Public health and Aging

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Public Health and the Aging Family

Public Health and the Aging Family

The role of the family in the health of its members is critical from birth to death. This review focuses on the aging family, recognizing that the family is one of the earliest and longest lasting contexts influencing health. In particular, we emphasize the changing demographics of the family including the increased numbers of older family members and the decreased number of children. We consider how best to adapt to the changing family so that its critical role in maintaining individual and public health can be retained and enhanced. We begin by highlighting the importance of taking both a life span and life course perspective, recognizing that individuals develop and change over their lifetime. At the same time, they are members of groups and organizations, which shape their life course. We next consider the dramatically changing demographics of the population generally and within families specifically. We reflect on how these changes impact public health both positively and negatively, taking into account the potential of the family as a resource and a risk factor. We next consider five life course epidemiological models of health: the immediate effects model, the social trajectory model, the cumulative biological model, the sensitive period or latency model and the physiological effects of trajectory model. We explicitly consider the relevance of these models for the family and its aging members. Finally, we highlight what we consider the most important implications of these issues for the health and well-being of older adults and families in an aging society.
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Background causes of human cataract in the three coastal  districts of kerala

Background causes of human cataract in the three coastal districts of kerala

Discussion:- It is thus concluded that cataract is a major public health problem in Kerala, many factors including aging, female gender, rural residence, history of other diseases and other drug taken, non- vegetarian food, rice used as staple food and firewood as cooking fuel operating in its causation. The above risk factors are of concern not only for cataract prevention but also for public health at large. The success of public health programs is dependent on a healthy partnership between the government and nongovernmental organizations, and also private sectors.
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Rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3 and TREM2 implicate microglialmediated innate immunity in Alzheimer’s disease

Rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3 and TREM2 implicate microglialmediated innate immunity in Alzheimer’s disease

School of Public Health, Human Genetics Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 23.. Taub Institute on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, De[r]

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Autonomy, de facto and de jure

Autonomy, de facto and de jure

―Promoting Older Adults’ Health Through Policy‖ is an online, stand-alone training module for public health professionals. Some of the content and slides used in that workshop are included in this module to ensure consistency. For those who completed that workshop, these slides will serve as a refresher; for those who did not, it will provide a starting point for our discussion of aging and policy.

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End-of-Life Healthcare Expenditure for the Elderly in Japan

End-of-Life Healthcare Expenditure for the Elderly in Japan

End-of-life healthcare expenditure does have certain decisive impacts on the total healthcare expenditure. An upward shift of per capita healthcare expenditure for the very old elderly in recent years has again increased the concerns regarding end-of-life healthcare expenditure for the elderly in Japan. We analyzed healthcare expenditure for deceased elderly during the one year prior to death, using the National Database of Health Insurance Claim Information and Specified Medical Checkups. The average healthcare expenditure for the deceased elderly during the one year prior to death was 3.3 million yen, and it decreased rapidly with age increase: from 4.5 million yen for age group 65-69 to 2.2 million yen for age group 95+. Monthly healthcare expenditure increased slowly and started rising rather rapidly for just 2-3 months prior to the death month, and it persistently decreased as age increased. As a percentage of annual healthcare expenditure for the elderly as a whole, the elderly who died during the year concerned accounted for about 10 percent. End-of-life healthcare expenditure is certainly expensive, but the efficiency of the healthcare system in general is required to contain the total healthcare expenditure.
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Current Status of Myocardial Infarction and Risk Factors for Associated Mortality in Iran: A Review

Current Status of Myocardial Infarction and Risk Factors for Associated Mortality in Iran: A Review

Citation: Ahmadi A, Etemad K, Ahmadi S, Khaledifard A (2016) Current Status of Myocardial Infarction and Risk Factors for Associated Mortality in Iran: A Review. J Epidemiol Public Health Rev 1(1): doi http://dx.doi.org/10.16966/2471-8211.104 Copyright: © 2016 Ahmadi A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Costs of Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Costs of Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Yearly charges, on average, were $5,795,270 for emergency department visits and $108,433,072 for hospitalizations. Combined yearly charges for emergency department visits and hospitalizations, on average, were $114,228,342. These charges did not include charges for medications, home health care, office visits, or outpatient department visits nor did they include indirect costs. Total charges for hospitalizations did not change from 2007-2011 reflecting fewer hospitalizations, but at increased cost per hospitalization.

