Public Management Reforms

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'New public management reforms' in the Catalan public health sector, 1985 1995: institutional choices, transactions costs and policy change

'New public management reforms' in the Catalan public health sector, 1985 1995: institutional choices, transactions costs and policy change

'New Public Management' Reforms in the Catalan Public Health Sector, 1985 1995 Institutional Choices, Transactions Costs and Policy Change Raquel Gallego Calder6n London School of Economics and Politi[.]

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New public management reforms in Europe and their effects : findings from a 20 country top executive survey

New public management reforms in Europe and their effects : findings from a 20 country top executive survey

This paper assesses the impact of New Public Management (NPM)-style reforms in European countries as perceived by top public sector officials. Using the COCOPS Top Executive Survey (20 European countries, N= 7,247), we look at the relationship between five key NPM reforms (downsizing, agencification, contracting out, customer orientation and flexible employment practices) and four dimensions of public sector performance: cost efficiency, service quality, policy coherence and coordination, and equal access to services. Structural equation modelling reveals that treating service users as customers and flexible employment are positively related to improvements on all four dimensions of performance. Contracting out and downsizing are both positively related to improved efficiency, but downsizing is also associated with worse service quality. The creation of autonomous agencies is unrelated to performance. This suggests that policy-makers seeking to modernise the public sector should prioritise managerial reforms within public organizations over large-scale structural transformations.
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New Public Management reforms in Europe and their effects: findings from a 20-country top executive survey

New Public Management reforms in Europe and their effects: findings from a 20-country top executive survey

This paper assesses the impact of New Public Management (NPM)-style reforms in European countries as perceived by top public sector officials. Using the COCOPS Top Executive Survey (20 European countries, N= 7,247), we look at the relationship between five key NPM reforms (downsizing, agencification, contracting out, customer orientation and flexible employment practices) and four dimensions of public sector performance: cost efficiency, service quality, policy coherence and coordination, and equal access to services. Structural equation modelling reveals that treating service users as customers and flexible employment are positively related to improvements on all four dimensions of performance. Contracting out and downsizing are both positively related to improved efficiency, but downsizing is also associated with worse service quality. The creation of autonomous agencies is unrelated to performance. This suggests that policy-makers seeking to modernise the public sector should prioritise managerial reforms within public organizations over large-scale structural transformations.
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Constitutional public management reforms in modern Brazil 1930 1998

Constitutional public management reforms in modern Brazil 1930 1998

This approach towards control was innovative and controversial for Brazilian standards although it dated back to the debate in the late 1930s in the U.S.A. (Dias, 1968). According to ASESTRA, control should be addressed via two complementary proposals: the setting up of the finance inspection organisational units in the direct administration and the redefinition of the Supreme Audit Agency’s role. The former was generally endorsed but the latter was the object of intense controversy because it transformed the auditing attributions of the Supreme Audit Agency into an external a posteriori process. The proposal replaced the obsolete bureaucratic procedures of a priori audits of governmental contracts with internal control audits and redefined the Supreme Audit Agency’s attributions as external control. The Audit Agency resisted the new proposal as earnestly as possible. First, the amendment related to its role was held up at the Ministry of Justice, the same institutional location where COMESTRA’s proposal had stopped. Second, the Supreme Audit Agency sent its own contribution to Castelo Branco in October 1965, in which its members explicitly ignored the text of Law 4320, 1964, which had updated accountancy and legal procedures related to public expenditure at state and local levels (Dias, 1968: 22-23). Third, the agency had the support of the Commission of Jurists that advised the new Ministry of Justice in charge of preparing the new Constitution between July and September 1966. Finally, they sent a final contribution to the President again, to be incorporated into the text of Decree-Laws 199 and 200, issued immediately after the promulgation of the 1967 Constitution. Castelo Branco
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The Effect of Public Administration Reforms under the Post New Public Management Paradigm

The Effect of Public Administration Reforms under the Post New Public Management Paradigm

