unsure how to best do this in a therapeutic encounter (Durey, Wynaden, Barr, & Ali, 2013). McGough and colleagues (2018) studied twenty-five mentalhealth nurses and three psychologists who worked in Western Australia’s publicmentalhealth services, to explore their experiences of providing culturally safe practice with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The group felt unprepared for care with this group of service users and had limited understanding of the concept of cultural safety (McGough et al., 2018). The findings highlighted the relationship between Indigenous historical experiences, generational trauma, the experience of racism and current Indigenous health care outcomes was not clearly identified by participants (McGough et al., 2018). While Isaacs and colleagues (2012) included two mentalhealth nurses in their study which included Indigenous service users, their carers and both Indigenous and non-Indigenous health care workers. Mentalhealth service staff highlighted the need for their service delivery to be flexible to the needs of Indigenous users of the service, including the use of mobile outreach, and the need to provide key roles for the family in the person’s care (Isaacs, Maybury, & Gruis, 2012).
Good mentalhealth is the foundation for our lives; it helps us to flourish. Poor mentalhealth is a huge burden on individuals, families and communities in our region, both in the quality of their lives and the devasting early deaths of too many people. This includes around 250 deaths from suicide in the North East each year, but a further 1,500 deaths of people with serious mental illness who die prematurely from other causes. Improving publicmentalhealth is not only the right thing to do, it also make economic sense. A recent report from PublicHealth England shows that for every £1 spent on identified prevention activities, the returns are often double that.
As a consequence of the College’s commitment to publicmentalhealth, the College hosted five stakeholder seminars in 2009 covering publicmentalhealth across the lifespan. These were organised jointly with other partners, including the Department of Health, the NHS Confederation and the Faculty of PublicHealth. The conclusions from these seminars have been incorporated into this position statement. Subsequently, Professor Kamaldeep Bhui was appointed College Lead on PublicHealth and, with Dr Jonathan Campion, Ms Katie Gray, Dr Jo Nurse, Dr Laurence Mynors-Wallis and members of the College Policy Unit, particularly Dr Rowena Daw, produced this document. Recommendations in this position statement are drawn from the evidence base set out below and build on the publichealth seminars.
California’s MHSA is the largest non-Medi-Cal service program for counties. The MHSA intended to transform the publicmentalhealth system from one that provides crisis care to one that focuses on consumer wellness, recovery, and resilience. The MHSA is intended to serve children with SED and adults with SMI, as defined in state law, and specifically mentions adults and transition-age youth who are “unserved, underserved, or inappropriately served,” such as people who are homeless, frequent users of hospitals, or have a criminal justice history. The MHSA has been recognized nationally as a unique approach to both funding and delivering recovery-focused mentalhealth services. (For distribution of MHSA funds by category, see Figure 9.)
This report presents an overview of the publicmentalhealth system in Texas and its relation to criminal justice. Although this report touches upon issues related to the operations of the state’s mentalhealth system, it is not within the scope of this or future reports to evaluate Texas mentalhealth policies or the operation of the mentalhealth system. The scope of this CJPC effort is limited to identifying how the operations of the mentalhealth system impact criminal justice and what criminal justice initiatives can be developed to better manage the population of offenders with mental illness. The role of the CJPC is to coordinate the comprehensive inter-agency planning needed to assist the governor and legislature in identifying and addressing the issues surrounding mentally ill individuals in the criminal justice system.
In relation to the development of outcome monitor- ing approaches in mentalhealth for adolescents, one important implication of these findings is that outcome measures need to be recovery oriented, sensitive to developmental phases, and focused on the personal goals and values of the unique adolescent. However, most out- come measures are not currently developed in collabo- ration with service-users, meaning that the definitional power of what constitute “good outcomes” have resided with researchers and policy makers. As a consequence, we would argue that, despite the surge of interest and widespread implementation of routine outcome moni- toring seen worldwide, the question of what constitutes a good outcome still for a large part remains disputed. When casting light on the adolescent clients’ own con- ceptualizations of improvement and outcomes, other ways of resolving some of the major implementation bar- riers seen across a variety of clinics, especially when it comes to repeated and continuous use of outcome meas- ures (see e.g. [26, 27]), can arise.
