It was in the Circular on Strengthening the Management of EIA for Construction Projects funded by international financial organisations issued in 1993, that publicparticipation was first expressly emphasised in China. Publicparticipation became a formal component of EIA in the Regulation on Environmental Management of Construction Projects that was adopted in 1998, in which developers of construction projects were required to solicit the views of the work units and residents in the vicinity of the proposed projects when preparing the environmental impact report (Zhao, 2010). To further emphasise the importance of publicparticipation, an updated version of the EIA Law was passed in 2002 and became effective in 2003, in which the participation of relevant units, experts and the public in the environmental impact assessment is encouraged. In 2006, the Ministry of Environmental Protection promulgated the Provisional Measures on PublicParticipation in Environmental Impact Assessment, considered by Chinese scholars and practitioners alike as a marked advance on the 2002 EIA Law, for the regulation stipulates more detailed directions regarding who and how to conduct publicparticipation in the EIA process (Zhang & Jennings, 2009). In the meantime, the promulgation of the Regulation on the Disclosure of Government Information and Measures on the Disclosure of Environmental Information in 2007 ensures further enhancement of participatory rights during the EIA process.
Montenegro is highly-indebted country. Its public debt increased three times over the last decade and reached 2.5 billion Euros at the end of 2016 or 68% of the GDP. The main burdens to the budget include construction of the highway, interest rates for previous loans, state guarantees for private companies and salaries for oversized public administration. The Parliament did not conduct oversight in this area, while the Government frequently ignores findings of the State Audit Institution. The Government does not provide clear public debt prognoses, only measures for its management - rationalization of the public sector wages, harmonization of tax policies and improvements in tax collection. However, international financial institutions estimate that the public debt might reach 3 billion Euro or nearly 90% of the GDP in the following three years. It is expected that Montenegrin public debt will increase in the following years. According to the International Monetary Fund, government debt is projected to increase to 82 % of GDP by 2019 or 89% including all issued guarantees. While the highway will bring some economic benefits, it is provided with significant subsidies and exemption of taxes and customs for goods and services needed for the construction and fees and benefits for employees working on it. The very high costs of that project will limit the Government’s ability to undertake other important investments and expose the economy to risks. The government has not managed so far to be fully consistent with the legislative and strategic framework on management of the public debt. The Law stipulates that in order to remove risks of public finance instability, the Government will, in the event that the public debt reaches 60% of GDP, adopt a proposal of the law amending and supplementing the State Budget Law to ensure maintaining the debt within 60% of GDP. However, this has not occurred so far, although public debt exceeded the prescribed percentage of the GDP by the end of 2014.
The idea is that people are invited to influence the decisions made by the organizers by expressing their positions. People are encouraged to take the opportunity to have their say. Their comments are then collected using different methods and are used to inform policy reforms or civic education campaigns. These consultations are initiated by policy-makers, public service agents and other public sector figures. Since most of these projects are policy-oriented, their aim is to understand some specific public issues from the policy makers’ perspectives i.e. top down approach from the world of experts. Designers are part of the expert group that give advice on the construction of the project (Lee, 2006). The beginning of a new design, the designer can work on very limited information that may justify putting ideas to consider adequate. However, it is very unusual to find that the design was completed in fulfillment; initial ideas are translated into reality without any revision.
After the reform and opening-up, with the continuous strengthening of China's economic strength and the continuous progress of democratic political construction, China's publicparticipation in political consciousness has made great progress, and the number and types of public decision-making projects have been increasing, but there are still serious imbalances in many places. Because of the higher education level of the citizens in the economically developed areas, the public's awareness of rights will be stronger and the measures taken will be more rational. On the contrary, the public's awareness of rights in the rural areas will be weaker and the actions taken may go to extremes. At the same time, for the majority of the public, because they can not fully grasp the information, know less about the policy, and lack of the possibility of realizing the policy and other factors, leading to public dissatisfaction with government decision-making, especially public decision-making endangering their own interests. In Jiangmen Nuclear Fuel Project, the majority of farmers in Jiangmen area are not well educated, easy to take extreme ways, coupled with imperfect government decision-making, and so on, which eventually aroused the mass's scale opposition.
