Kentros and collaborators  reported overall stability of personality traits, despite substantial variation with re- gard to psychotic symptoms. Beauchamp et al.  found both results in favour of and in disagreement with the idea that personality is associated with psychotic symptoms over a three-month period, whereas Boyette and co-workers  reported lower three-year correlations among psychotic patients than controls with regard to NEO Neuroticism, which was associated with depressive symptoms. Thus, stability with regard to the Five-Factor Model among psychotic patients seems to be overall steady, with a few exceptions, similar to the results of the present study using SSP. In contrast, among the MMPI personality traits analysed by Horan and collaborators over a 15-month period the majority was influenced by psychiatric symp- toms . In this context, the attempts to overcome short- comings in traditional psychopathological taxonomy by incorporating personality variation, partly overlapping with aspects of psychopathology is of interest .
This was consistent with both DSM-III (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed.)  and DSM-III-R , which reported that in BPD transi- ent psychotic symptoms may occur during periods of ex- treme stress; however, none of the eight criteria for DSM-III/ DSM-III-R BPD referred to psychotic features and instead the classification of concurrent psychotic symptoms was covered by Axis I psychotic disorders. In contrast with DSM-III and DSM-III-R, some authors re- ported high rates of some peculiar psychotic-like features when assessing DSM-III and DSM-III-R BPD [15-20]. Zanarini and colleagues  conducted an in-depth evalu- ation of the cognitive features of BPD comparing three clinical groups (BPD, n = 50; other personality disorders, n = 55; schizophrenia, n = 32) with healthy controls (n = 46). They used the Diagnostic Interview for Border- line Revised (DIB-R)  to assess psychopathology over the previous two years and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III (SCID)  to evaluate lifetime psychotic episodes. Using the DIB-R, quasi-psychotic thought characterized by transient (lasting less than two days), circumscribed (affecting not more than two areas of life ) or atypical psychotic symptoms (based on reality or totally fantastic), were observed in 20 patients (40%) with BPD, one patient (1.8%) with other personality dis- order (PD), and none of the patients with schizophrenia (SC), whereas only patients with SC reported true psych- otic thought, defined as prolonged, widespread, bizarre and stereotypical psychotic symptoms, i.e. Schneiderian first-rank symptoms. Using SCID all 32 patients with SC, seven patients (14%) with BPD and two patients (2.6%) with other PD reported one or more lifetime psychotic episodes. In BPD patients these occurred only in the context of either co-morbid substance use dis- order or co-morbid affective disorder as previously re- ported by Pope and colleagues . These findings  confirmed the predicted specificity of true psychotic thought for SC and extended previous reports of the
Pattern of drug abuse in Iran in recent years has changed and traditional opiate drugs like opium have changed to newer forms such as opioids and another newer forms such as crack (in Iran, heroin is the tradi- tional type) and heroin and other substances (such as methamphetamine) (23). One of the most significant ef- fects is a psychotic disorder that came from using the methamphetamine and this issue has caused a significant portion of hospital beds to patients with this disorder (24). Previous studies have shown that using metham- phetamine can cause brain damage and subsequently var- ious cognitive function disorders. For example, Thomp- son et al. compared methamphetamine-dependent pa- tients and healthy volunteers, and they concluded that us- ing methamphetamine for long-term can cause damage to dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems and also lead to brain damage (25).