“Limits exposed by Allah are not to be crossed and one must not disobey Allah’s duties” In another hadith he states the importance of caring for Allah’s limits: “There is no concession in applying limits (Hudood) exposed by Allah”. Thus, holy narrations, along with its aligning with Quran, emphasize the authenticity of cutting thief’s hand and insist on the immediate implementation of it. This approach is adopted when punishment is considered as to be from hudood (punishment) not tazirat (sanctions).It is notable that sentence with amputation of hand is constant and not able to change in any case. Furthermore, for minor offenses Islam has introduced Ta`zirat (punishment usually corporal) which is mandatory in case of robbery that have no fixed penalty such as Hudud (fixed punishment).2-4: Religious education in society: The importance of religious belief is no more hidden from any eye, in second lesson the subject was discussed in detail. Therefore officials in Islamic society ought to give much important to it because cure of many social mental economic diseases especially theft is related to man’s religious beliefs. During a research on criminals it has been noted that their religious beliefs were weak, (Qurbani Hussaini, 1371:255). For the two basic reasons religious belief prevent man from committing crimes: one, believer’s heart does not allow worldly desire to enter in. Believer is not greedy and slave of worldly affairs. Nothing can throw him out of the right path. With help of contentment and trust in Allah he can earn his livelihood legally. (Sadiqiyan, 1386:343). Second, belief in halal (permitted) and haram(prohibited) is the second reason tobe away from Allah’s disobedience. (Sadaqiyan,1386:262).
Linkage between publichealth providers and mentalhealth providers would be needed to create seamless follow up for adults and children identified as requiring mentalhealth treatment. Child welfare agencies might be interested in collaborating with publichealth and publicmentalhealth agencies on these activities and potentially contributing resources to such an initiative. Abused and neglected infants demonstrate a number of disturbing symptoms such as post-traumatic stress, cognitive dysfunction, greater aggressiveness and more fear in response to angry interactions between adults. 13
Understanding help-seeking behaviour enables us to consider the suitability and acceptability of support available to people with mentalhealth problems, the barriers they feel in accessing that support and, more broadly, the psychological processes that underpin help-seeking behaviour. Previous research has suggested the barriers to seeking professional help relate either to perceptions about the ‘help-giver’ (such as feeling that the GP doesn’t have time, there is nothing the GP can do or it will be seen as trivial) (Cape & McCulloch, 1999; Kadam, Croft, McLeod, & Hutchinson, 2001); or about the way in which the help- seeking would be perceived by other people (e.g. that others would think less of us if we went to see a psychiatrist or psychologist) (Angermeyer, Matschinger & Riedel-Heller, 1999). There is also considerable evidence from both clinical and lay populations of the importance of the social network in providing support.
However, there are also risks. People regularly make decisions and choices (financial and otherwise) that deviate systematically from the ideal principles of rationality (Simon, 1955; Kahneman, 2003). Decades of experimental research in psychology, economics, cognitive and behavioural science have provided a long list of evidence showing that people are vulnerable to a wide range of biases (e.g. framing effect, anchoring, endowment effect, present-bias, projection bias), and often use heuristics (mental shortcuts) that lead to inconsistent judgements, decisions and choices (e.g. Bernatzi & Thaler, 2007; Gilovich, Griffin & Kahneman, 2002; Kahneman & Tversky, 1984; Tversky & Kahneman, 1975). This has prompted many to question the consistency of people’s preferences on policy issues, especially those concerning public budgeting and public finance (e.g. Berinsky, 1999; Citrin, 1979; Jones, 1994). In fact, McCaffery and Baron (2006) documented several instances in which individuals revealed inconsistent judgments and evaluations of public finance systems (also Hill, 2010; McCaffery & Slemrod, 2006). For example, participants were more likely to prefer progressive tax rates (as opposed to flat or regressive ones) when the choices were framed as percentages rather than amounts (McCaffery & Baron, 2003); were more likely to prefer tax policies that were stated using a “bonus” frame as opposed to a “penalty” frame, even when the final outcome was the same (McCaffery & Baron, 2004a; analogous to the framing effect demonstrated by the “Asian disease problem” in Tversky & Kahneman, 1981); and revealed different preferences for levies labelled as “taxes” as opposed to “payments” across different spending programs – for some programs they revealed a preference for the tax label, for others the payment label (McCaffery & Baron, 2004b).
