conversation’ (Li Wei, 2007, p. 14)), this choice can be ‘strategically used as a unique therapeutic technique.’ (Pitta, Marcos & Alpert, 1978, p. 255). As already mentioned, there is little or no published research from the multilingual client’s point of view. The review therefore draws together a number of themes which emerge from the literature regarding multilingual therapists’ experiences as well as the experiences of clients.