Scholars stated that, the reforms that were undertaken under the label NPM represented major changes compared with the “old public administration”, and they paved the way for further reforms and transformations in the post-NPM era. Therefore, after two decade of dominance by New Public Management it became that there was increasing dissatisfaction with its limited focus (Lapsley, 2009) and a part of literature (Dunleavy et al. 2006; Dunn, Miller, 2007; Osborne, 2006; Stoker, 2006) started the searching for alternatives. In contrast to the New Public Management reforms, a new generation of reforms initially labelled “joined-up government”, later known as “whole-of-government”, and now labelled “post-New Public Management” was launched (Christensen, Lægreid, 2007 referenced by Christensen, Lægreid, 2009 p.11). The images associated with the “whole-of-government” or “joined-up government” initiatives that have characterized post-NPM reforms readily bring to mind the idea of repairing and putting back together something that is broken, has fallen apart or become fragmented (Gregory, 2006).
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Dismantling the demographic bomb: Issue linkage of pension politics and labour migration policies as the solution for increasing the sustainability of public pension scheme

Dismantling the demographic bomb: Issue linkage of pension politics and labour migration policies as the solution for increasing the sustainability of public pension scheme

The first hypothesis of this study was: PAYG countries experience more obstacles for reform. For this study, this hypothesis assumes that Germany experiences more obstacles for reform compared to the Netherlands. The causal mechanism of this hypothesis was based on the assumption that PAYG experience more pressure to reform their public pension system, as a PAYG system is not very sustainable. The obstacles to reform can either relate to the PAYG system, or to other sustainability challenges of political obstacles apart from the system itself. This hypothesis can be confirmed. Germany experiences more obstacles for reform than the Netherlands. There are several reasons for this. First of all, implementing reforms in PAYG systems is more difficult as the system itself already causes some system-specific obstacles. An example of this is the crowding-out thesis. Due to high replacement rates, individuals have reduced incentives to strive for further personal savings. The German government was able to encounter this by implementing the Riester scheme in 2001 after a period in which there was more confrontation between political parties following the departure of the traditional German pension policy-making. These political factors also form an obstacle for reform. Germany has multiple veto points (more compared to the Netherlands). As veto players have the ability to stop a change from the status quo (Tsebelis, 2002), more veto points consequently leads to more obstacles to reform. In addition, Germany also faced the additional challenge of the unification and the expansion of its social policies to an additional population. After this unification, political competition increased in Germany, and reaching consensus was made more difficult.
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Accountability practice in Kenya’s public service lessons to guide service improvement author's bio data

Accountability practice in Kenya’s public service lessons to guide service improvement author's bio data

Although accountability is widely believed to be a good thing, the concept is highly abstract and it is often used in a very general way (Hulme & Sanderatne, 2008). A typical definition is that accountability concerns the processes by which those who exercise power whether as governments, as elected representatives or as appointed officials, must be able to show that they have exercised their powers and discharged their duties properly. Fox Meyer (1995) defines accountability as the “responsibility of government and its agents towards the public to achieve previously set objectives and to account for them in public” It is also regarded as a commitment required from public officials individually and collectively to accept public responsibility for their own action and inaction.
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Client service charter in public institutions in tanzania  a myth or reality? (an assessment of methods and techniques of awareness building to citizens)

Client service charter in public institutions in tanzania a myth or reality? (an assessment of methods and techniques of awareness building to citizens)

At the same time, the institutional environment for the Civil Service declined resulted to governance deficit. Political interference increased, and the Civil Service became a source of patronage, nepotism, corruption and influence. Increasingly, the civil service became major source of employment, particularly for graduates. Results, in terms of the delivery of services, became less important than political influence or self-enrichment, as civil servants ceased to be held accountable for nonperformance and non-compliance with financial and administrative regulations. Public confidence in the competence and integrity of the Civil Service plummeted deteriorated hence the government institutions lost legitimacy and integrity from the public. As the socialist economy failed to deliver the expected dividends, public finances were squeezed and real pay levels in the Civil Service worsened year by year. Hence the legitimate rewards of working for the Civil Service - status and salary – were devalued, and overtaken by illegal (and if not officially condoned, then at least overlooked) benefits from the abuse of public office. Not surprisingly high quality professional and managerial staffs, who are the backbone of any competent public service, sought careers elsewhere. In the late 1980s, the Tanzania Government attempted to address the disastrous state of the national economy by breaking with the old socialist model. It attempted to redefine the role of the state and give greater space to the private sector and third sector institutions. However it lacked any effective implementation mechanism. Graham and Richard (1999) argues that, the Civil Service, despite employing more staff than at any time in its history (350,000 in 1990), no longer had the capacity or the resources to develop and implement new policies. The reform of the Civil Service became a priority, and the Civil Service Reform Program was launched in 1991.
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Performance Review of Disinvestment Policy of India: A Study of Post Reform Era