With this thesis we broach one of the sources of the view that political participation is part of the human good – and hence the source of the developmental conception of democracy canvassed earlier. Political participation enriches human life, in part due to the acquisition of new and important skills, and in part by incre asing one’s awareness of the complexity around one. One of the main charges that could be made against this point is naïve optimism about the transformational potential of political engagement. Are citizens really likely to be shaken out of apathy and mutual suspicion by being given serious responsibility? Or is that simply to hand over the fate of those being decided about to people who simply won’t take it seriously?
All over the world, the demand for critical infrastructures clearly outstripped the supply and most countries are continually tinkering with various measures to address the deficit. Infrastructural situation in Nigeria especially road network is pathetic. Decades of poor maintenance, underinvestment and outright abandonment by successive regimes have left the country with an outrageous infrastructure deficit. The abysmal infrastructure deficit in Nigeria is, unarguably the direct consequence of leadership failure - successive regimes in Nigeria have failed to take proactive action to march the boom in the country’s population growth over the years with corresponding development in road infrastructure and allied services. Current estimates of Nigeria’s road infrastructure deficits put the figure in excess of $300b (over N40trillion). Against this background and given the growing shortfall in government revenues as a result of the recent downward swing in oil prices, various governments around the world are shifting part of the burden of providing infrastructures especially road and railway to the private sector in what is now widely known as Public-Private Partnership (PPP). This paper places analytical spotlight on the philosophy behind this growing trend and strongly recommend a re-invigorated and improved engagement with the private sector by government in PPP options in order to meet the challenge of developing and maintaining road transport infrastructure beyond the means available to government.
Özerol (2013) pointed out two appropriate concepts for understanding social-ecological systems. First one is the multi-level institutional scale, enabling the analysis of institutions’ interactions with environmental sustainability, and the second one is identifying areas in the social-ecological system that incorporates features of resources and users of this resources. Addressing the necessity of investments in irrigation, Sayin et al. (2013) argue that the efficiency of water use should be encouraged with respect to modern irrigation systems. For integrated and sustainable natural sources management, planning and developing management at the basin level, in which participatory approach as a key element is essential, suggested by Karadağ & Barış (2009). They also argued that it is primarily possible with defining and analysing the shareholders for a successful integrated management. Cakmak et al. (2013) suggested that applying combined FCM implementation and participation techniques in water management in a broad range is linked to involving various stakeholder in the study focusing on Seyhan River Basin. Besides these suggestions, Yercan (2003) addressed the complains of the fees required in the irrigation activities and suggested the distribution of surplus of total cost to the farmers.
With this growing urban population, is the challenges posed by inadequacy of urban infrastructures which require huge government finances to meet their demand. Coupled with this problem is the economic downturn and hyper-inflation ravaging the country thereby making almost impossible for governments at the three levels to source for the needed fund to provide new infrastructural facilities or maintain the existing ones. Therefore, this has put a great pressure on these infrastructures and hence, they become terrible inadequate. Such problems of infrastructure deficiency manifest in form of housing shortage, inadequate urban water supply, poor and ill-maintained urban road network, erratic/epileptic electricity supply, poor communication and sewerage system, dysfunctional health and educational facility. It has become evident therefore, that government alone cannot muster the resources to meet these needs. Hence, successive government has evolved various policy approaches to these problems. According to Taiwo and Adegun (2011), a notable feature in the recent past in terms of delivery mechanism is Public-Private-Partnerships (PPP) which originally entails the provision of public assets and services through collaboration between government and private sector. According to them, the application of PPP in various sectors of the economy is becoming increasingly popular in Nigeria as well as other developing economies.