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An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System

An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System

In 2004, seven newborns in Lima, Peru were infected with transfusion- related HIV [9]. As a result, Resolución Ministerial Nº 466-2005/MINSA was enacted, which put the National Institute of Health in charge of carrying out the External Program of Performance Evaluation of Blood Banks (PEVED) [10]. As part of this investigation, blood panels containing ten different blood samples that were positive and negative for the seven different immunological markers (Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus, Chagas, syphilis, HIV 1-2, HTLV I/II) were sent to blood banks throughout the country; the blood banks were then to screen the panels in a routine fashion. Results were poor, as only 28% of blood samples were screened accurately (i.e., no false negative or false positive). Further, in 2007, another case of transfusion-associated HIV occurred in Lima [11].
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Public health ethics: informing better public health practice

Public health ethics: informing better public health practice

The human rights approach can also be useful in thinking about public health problems. 5,23 Two kinds of rights are generally recognised: negative rights (to non-interference), and positive rights (to receive or possess certain goods). Positive rights include a right to health or even to health improvement, and a right to privacy and confidenti- ality. 5,21,23,28 These positive rights were proposed later in the development of human rights. The older – and some still claim the only – human rights are negative rights, that is, rights to non-interference. The English philosopher, John Stuart Mill, famously argued that an individual’s freedoms should be infringed only to prevent harm to others. This principle is frequently invoked in arguments about individual liberty and the proper role of the state. 5,19,22,28 With this Millean Harm Principle in mind, interventions intended to prevent people from harming others become more ethically justifiable, while those intended to prevent them from harming themselves become less ethically justifiable. 3,21 Consider legislation making it illegal to sell contaminated food, versus legisla- tion making it illegal to consume contaminated food. We support the first and not the second in part because the first conforms to the Harm Principle.
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Bicycle Helmet Use Trends and Related Risk of Mortality and Traumatic Brain Injury among Pediatric Trauma

Bicycle Helmet Use Trends and Related Risk of Mortality and Traumatic Brain Injury among Pediatric Trauma

Weighted estimates were employed for all analyses. To compare representative samples of helmeted patients to non-helmeted patients, we used chi-square for categorical variables and Student’s t Test for continuous variables. Results are presented as proportions, means, and standard deviations where appropriate. Three risk-adjusted models were created to analyze the odds of each of the following dependent variables: helmet use, TBI, and in-hospital mortality. To control for confounding, the following independent variables were included in each multivariate logistic regression model: helmet use; age group; sex; race/ethnicity; insurance status; and U.S. geographic region. However, helmet use was not included in the model that analyzed the odds of helmet use. Insurance status was grouped into three categories: public (e.g. Medicare, Medicaid, other government assistance programs), private (commercial insurance), and uninsured. The association of each independent predictor for helmet use, TBI, and in-hospital mortality are reported as adjusted odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Any independent predictor with a p value greater than 0.05 is not reported. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows (SPSS Inc., version 20, Chicago, IL) was used for descriptive and statistical analysis, with p values less than 0.05 considered significant. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and adhered to established guidelines on the treatment of human subjects.
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Time Series Evaluation of Birth Defects in Areas with and without Unconventional Natural Gas Development

Time Series Evaluation of Birth Defects in Areas with and without Unconventional Natural Gas Development

For the limited number of health outcome studies, the majority analyzed the association of adverse health outcomes in relation to distance from the drilling sites. They generally lack methodological rigor due to limitations of the data collection and study design [16-19]. While those health outcomes evaluated may be higher in areas close to the drilling sites, these analyses do not address causal effects. Additionally, none of these studies take into account the secular trend and level before drilling in their studies. This lack of pre-drilling trend and level analysis may lead to the conclusions that differences in health outcomes are due to the effect of drilling. In order to address this issue, we propose an interrupted time series regression method to control for baseline level and trend when evaluating the potential change in birth defects prevalence rate due to UNGD. We aim to investigate and evaluate the prevalence rate of birth defects and its potential association with UNDG, using data from Pennsylvania vital birth registry records. We evaluated post UNDG birth defects rates trend and level changes while controlling for pre-drilling birth defects rates secular trend and level and maternal characteristics.
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Assessment of Dietary Practice and Anthropometric Status of Pregnant Women in Aleta Chuko Woreda Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s™ Region /SNNPR/, Ethiopia: Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