In 2015 Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary estimated that one third of people who came into contact with the Police Service in England and Wales had an identified mentalhealth problem. This figure rises even higher once other vulnerabilities such as substance use and dependence are included. The realisation that the management of publichealth, particularly in public spaces, is a core function of the police is long overdue. In statistical terms the police contribution is clear; over 4,000 people were detained in police cells under Section 135 and Section 136 of the MentalHealth Act in England and Wales in 2014. This publichealth function of the police was no doubt exacerbated by real-term budget cuts in mentalhealth trusts in England and Wales of approximately 8 per cent between 2010-11 and 2014-15, alongside a 20 per cent increase in referrals (McNicoll, 2015). The dual impact of these funding cuts to mentalhealth trusts alongside 20% cuts to police budgets has driven innovative and imaginative schemes that seek to address the demand side of the policing of mental ill-health. This article situates these innovative developments within a human rights framework that prioritises analysis of article two (the right to life), article three (the prohibition on torture and inhuman or degrading treatment), and article five (the right to liberty).
Fiscal support for community mentalhealth services remains a low priority for most state legislators despite the fact that local jails confine offenders who suffer from a variety of mental disorders and also commit a variety of non-violent crimes. In addition, the mandate for county mentalhealth services pro- vided to persons incarcerated in local jails has not been accom- panied by additional fiscal or personnel services (Kalinich et al., 1988). As noted by Clear, Cole and Reisig (2011: p. 148), “only 3% of the violent behavior in the US is linked to mental dis- orders and people with mental illness are more likely to be victims of crime rather than perpetrators of violence.” Yet once arrested for a criminal offense and booked into the county jail, the mentally disordered offender must be cared for and dealt with by the jail staff. Unfortunately, some jails have large pop- ulations of detainees with mental disorders, and these facilities have become the largest and most convenient location for men- tal health services in the community. If an offender is mentally ill, the facts that take precedence are that a crime has been committed, the offender is in custody, and his or her welfare and safety then becomes the responsibility of the local jail until the case is adjudicated in the courts. An important factor in this process that should not be overlooked is the political posture that sheriffs typically must observe in that their appointments are governed by voters, and a correlative desire to be viewed by voters as “crime fighters” rather than managers of mentalhealth services for inmates (Kalinich et al., 1988). Over the past two decades there has been an increasing level of concern within the correctional field about problems arising from the jailing of large populations of mentally ill offenders (Walsh & Holt, 1999; Torrey et al., 2010).
Mentalhealth. Mentalhealth disorders were classified using the Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) from the Health Care Utilization Project.(21) Diagnoses were identified by relevant ICD-9 diagnosis codes appearing in an individual’s inpatient medical claims at least once or at least twice in outpatient claims on different days. We grouped the CCS mentalhealth diagnoses into 4 major categories: mood disorders, adjustment and anxiety disorders (combining two CCS diagnostic groups), schizophrenia and other psychoses, and all other mentalhealth disorders (attention-deficit, conduct, and disruptive behavior disorders; delirium, dementia, amnestic, and other cognitive disorders; developmental disorders; disorders usually diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence; impulse control disorders;
Commonly versions of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (Goldberg and Williams, 1988) have been used to identify possible self reported symptoms of mental illness in health care workers. While the GHQ does not serve as a diagnostic measure nor does it confirm whether subject have been diagnosed or treated for mentalhealth problems, it is often used population health because it measures ‘caseness’ or likely prevalence in a given group, It has also been reverse-scored as a measure population ‘wellbeing’ (Hu et al, 2007). Wall et al (1997), using the GHQ-12 on 11637 NHS staff, found psychiatric morbidity of 26.8% overall, with 30% for male and 29% for female nurses, in contrast to 17.8% caseness for the general population in the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS, Taylor et al, 1995). Alongside relatively high prevalence of common mentalhealth problems, nurses have a comparatively high suicide risk (Hawton and Vislisel, 1999), with most nurse suicides having had contact with psychiatric services in the year preceding death (Hawton et al, 2002). In UK NHS staff, high levels of fatigue have been found to associate with psychiatric symptoms and psychological distress (Hardy et al, 1997).
Interestingly, a shorter time spent on leisure activities may increase the likelihood of having MPD in both occupational groups. The association remained statistically significant only in female civil servants after stratification by sex. This implies that increasing the amount of time spent on leisure activities may be an effective strategy for improving mentalhealth status among female civil servants. The emerged associations of the variables specifically related to MPD among the teachers, i.e., job dissatisfaction and limited leisure time, all point to a suggestion that poor mentalhealth status among school teachers can be improved with particular care for female teachers. We should be aware, however, that we are not allowed to assume causation because of a cross-sectional design, which is a limitation of the present study. Whether increasing job satisfaction is an effective measure can only be confirmed in longitudinal studies, since job dissatisfaction can also be an effect that stems from MPD.