Background: Amphetamines are illicit psychostimulant drugs that can induce psychotic symptoms. Very few studies have been conducted in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA) on amphetamine abuse and related psychosis. Recently, the pat- tern of amphetamine abuse in SA showed a significant trend of increased frequency. Objectives: To investigate the ex- tent of amphetamine abuse in a sample of Saudi patients hospitalized for first episode of acute psychosis. Also, to com- pare in that sample between amphetamine psychosis and other psychoses regarding demographic data, premorbid per- sonality and symptoms profile. Method: 106 patients with acute psychosis were hospitalized and screening of urine for amphetamine was conducted for all. Patients’ psychiatric evaluation included interviewing, and ICD-10 criteria for personality disorders. 30 healthy subjects were also included for comparison with patients. Results: 34/106 of psychotic patients (32%) were positive for amphetamine in urine (≥ 1000 ng/ml). The frequency of personality disorders was sig- nificantly higher (P < 0.01) in the patients (54/106; 51%) compared with healthy subjects (6/30; 20%). Also, the inci- dence of personality disorders was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in amphetamine positive psychosis (25/34; 73.5%) compared with amphetamine negative psychosis (29/72; 40%). Cluster B personality disorders particularly the antiso- cial and borderline were significantly higher in amphetamine positive psychosis (13/34; 38%) compared with am- phetamine negative psychoses (6/72; 8%). The symptom profile showed significant difference between amphetamine positive and amphetamine negative psychosis as regards ideas of reference (50% vs. 14%), suspiciousness (44% vs. 11%), suicidal ideation (38% vs. 23%), paranoid delusions (29% vs. 17%) and increased pulse or blood pressure (29% vs. 7%) respectively. Conclusion: Screening of amphetamine in urine among patients with first episode of acute psycho- sis can help and support the clinical distinction of amphetamine psychosis from other types of psychosis. This is thera- peutically critical since the line of treatment may be different between the two types of psychoses.
recorded by the security board of hospital (Table 1). Thirty three of patients were male and thirty of them were female, with no significant difference with regard to quantity (Table 2). The most frequent mental illness was bipolar I disorder (34.92%), which was significantly more prevalent in comparison with other mental disorders (p<0.04, p<0.02, p<0.007, and p<0.003 in comparison with schizophrenia, depression, personality disorders and substance abuse, respectively). The other disorders included schizophrenia (19.04%), major depressive disorder (MDD) (17.46%), personality disorders (borderline & antisocial) (14.28%), substance abuse disorders, especially methamphetamine induced psychosis (MIP) (12.69%), and adjustment disorder (1.58%) (Table 3) (Figure1). Also, no significant difference was evident between the first admission and recurrent admission inpatients, totally (p<0.31) and separately, particularly with respect to psychotic disorders (Table 3) (Figure 2). The annual incidences of suicidal behavior in both groups were comparable, and they were around 0.035% and 0.030%, in first admission and recurrent admission psychiatric inpatients, respectively (Table 1). While self-mutilation, self poisoning and hanging were the preferred methods of suicide among 61.11%, 19.44% and 19.44% of cases, respectively, the first style was significantly more prevalent than the other ways (Z=1.96, P<0.059, CI: -0.0088,0.4532). Furthermore, no significant gender-based difference was evident with respect to the style of suicide in the present assessment (Figure 3). Besides, with respect to different components of serum lipids, no specific or significant pattern was evident, except that all hypolipidemic patients (n=7) were diagnosed as major depressive disorder, while 80% of hyperlipidemic patients (n=5) were diagnosed as bipolar I disorder (Table 4).
While this paper has emphasized the destructive side of psychotic dynamics in the present context of university reform, it should be said that the psychotic parts of the personality and the organization alike might also be sources of creativity. New thinking more often than not requires a capacity – or as Bion (1970: 125), in reference to the poet John Keats (1899: 277), put it, a ‘negative capability’ – on the side of the thinker to be available for ‘psychotic thoughts’, i.e. thoughts of the so-far unknown which at first sight appear bewildering, crazy, scary, unspeakable, devastating and delusional (cf. Pazzini, 2005). To endure such thoughts and ultimately reintegrate them, through thinking, into the non-psychotic parts both of the thinker and of the system in which s/he holds a role is a ‘capacity’ of the depressive position in the Kleinian sense. Such a capacity allows the role holder to experience, acknowledge and endure the pain and anxieties that are related to the experience of guilt, grief and the desire for reparation. While the anxiety of the paranoid-schizoid position is dominated by the fear of being destroyed, it shifts in the depressive position to a fear of destroying others. Thinking and working from the depressive position requires a capacity for sympathy, responsibility and concern for others, and an ability to identify with the subjective experience of people one cares about (Klein, 1964: 65f).