Performance Review of Disinvestment Policy of India: A Study of Post Reform Era

Disinvestment Programme is an integral part of the New Economic Policy of the Government of India since July 1991. It is a major policy instrument through which scarce financial resources of inefficient PSUs are directed towards the sectors of national priorities. The main objectives of disinvestment policy are to reduce the burden of financing PSUs and release the large amount of public resources locked up in non-strategic PSUs. This policy is in force for the last 25 years. The present article makes an attempt to examine the outcome of the disinvestment programme during 1991-92 to 2015-16. The study reveals that the actual receipts from disinvestment, though increasing, are not up to the mark as compared to the targets set for the same.
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REFORMS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES: RESEARCH OPPORTUNITY FOR ACCOUNTING SCHOLARS.

REFORMS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES: RESEARCH OPPORTUNITY FOR ACCOUNTING SCHOLARS.

Civil service reform began with five pilot ministries and subsequently was extended to nine MDAs (ministries, departments and agencies). In each instance, internal consultations were performed while verification exercises were conducted to update personnel records and payroll data. Organizational structures for the reforming ministries were reviewed and rationalized, while the appropriate professional skills needed were identified. Redundancy packages and retraining programs were offered to severed staff. Government pay scales have also been reviewed. The federal government consequently opted to increase wages by 15 percent, beginning in January 2007, with further upward revisions being dependent on further implementation of the public service reforms. Various public sector benefits such as housing and cars were also monetized and consolidated with basic salaries. Only four non-regular allowances remain: job-specific allowance (e.g. for doctors on call), risk-related allowance (e.g. for employees in risk-prone areas), relocation allowances (e.g. for employees posted abroad), and scarce skills allowance (e.g. for information technology specialists). Finally, government payroll systems are being computerized with the introduction of an Integrated Personnel and Payroll Information System (IPPIS) to assist in monitoring staffing numbers in the federal civil service (Ikhide & Alawode, 2002)
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Public hospital reforms in China: the perspective of hospital directors

Public hospital reforms in China: the perspective of hospital directors

Secondly, the directors’ views towards the key mea- sures proposed in IPDHCR were explored using the fol- lowing five questions: (1) How much percentage of the total income of a hospital should the government sub- sidies account for? (2) Which of the following financial support should be provided by the government for pub- lic hospitals? (3) How to fill in the financial gaps when drug markups are removed? (4) Which of the following payments in health insurance should the hospitals apply for? (5) What are the main factors affecting the partici- pation of medical professionals in public hospital re- form? These were all multiple choice questions except item (1), and responses are summarized in Table 3.
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Implementation of public sector reforms : Unravelling the G8 reform

Implementation of public sector reforms : Unravelling the G8 reform

To understand the proceedings of the G8-reform, it is important to shed light on the overall context which education reforms in Germany take place in. The German education politics are characterized by the strict division of tasks between Bund and Länder, resulting in a phenomena known as Bildungsföderalismus. This structure is critically reviewed as impeding the development of the overall German education sector. In order to achieve a minimum of comparability between the Länder, actors such as the KMK emerged and take an important share in the further framing of education politics in Germany. By doing so, they indirectly influence the G8-reform. The G8-reform is regarded as rooted in the PISA-results. The significance of this study is expressed in the wave of reforms which it incited. Indeed, it is questionable if the importance of PISA is overrated and does not justify a reform so extensive in scope. As the most decisive unexpected turbulence during the time of implementation, the financial crisis increased expenses for the Länder and decreased revenue, leading to an additional tightening of already tight Länder budgets. Despite the critical condition, the Länder did not lower their expenses for education. This development can be regarded as remarkable, as it seems that all Länder assign a big importance to the education sector.
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Reflections on a 38-year career in public health advocacy: 10 pieces of advice to early career researchers and advocates

Reflections on a 38-year career in public health advocacy: 10 pieces of advice to early career researchers and advocates

example, can be easily reframed positively by pointing out all the benefits caused by regulations and standards that we all take for granted. As I stood in my narrow hotel shower recess this morning, I whispered a silent “thank you” to the public health nannies who ensured via enforceable safety glass standards that if I slipped, the glass would not shatter and cut me to ribbons.