When provided by a qualified nurse identified in the „Who‟ section below, pharmacologic management means a face-to-face service that includes review/monitoring of the client‟s medication(s) and medication regimen, and providing appropriate information regarding the medication(s) and medication regimen, and administering as appropriate. The review of the client‟s medication(s) and medication regimen includes dosage, effect the medication(s) is having on the client‟s symptoms, and side effects. The provision of appropriate information should address directions for proper and safe usage. The service also may include assessing and monitoring the client‟s other health issues that are either directly related to the behavioral health disorder or to its treatment (e.g., diabetes, cardiac and/or blood pressure issues, weight gain, etc.).
Over the past decade, Perinatal MentalHealth has gained increased attention in policy, medical and nursing literature (Paschetta et al. 2014). For most women, pregnancy and motherhood is a positive psychological process; however, for a minority of women this life-changing event can be overshadowed by psychological distress and mentalhealth problems (Howard et al. 2014; Jones et al. 2014). Providing psychological and mentalhealth support to mothers, children and families in the perinatal period (Pregnancy-1 year postpartum) is considered an important global (Beyond Blue 2008; WHO 2013) and national health issue (Department of Health and Children 2006; Department of Health 2016), as early detection and intervention can improve maternal and infant outcomes. The recently published national maternity strategy states that ‘Women at risk of developing or experiencing emotional or mentalhealth difficulties in the perinatal period should be identified, and a multi-disciplinary approach to assessment and support adopted’ (Department of Health 2016: 66). In addition, the National Institute for Health Care Excellence (NICE 2014) recommends that a general discussion regarding mentalhealth and well-being take place with all women at the first point of contact in pregnancy and in the early postnatal period, and that questions about mentalhealth and emotional well-being are asked at each encounter. Despite the prevalence of perinatal mentalhealth problems, international evidence suggests that they frequently go unrecognised by maternity and public healthcare practitioners (Crosland and Kai 1998; Stewart and Henshaw 2002; McConnell et al. 2005; Brown and Bacigalupo 2006; Ross- Davie et al. 2006; Sko č ir and Hundley 2006; Mivsek et al. 2008; Mollart et al. 2009; Almond and Lathlean 2011; McCauley et al. 2011; Gray et al. 2014; Agapidaki et al. 2014; Hardy 2014). Midwives, publichealth nurses and practice nurses, as part of the multidisciplinary healthcare team, are in an ideal position to address mentalhealth and emotional well-being with women in the perinatal period. However, research involving midwives, publichealth nurses and practice nurses in Ireland indicates considerable variation in perinatal mentalhealth assessment and care, with all three groups identifying lack of knowledge on the range of perinatal mentalhealth problems, lack of skill in opening a discussion and developing a plan of care with women, and organisational issues, such as lack of policies, guidelines and care pathways, as barriers to addressing perinatal mentalhealth issues (Higgins et al. 2017).
Our goal is to prepare students to improve human health on a large scale – whether by influencing health policy, by designing better publichealth interventions, or by investigating environmental and community health risks. That’s why we place so much emphasis on research. At our 11 publichealth research centers, students learn how to improve their research skills while doing real research that creates new knowledge about population health.
Severe life events that cause a sense of loss, inferiority, humiliation or entrapment can predict depression. Up to 20% of those attending primary health care in developing countries suffer from anxiety and/or depressive disorders. According to a recent survey by the Substance Abuse and MentalHealth Services Administration, 29 million American women, or about 23 percent of the female population, have experienced a diagnosable mentalhealth-related disorder in a year and those are just the known instances . Experts say that millions of other cases may go unreported and untreated.
worthwhile’ than those age 40 to 49. No statistically significant correlation between household size and SWB was found, although those living alone had lower mean scores across the SWB measures, including having lower anxiety. The present study found a slight but not statistically significant difference between full and part time working and SWB, with part time workers scoring higher on the WEMWBS and the SWLS. The demographic and workplace data gathered in this study and their association with experience of mental illness and SWB warrant further investigation. There are indications that gender, age, household size, work patterns and points in nursing career are associated with and potentially affect the nurses experience of mentalhealth problems and their SWB. The direction and extent of influence cannot be inferred from the story told by the results of this one online survey. In this instance the use of online survey methods and access via a third party has failed to achieve the ambition to describe the state of UK mentalhealth nurses’ mentalhealth. Any further study aiming to explore the associations identified here must firstly address the challenge of gathering enough evidence from a representative and quantifiable sample to produce confident results.