The psychiatric control group presented with a variety of different problems:; one with pathological gambling; two with anorexia; three with somatoform disorder; three with hypochondriasis; six with adjustment dis- order; one with post-traumatic stress disorder; six with mixed anxiety and depression; nine with generalized anxiety disorder; 11 with panic disorder/agoraphobia; one with specific phobia; 14 with social phobia; 36 with depressive disorders; one with bipolar disorder; one with cannabis related disorders, and 10 people were diagnosed with a personality disorder (in some cases the graduate students did SCID-II interviews in addition to the MINI). The number of patients assessed with SCID-II is un- known. SCID-II was not used as a routine procedure, but administered when the therapist had a hypothesis that the patient suffered from a personality disorder. Twenty par- ticipants in the non-psychotic psychiatry control group were not diagnosed with a specific disorder. They were still included in the study as they were treatment seeking and received treatment at the clinic.
Similar to the way in which patients with severe personality disturbances often do not appear to be very psychotic, but rather give the impression that they have fixed their disorder on a certain level, social organizations – profit-oriented organizations in particular – often seem to cover their internal anxiety level with a somehow curious, but nevertheless normal appearance. As an external observer or consultant to large corporations, I often have the impression that these organizations are stuck in the predominant attempt to defend against the apparent threat and persecution emanating from the outer world of markets and competitors, which they at the same time tend to dominate and control with a high degree of aggression, sadism and destructiveness. In cases like these, it seems to me that the psychic dynamic of the organization is caught in a behavior and a way of thinking which are typical of the paranoid-schizoid position. In face of the on-going struggle for excellence, growth and survival and the attempt to gain greater market shares, there seems to be almost no capacity for the depressive position and its anxieties. As the concern for good objects of the inner or outer world is missing, the predominant destructiveness and aggression seem to leave no space for the experience of guilt, the desire for love, mourning or reparation typical of the depressive position. The external world and reality thus become shaped and reduced by internal psychotic anxieties and their respective defence mechanisms.
Extraversion as opposed to introversion, refers to the outgoing, uninhibited, sociable proclivities of a person whereas, Neuroticism refers to the general emotional liability of a person, his emotional over -responsiveness and his liability to neurotic breakdown under stress. Severe and prolong case of neuroticism may lead to the development of psychotic illness in the later stage of life 16 .
The madness of Scottish Gothic – it’s all the same difference. When you read Hogg’s The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, you can’t help seeing double. The haunting footfalls of this text of shadows can be heard behind other recent Scottish narratives that encounter the familiar face of an uncanny, second self. This essay will draw on Julia Kristeva’s concept of ‘borderline’ experi- ence, a feature of psychotic discourse, to examine the representation of madness, split personality and sociopathic behaviour in Hogg and in one contemporary, muted form of Scottish Gothic, John Burnside’s The Locust Room (2001). For Kris- teva, the borderline patient is split between the positions of actor and spectator, ‘a manipulator of seeming, a seducer who uses masks which remain more or less for- eign to him’ and ‘a commentator, a theoretician, a commander of signs’. 1 Just as the
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THE DISSERTATION ENTITLED “ A Study on Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorder- Clinical Characteristics and Diagnostic Stability” is the bonafide original work of Dr. M. VENKAT LAKSHMI in partial fulfillment of the requirement for M.D(psychiatry) BRANCH - XVIII Examination of the Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University to be held in April 2011. The period of study was from January to October 2010.
Clinical assessment was carried out by trained clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. Diagnoses were estab- lished using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM- IV, modules A-E . General non-psychotic symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) , depressive symptoms with the IDS- C , (hypo)manic symptoms with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)  and current functioning by the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) , split version . The Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS)  was used to measure compliance to medication. A total of 103 patients (82.4%) completed the MARS. Eight patients (6.4%) did not complete because they were not using any medication at the time of the evaluation. Among the patients not completing the MARS, there was no significant difference in the proportion with or without excessive substance use.
Endocrine, neoplastic, and mental diseases were excluded on the basis of medical history, and mental disorders by means of a screening test performed using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire 9 for diagnosing depression. The research presented here is a part of a greater project whose aim was to determine factors presumably contributing to depression in postmenopausal women. We analyzed the influence of genetic factors on personality traits (using two standardized questionnaires, namely the NEO-FFI and the TCI) and the occurrence of depression in postmenopausal women. We also measured the severity of depressive symptoms, the QoL level, and health behaviors among postmenopausal women, depending on their sociodemographic data, the severity of climacteric symptoms, and the use of MHT.