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Essays on the impact evaluation of social programs and public sector reforms

Essays on the impact evaluation of social programs and public sector reforms

In this paper, I evaluate the impact on in-hospital mortality of a reform that made all health professionals working part-time switch to full-time contracts at public hospitals in Ecuador. The reform was born from the need to homogenize wages at all public institutions, not in response to deficiencies in certain areas of the public health system. Adoption was progressive according to the resolutions issued by the Ministry of Labor which established a particular adoption date for each of the different groups of hospitals that constitute the public health system (Ministry of Health, IESS, and others), and a more specific schedule that set the order of adoption for hospitals within those groups. I argue that the timing of adoption was exogenous to hospital performance. This statement is based on the evidence from parallel trend analysis showing that three years before adoption, mortality was not different across hospitals that adopted the reform earlier and later. Furthermore, the results from the event study were robust to the inclusion of pre-treatment characteristics which could have been used by policymakers to decide the order of implementation. The results from the event study for the complete sample of admissions show that the reform caused a reduction in mortality of 0.06% on the adoption year and of 0.1% one year later. For the sample of admissions to the emergency department, results are bigger in magnitude and remain statistically significant even after including additional controls like other hospital expenditures and pre-reform characteristics. Mortality decreased by 0.1% on the adoption year and by 0.2% one year later. The reduction in mortality was driven by a drop in mortality rates within the first 48 hours of admission, while changes in mortality after 48 hours of admission were not statistically significant.
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An Analysis of Local Public Finances and the 2014 Local Government Reforms

An Analysis of Local Public Finances and the 2014 Local Government Reforms

T he fiscal performance of local government over the past decade or so, both during the boom era but also the subsequent years of bust and austerity, has recently been analysed (Turley and Flannery, 2013, Robbins et al., 2014, Considine and Reidy, 2015). What is missing from this research is an account of the 2014 local government reforms and the impact of these reforms on local public finances. Writing at the time of the reforms, Murphy (2014) remarked, “In practice, the budgetary position and funding model for Irish local authorities for 2014 were exceedingly complex and to some extent unprecedented. This is in part due to the need to identify the funding requirements of Irish Water and the introduction of a new property tax for the first time.” Although still early days, this paper sets out to analyse the effects of the 2014 reforms on local government expenditures and income. As economists and scholars of public finance we are particularly interested in assessing the performance of local government relative to central government’s fiscal performance, measuring the changes in local government expenditures and income, and, finally, identifying the differences in local authorities’ expenditures and income sources. The 2012- 2015 period under review is a particularly important period for the local government system in Ireland, given the economic circumstances and policies of the time (namely, post bailout, stabilisation of the public finances, economic recovery, and the wider public sector reforms) and the 2014 local government reforms culminating in the consolidation of the local authorities (from 114 to 31 local government units), the transfer of water services to Irish Water and the introduction of the Local Property Tax (LPT). The purpose and contribution of the paper is in identifying the impact of the local government reforms on the public finances of the local authorities, and, in particular, on local government expenditures and revenues, both own-source income (user charges, commercial rates and the LPT) and central transfers (general purpose and specific purpose grants).
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Funding reforms in Malaysian public universities from the perspective of strategic planning

Funding reforms in Malaysian public universities from the perspective of strategic planning

In addition, the MoHE has established a body called the Programme Management Office (PMO) at the ministry level and affiliated agencies called Institutional Programme Management Offices (i-PMOs) at the university level. The PMO and i-PMOs aim to provide support for the implementation, planning and execution of National Higher Education Strategic Plan beyond 2020. While the PMO acts as a steering committee that structures the universities’ performances according to the strategic plans, the i-PMOs are required to provide information on these areas to the PMO. The PMO and i-PMOs act as a monitoring mechanism that helps overcome the problem of moral hazard and ensures that the government receives returns on its investment in higher education (Kivistö, 2005).
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Agricultural Reforms and Use of Market Mechanisms for Risk Management