summarises the various issues which have impeded the conduct of this research. It then uses recent Eurobarometer, Eurostat and other data which avoid many of these problems to produce some initial findings: cultural attendance and sports participation are both higher than the average for Europe; higher rates of personal fulfilment are found for those that attend all kinds of culture, compared to those that do not; and rates of attendance between countries seem to be related to levels of
An investigation of factors used to peg payment rates to both casual and permanent employees denoted a notable difference between Dar es Salaam and Dodoma. For example, as Dar es Salaam generally adopt a market rate of Tzs. 15,000/= per day (equivalent to 6.5 USD as per the Bank of Tanzania exchange rate year 2007) for casual employees regardless of gender, in Dodoma the general approach is adoption of the lower ceiling set by the government. On the other hand, employment of skilled labour in Dar es Salaam was found to be generally dependent upon nature of work and sometimes equal rates are paid across genders. In Dodoma the general approach is adoption of the higher ceiling set by the government. However, looking into these categorization in absolute terms, the unskilled workers in Dar es Salaam received an average of Tzs. 15,000/= per day which is exactly the same of what is paid to the majority of similar cadre of employees in Dodoma which the employers are referring to as the lower ceiling set by the government. On the other hand, while pegging of payment for skilled labour in Dar es Salaam is widely determined by the nature of work, in Dodoma they adopt the government ceilings. However, further investigation into this indicates that higher ceiling that employers referred to in Dodoma is non-existent but rather depends on negotiation between the employer and the employee. However, a clear fact is that skilled labourers receives a higher amount of up to Tzs 25,000 to Tzs. 30,000 per day( Equivalent to 10 USD and 13 USD) compared to the unskilled labour who receive an average of Tzs, 15,000. Another striking revelation is the wide room for manoeuvre enjoyed by the skilled labours who are mostly men and a few women especially on the painting sector. They are able to secure more than one job at a time and then sub-contract to casual labourers at a lower rate. Because many women lack the skills necessary for working in the construction
Chapter Two raised a number of questions about the relationship between design expertise and the social dimensions of design, asking how the public needs as ‘client’ could be more effectively incorporated into the expert design process. This chapter therefore examines in further detail the nature of design expertise in contemporary landscape architecture using interviews with two sets of key informants, one group of ten New Zealand landscape architects and urban designers closely related to the case study context, and another group of ten designers from Denmark and Germany. Three participation experts each from New Zealand and Denmark were also interviewed, to help give broader understanding of the participatory context for design. The key informants were from similarly developed countries but from different administrative and social settings, which provided contrasting perspectives and helped flesh out some of the subtleties in the literature. The first section of this chapter focuses on consistencies in the core attributes of design expertise shared across both groups of key informants. The second section looks at the consistencies in the nature of designer’s contact with the public. The third section identifies and analyses some of the differences to emerge in the reported experiences of experts. The summary draws together both the consistencies and differences of key informants responses and identifies several themes for development in the case study.
When it comes to women employment, however, the trends revealed by statistical analysis are more mixed. The construction sector accounts for a significant share of women’s participation in the labour force. In this sector, women can create their own jobs. All over the world, self employment provides some with a means to add to the income their family and helps ease unemployment. It makes it easier for women to combine family responsibilities and unpaid subsistence work with income earning. The nature and character of employment in this sector although manual to some extent, also requires some skill for efficient management. Despite the unpredictability, women are attracted to this sector due to the severe absence of alternative employment (Murali Manohar Sobha and Jhanaradhana Rao). Mostly the women workers are classified as contract labour and casual labour. A large number of women workers are employed in the construction sector.
• Non-citizens are not motivated enough to acquire the citizenship that allows for the political participation. On the basis of Eurobarometer 78 data, the residents of Latvia most frequently obtain the information about the processes in the state, the local governments and the European Union directly from the media – television (83%), the Internet (56%), the radio (38%), and the press (29%). Therefore, when speaking about participation and trust in power, the attention should be drawn to the analysis of media environment and it must be found out how reliable are individual media as a source of information in the opinion of the Russians and the Latvians. The differences among the Latvians and the Russians are important. For instance, the Latvian Public Television is trusted by 88% of the Latvians and 56% of the Russians but the commercial channel “the First Baltic Channel”, which is broadcasting in Russian, is trusted by 27.6% of the Latvians and 62% of the Russians. The press, which is written in Latvian, is trusted by 80% of the Latvians and 41% of the Russians, but the press, which is written in Russian, is trusted by 27% of the Latvians and 72% of the Russians (Šulmane, 2010). The aforementioned data confirm that the society of Latvia is split; the Latvians and the Russians formulate their opinion on the basis of the information that is provided by different information spaces. Therefore we conclude that there are grounds to hold a view that the Latvian and Russian participation habits and trust in the state of Latvia are relevantly different, and it requires in- depth researches.