As with other psychiatric disorders, the pharmacologic treatment of PD is associated with considerable treat- ment variability. Pharmacogenetic findings have the po- tential to result in more personalized treatment and possibly preventive strategies. Because the number of individuals recruited in a clinical trial is insufficient to conduct a genome-wide association study, we employ a candidate-gene approach to explore the following im- portant issues: 1) genetic predictors of relapse of either mood disorders or primary psychotic disorders are cur- rently unknown: we therefore explore this issue in rela- tion to this study; 2) several genetic polymorphisms have been associated with antipsychotic-related weight gain . However, it is not known whether these polymor- phisms predict reversal of weight gain following discon- tinuation of the antipsychotic, an issue that we will investigate; 3) there have been no published studies of the pharmacogenetics of response or remission in PD. We will therefore explore whether genetic polymor- phisms that have been associated with antidepressant re- sponse in non-psychotic depression, and antipsychotic response and weight gain in schizophrenia, pertain to PD. Finally, we participate in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Human Genetics Initiative so that cell lines, DNA, and genetic data from our very well cha- racterized sample will be available to the wider scientific community. For example, there is emerging evidence that certain genes may confer risk for severe psychiatric illness, as opposed to specific disorders [63,64]. The gen- etic data from our study will provide scientists with the unique opportunity to include persons with PD in ana- lyses pertaining to these ‘susceptibility genes’.
The concept of socio-psychological capital is, as noted by A.N. Tatarko, an "umbrella" concept covering a wide range of socio-psychological relations . The concept of personality’s commitment to the country is a more specific concept that describes the phenomenology of one of the essential components of the socio-psychological capital of the personality. Under the commitment of the personality to the country we understand a special terminal (covering the entire perspective of human life, not a separate situation) personal relation (attitude) to the social community of the country, expressed in the desire and intention to build their future life within it, in attachment to its cultural, social and natural-geographical objects, in the ideas of the prospects of its spiritual and material resources to meet their leading needs. In the structure of the personality’s commitment to the country, the conative component, responsible for the willingness to carry out social behaviour that would ensure the implementation of the long-term life strategy of their future within their country, is essential. One of the important functions of the personality’s commitment to the country is to ensure the social and psychological adaptation of the personality.
psychotic symptoms with dedicated instruments in future double-blind, randomized, controlled trials is needed to confirm causality for the full range of psychotic symptoms. Third, the predominant stimulant medication in our sample was methylphenidate; therefore, more research is needed to establish to what extent the results generalize to other stimulants. Last, the present sample included too few offspring of parents with schizophrenia to allow meaningful comparison between offspring of parents with psychosis versus mood disorders. Therefore, further study of stimulant medication effects on youth at familial risk of schizophrenia is needed to complete the picture.
Searches of the Medline database from 1988 through March 2009 and the PsycInfo/Embase database from 1988 through March 2009 were conducted with the helping of a professional li- brarian (M.C.), restricted to the English language. The search term “C-reactive protein” was com- bined with “depression”, “depressive symptoms”, “major depression”, “bipolar disorder”, “mania”, “schizophrenia”, “psychotic disorder”, “psycho- sis”, “delusions” and “hallucinations” to identify relevant original research and review articles. Bibliographies were scanned to locate additional relevant publications, even those older than 1988. Also articles in press were included, if available online. All citations were screened, and the full texts of peer-reviewed journal articles were ob- tained. However, not all articles on this topic were included in the paper and inclusion was limited to papers considered relevant for the purposes of the review, i.e. studies on large community samples of subjects, clinical investigations on patients with established DSM-IV diagnosis of major depres- sion, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and paper published on journal with relevant Impact Factor. Eligibility for inclusion was independently deter- mined by all of the authors. Studies on chronic dis- ease populations were excluded (e.g., end-stage renal disease or patients with cancer).
In order to design an effective intervention we selected targets that are potentially amendable to change by an intervention, and constructed a model (see Fig. 1) based on an analysis of risk factors as suggested by previous research. One of the potential risk factors might be defi- cits in social cognition . Compared to individuals from the general population, people with psychotic dis- orders experience more difficulties recognizing facial ex- pressions , body language , and emotional prosody . This may lead to inadequate social behav- ior and - more specifically - may have a negative effect on their judgment of risky social situations. For instance, a patient may misinterpret the aggressive facial expres- sion of another person, preventing him or her from