Assessment of Dietary Practice and Anthropometric Status of Pregnant Women in Aleta Chuko Woreda Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s™ Region /SNNPR/, Ethiopia: Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

In terms of anthropometric assessment, pregnancy is characterized as a brief observation periodin which the anthropometric index undergoes rapid changes. Conducting anthropometric measurements during the prenatal period is a routine practice. However, its actual effectiveness depends on the availability of services, the number of prenatal care visits, and women’s consent to having their measurements taken. Ensuring the most beneficial outcome requires the use of anthropometric assessment methods that help develop an effective and practical application instrument capable of predicting maternal and infant health conditions and allowing for adequate nutritional intervention during this period of high biological vulnerability [3,7,8].
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Development of Evidence-Based First Aid Guidelines for Laypeople in Flanders, Belgium

Development of Evidence-Based First Aid Guidelines for Laypeople in Flanders, Belgium

Population: Sick or injured people or healthy volunteers of all ages. Intervention/Risk factor: Inclusion of interventions provided by lay people (i.e. basic first responders, lay caregivers and/or community health workers). When the intervention is feasible to be performed by lay people but performed by a healthcare professional, the study is included in case no other evidence with laypeople is available (but considered as indirect evidence). Interventions that require special equipment or competences were excluded, as well as interventions that do not take place during the acute phase which can be considered as aftercare. For risk factors, we included modifiable, proximal risk factors with a potential immediate implication for practice that results in primary prevention at the household or community level and risk factors related to healthy persons. Risk factors that lead to interventions with already proven effectiveness were excluded. Furthermore, risk factors that do not precede the outcome and risk factors that are common sense were excluded.
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Exploring Indices of Multiple Deprivation within a Sample of Veterans Seeking Help for Mental Health Difficulties Residing in England

Exploring Indices of Multiple Deprivation within a Sample of Veterans Seeking Help for Mental Health Difficulties Residing in England

The sample used in this study was the entire population of veterans who engaged with the national charity over a one year period and who had been assessed as experiencing mental health issues. The use of this homogenous sample increases the confidence in the generalisability of the findings reported. For example, there has been a focus on the experiences of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans [2] whilst research conducted within UK help-seekers demonstrated that veterans take significant periods of time to seek support and that the largest proportion of those seeking help each year are from earlier deployments such as to Northern Ireland or the Balkans conflict [18]. The use of data collected by the UK Government allowed comparisons between the study sample and the wider English population. Given the complexity of deprivation, the IMD allowed us to be confident in capturing the complex and multi-faceted nature of deprivation [4].
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Longitudinal follow up of health outcomes of the 1998 Swissair 111 crash

Longitudinal follow up of health outcomes of the 1998 Swissair 111 crash

The main outcomes of interest in this investigation are inpatient visits (hospital admissions) and outpatient visits (GP admissions) for the aforementioned health conditions. Health effects research on previous aircraft crashes found that community residents suffered from elevated rates of certain mental health conditions including PTSD, panic disorder, and depression [15,16]. In addition, Schnurr et al.[17] has noted how trauma exposure can contribute to the development of certain physical illnesses, which are often comorbid with mental illnesses including PTSD. In the present study, PTSD was included broadly in the mental illness category (Table 3) based on the ICD 9 disease classification system. Each of the physical and mental health conditions listed in Table 3, was examined individually as an outcome in the present study. However, physical and mental health conditions vary by the type of disaster and exposure [6]. Thus, overall healthcare utilization, defined as all physician visits and hospital admissions, was used as another outcome measure to avoid omitting any relevant impacts on other diseases not identified in the literature.
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HIV Prevalence and Correlates of Needle Sharing Behavior Among people who inject drugs in 10 sentinel provines in Vietnam

HIV Prevalence and Correlates of Needle Sharing Behavior Among people who inject drugs in 10 sentinel provines in Vietnam