Agricultural Reforms and Use of Market Mechanisms for Risk Management

Overall, it seems that there are opportunities for farmers and producers in different member states to make wider and more effective use of derivatives and other risk management instruments, to stabilise their income. Consequently, derivatives can provide a viable and effective form of income protection for agricultural farmers. To that extent, valuable lessons can be learned from the case of South Africa, where there was a gradual transition from complete government control of the maize market, to a free market, where the Futures Exchange plays a major role in the provision of risk management services. Five main causes were behind the success of the maize contract on the Exchange: first, SAFEX AMD benefited from the reputation of the SAFEX financial futures market, the number of financial institutions prepared to participate in the nascent market and provide it with liquidity, as well as the critical mass of experienced derivative market brokers and traders that already existed as a result of SAFEX; second, the good quality physical infrastructure that allowed SAFEX AMD to establish a system of physical delivery that ensured that near-dated futures did closely relate to the spot market; third, the high level of price risk arising from the specific characteristics of the South African maize market; fourth, the degree of commitment expressed by market participants to educate and train the agricultural community; and finally, the Government managed the transition to a liberalised market in a way that was sensitive to the needs of the nascent SAFEX AMD, in particular by restricting the Maize Board’s powers to manage exports administratively.
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Present problems of water management and agrarian reforms in uzbekistan

Present problems of water management and agrarian reforms in uzbekistan

All these problems and ways of their solving should find reflexion in legislative and standard documents. In spite of the fact that in the current organic law, concern- ing this sphere—the “Water and water use Act” changes and additions have been brought in 2009, has ripened necessity for acceptance of new document—the “WCA Act”. The Water Code over which working out now there is begun work should become one of them. It should in- corporate all experience which has been saved up in various areas of water use and water consumption last years, and also experience of the foreign countries which are carrying out successful water resources management, taking into account a role and their value for living stan- dards of the population and the decision of country de- velopment.
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SOME EMERGING ISSUES OF HUMAN RESOURCES AND PUBLIC                                  SECTOR REFORMS IN INDIA

SOME EMERGING ISSUES OF HUMAN RESOURCES AND PUBLIC SECTOR REFORMS IN INDIA

There are, however, examples of situations in which the shared aims have been achieved through real accommodation. In practical terms this depends heavily upon the attitudes of management and only in a few countries has this been the subject of systematic study. The general conclusion of such research as has been conducted appears to be that the potential erosion of managerial prerogatives remains the major obstacle (Gardner and Palmer. On the other hand, even the strongest trade union movements have only been able to achieve "bargaining at the margins" of managerial authority. By contrast some organisations adopting a strategic approach to human resources have seen a genuine diminution of such authority in favour of more participative practices over a period of time (Cupper 1976,1977,1980). There is a debate as to whether it is rigidities irr-the production system or philosophical commitment (Palmer 1983:31-35) which motivates management to take employees into their confidence. Either way there is cleady a need for more and more systematic study of the effects of such schemes over time. While there are now case studies 6f such situations in the US, Europe, Japan and even Australia, there are problems in this area of scholarship. One is that the applied micro nature of the work it entails means that organisations must be prepared to allow researchers access to intimated details of their operations. Few have been willing to do this, especially where they regard their management strategy as central to their competitive success.
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Organizational Antecedents And Intrapreneurial Intensity Of Soes After The Structural Adjustment Policy.

Organizational Antecedents And Intrapreneurial Intensity Of Soes After The Structural Adjustment Policy.

Furthermore, in the same period, the company’s electricity production, in terms of operating hours, has remained sloping at 95.5%, 89.1%, 40.9% and 42.3% (Société Minière de Kilo Moto, monitoring Reports 2011 to 2014). At the same moment, there is a growing need for electricity in the region especially in Bunia, because of high demographic growth of about 25% (Administrative reports of Bunia city 2011- 2014). There is rapid transformation of socio-economic infrastructures and households’ energy consumption. At least 10% of their monthly budgets are committed to energy consumption. And 75% (Ruba 2014)of these energy expenses are realized to buy only charcoal since the quality of the electricity provided by Société Minière de Kilo Moto does not permit them to use it for cooking and other related activities. This due to the low intensity of the electricity, constant breakdowns, lateness or absence of repairs in case of breakdowns, misapplications, poor system of maintenance, theft of wires, etc. Despite the governments’ intervention so as to enhance the management support for intrapreneurship, the company’s autonomy, etc. managers and employees across the firm seem to not be engaged in intrapreneurship; they are not able to spark new ideas, they lack willingness to pursue opportunities and they seem actually to be stuck (Mutuale 2015). This situation necessitates prompt investigation to be established to find the cause of poor intrapreneurship intensity of the company.
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