Abstract: Many cases prove that involvement of the public in decision-making process on environmental issues has a real influence on proposed or planned activities and the final decisions are acceptable for all main stakeholders: government, the public, and developer of activity. Despite the facts demonstrating the role of the public in environmental decision-making, various experts approach to the publicparticipation process with doubt and some criticism. From their point of view, many aspects of publicparticipation are still questionable, such as who, why, how, at what stage should participate, etc. This article does not aim to answer each existing question. But along with the criticism of various experts, highlighting some important aspects of publicparticipation, the article aims to: demonstrate a rationale of publicparticipation in environmental decision- making; show the trend in this direction based on the analysis of violations of publicparticipation procedures in some countries; demonstrate the real influence of the public on final decisions with regard to the environment, focused on the concrete examples. The arguments and conclusions made on this overview creates additional inspiration for further discussions and exploration of different aspects of publicparticipation in environmental decision-making.
This research draws a framework for a new open public space that addresses the issues affecting the cities of today and in the near future as well as the condition that threat the safety, resilience and sustainability. As urban centers are the larg- est consumers of agricultural produce from rural areas, it would be ideal to con- sider agricultural production in cities in order to reduce further pollution and destruction of earth’s ecosystems and to mitigate the effects of global warming. These conditions had increased the vulnerability of major urban centers and it’s only expected to increase under the pressure exerted by population growth, re- source exploitation and global warming. Former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s remarks have a profound importance in the context of global sustai- nability as he addressed a High-level Delegation of Mayors and Regional Au- thorities in the city of New York. During this summit he pronounced that “Our Struggle for Global Sustainability Will Be Won or Lost in Cities”. As cities are public scenarios and epicenters of most anthropogenic activities, urban centers must secure sustainability in social, economic and ecological terms while pre- serving historical elements in physical manifestations influenced by cultural conditions to so it can be preserve in people’s imaginaries. Public spaces can provide places where urban dwellers can gather and engage in programs that re- flect their cultural background.
• Phased design for participation. A desirable publicparticipation in urban planning is a phased, stratified and dynamically evolved course. The Planning Team once assumed that some citizen colloquia can be intro- duced in due course of compiling and in reference to experts’ argumentation or report by certain departments, after which another questionnaire survey can be then conducted for further learning about any changes with citizen’s opinions. Nevertheless, this assumption, due to a series of factors, such as that there is likely huge amount of work at later stage when the focus of compiling work would be gradually shifting to approval procedures and demonstration effect of questionnaire survey is to be exerting more greatly than its guidance in reality, it is in the end had to be renounced. Apparently, once having proceeded a large scaled public par- ticipation, the planners’ understanding to publicparticipation would be somewhat different from the level of theory, in which publicparticipation is to achieve certain ideal objective, despite of what kind of form for participation, its objective is all for peoples’ willingness to be effectively expressed and for public opinions to be appropriately “released”.
From the economic plank, people like WW Rostow had hypothesised the basis and stages of economic growth for the Third World, which precluded a communist manifesto. Public broadcast media’s potential and efficiency have been measured largely because of their ability to reach unlimited numbers of people in a continent devoid of basic infrastructures like electricity. Hence, as an instrument, the information technologies of radio and television have been used for public enlightenment messages, in health, education, agriculture and other non-formal educational types of programmes that had attempted to replicate formal education (Moemeka, 2000; Myers, 2008; Manyozo, 2005). Equally, governments have used radio and television for social and national integration and mass mobilisation for efforts like the civil war in Nigeria, environmental education, infant immunisation, political and democratic participation (Pate, Gambo, & Ibrahim, 2019). Commercialisation and deregulation take place when the State withdraws regulation based on public interest, public service with forms of regulation by markets. Practically this means that a lot more emphasis is placed on the market as the regulator through profit motive, the audience size and revenue from advertising. Opponents of this model maintain that commercial based decision making inevitably means one class of users’ benefits over others (Castells, 1989; Katatzi-Whitlock, 2011).
These processes, in turn, give rise to three dimensions, which are closely related to each other, which articulate the theme of participation when they are practiced to not substantiate choices already made. The first, based on involvement, which in its minimal form is translated into concerted action and able to take on direct or mediated forms , gives weight to the choices also based on contractual regulations. To be as such, a participatory process must include interaction, mediation and negotiation and when this is not possible conflict takes over and the process moves into the second dimension. For this to occur it is necessary that the issues dealt with are known, heard and paradoxically also controversial. The third, which is even more complex because it is the product of a process based on the proposal of a plan or a shared program, produces a decision- making model that uses both on the one hand consultation and on the other conflict.