In our study, shooting gallery attendance was independently linked to more needle sharing, providing further support for prior research that injecting at a shooting gallery is an important context for needle sharing [15,10]. Research has shown that injecting with someone else in comparison to injecting alone is linked to more opportunity for needle sharing [39,40]. Thus, a higher level of needle sharing at shooting galleries is possibly due to the fact that a PWID has more chance to find other PWID for needle sharing at such places. Another possibility could be the unavailability of sterile needles/syringes at shooting galleries. In Vietnam, shooting galleries for poor PWID, who constitute a significant part of the PWID population, are often located in public or semi-public places [15]. In such open settings, many PWID is reluctant to carry needles/syringes, which may lead to an arrest on charges of engaging in illegal activities [15]. The need for hurried injections in open settings also fosters the use of previously used needles/syringes [41,42]. This explanation fits observed results from our study and prior research that lack of access to sterile needles/syringes and a non-supportive environment for safe injection contribute to continued needle sharing [19,20,24,27]. In Vietnam, it is generally difficult to implement HIV prevention interventions in shooting galleries since PWID are highly mobile to avoid police campaigns. However, in some IBBS provinces, the research team did not experience problems recruiting PWID at shooting galleries, suggesting that it may still be possible to introduce interventions which include components such as needle exchange program and distribution of bleach for disinfecting needles/syringes in these settings.
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Latrine use and Determinant Factors in Southwest Ethiopia

Latrine use and Determinant Factors in Southwest Ethiopia

At the time of data collection, nearly all latrines (98.9%) were functional (able to be used); this is higher than that reported in a study conducted in rural Zinder in Niger [12] and (86.7%) reported from study done in Hulet Ejju Enessie district of Ethiopia [13]. Among the available pit latrines, 40.8% required maintenance; a lower proportion compared to the 47.2% found in the Hulet Ejju Enessie study [13]. In order to avoid inconvenience and the related health risks literatures recommend building a latrine with a minimum of 6 meters far away from the home [14,15], 4.7% of the available latrines were located at distance less than 6 meters from the home.
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The Role of Systematic Reviews as Part of Decision-Making Process: Descriptive Study of the Brazilian Experience

The Role of Systematic Reviews as Part of Decision-Making Process: Descriptive Study of the Brazilian Experience

Starting from this concept, these authors proposed several stages for feeding the stock of knowledge and supplying information for decision- making processes. The stages and interfaces of how the products and research results can be made use of by healthcare policymakers are as follows: i) identification of research questions; ii) selection and specification of the research project; iii) inputs for the research; iv) research development process; v) production of primary products from the research; vi) dissemination of these results; vii) backing for policy formulation; viii) adoption by professionals and the public; and ix) return of the final results to the store of knowledge.
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Plague: A New Old Disease

Plague: A New Old Disease

World Health Organization (WHO) is likely to be considerably smaller than the real number, as countries in endemic areas do not register all cases and there are difficulties in diagnosis of the disease in these countries [26]. In Africa, plague has probably been present since before the third pandemic and hundreds of thousands of human infections have been reported in 26 countries since 1877 [27]. Over the last few years, roughly 90% of worldwide cases of plague have been reported in Africa. Among these the most recent occurred in Argelia, in 2003, in Libya in 2009, probably resulting from reactivation of Y. pestis in foci thought to be extinct (Argelia) or dormant (Libya) [28]. In Madagascar, an outbreak was also reported in 2014, with 482 cases notified. In this country, plague occurs primarily as a rural disease, however, an urban epidemic has been described (in the coastal city of Mahajanga), an outbreak of pneumonic plague in the northeast region in 2011, and there is also sylvatic transmission involving rodents and fleas endemic to the region [18,29,30].
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What are the Barriers and Facilitators to the Implementation and/or Success of Quality Improvement and Risk Management in Hospitals: A Systematic Literature Review

What are the Barriers and Facilitators to the Implementation and/or Success of Quality Improvement and Risk Management in Hospitals: A Systematic Literature Review

Our analysis followed the DUQUE conceptual model, with determinants linked to external pressures from governance of the health system (regulations, legal environment, systems such as certification, financial constraints and professional population, etc.), and pressures exerted by the hospital context. Thanks mainly to the use of qualitative literature, we complemented the DUQUE model [10] using individual determinants, and those associated with professional interactions. This latter category of determinants is rarely studied, yet observation on a daily basis indicates that it could play an important role. Although the Human Factors approach has not yet reached a sufficiently high level of maturity in the area of health care [29], an increasing amount of research is currently being undertaken into links between patient safety and psychosocial factors [30-32].
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