Public Policy and Entrepreneurship

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IMPACT OF PUBLIC POLICY ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ASIA, LATIN AMERICA AND SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

IMPACT OF PUBLIC POLICY ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ASIA, LATIN AMERICA AND SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

The Memorandum of Incorporation no longer requires an entity to state its main object or core business implying that, an entity can do anything as long as it is not illegal, immoral and contrary to public policy. Thus, an entity that has recently been incorporated and is involved in the vending of basic food by the road side can bid for tenders requiring huge outlays of capital; like construction, civil engineering, installation of hi-tech IT solutions etc. This has not only created Jacks of all trades with no knowledge of what they are bidding for but also corruption at highest levels. Getting the tender pretty much depends on who you know and not what you know. The customer or client, who in most cases, happens to be the government or municipal authorities are short changed. Treasury is siphoned of cash resources without getting the desired value in reciprocation. The long-term damage is frightening especially when contracts are entered into with unscrupulous people who go into business solely for the love of money. In the South African business dictionary, the word Tender-preneur has silently crept into the business vocabulary and is dominating business transactions, arrangements and agreements.
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The Role Of Strategic Entrepreneurship, Dynamic Capabilities, And Government Policy To Improve Pdams Performance In Indonesia

The Role Of Strategic Entrepreneurship, Dynamic Capabilities, And Government Policy To Improve Pdams Performance In Indonesia

Water governance involves policy, capacity building, and control [11]. The government employs policy instruments to foster an entrepreneurial culture [19]. Public policy seeks to increase the number of new entrepreneurs, thereby improving attitudes towards entrepreneurship at an effective level [19]. The development of good government policies for Small and Medium Enterprises (―SME‖) is an integral component of most economic growth strategies and has certain significance [20]. Governance is sharing responsibility among levels of government and water management organizations, and controlling water managers to ensure all perform their duties [11]. At present, the involvement of the central government has shifted from project development to policy making and regulation [11]. Instead of the government working on all aspects of water supply and providing service, it assumes the role of organizing and monitoring it. With this separation of responsibilities, the government can focus more on meeting the needs of communities where investment companies may be less willing to provide services. Government regulation serves as a moderator for entrepreneurial orientation and performance variable relations [21]. Deregulation and re- regulation are being used to promote private sector involvement, to reach FCR, and to eliminate dependence on regional local government [22]. An additional result of note is that the public water utility seems more efficient compared to that owned by the private sector [23]. Policies should be developed that encourage firms to achieve a goal profitability rather than those that urge firms to see growth as the primary goal. Firms that demonstrate high profitability often grow as a result and still enjoy above-average profits; therefore policies that help firms become more profitable will also lead to more growth [24]. In this research, the meaning of government policy is any action that aims to regulate and improve business conditions in the form of policy support, implementation, and funding by the government. Under this definition, government policies associated with entrepreneurial practices are focus on encouraging entrepreneurship by creating a favorable environment for employers. Indicators used: policies support, implementation of policies, and funding by the government [25].
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Unleashing Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Europe: People, Places and Policies  Report of a CEPS Task Force February 2017

Unleashing Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Europe: People, Places and Policies Report of a CEPS Task Force February 2017

The evolution of the debate on platforms at the EU level has been difficult and bumpy over the past few months. The temptation to impose neutrality obligations (in the form of non-discriminatory behaviour and “mere conduit” rules) is contrasted with the need for responsible cooperation and the enforcement of a growing array of rules, from e-commerce to copyright to counterterrorism, defamation, parental control and data protection. In consideration of (i) the important role that large companies and platforms can play in the promotion of entrepreneurship and innovation at all levels, as well as (ii) of their almost inevitable role as partners of public authorities in securing the promotion of public policy goals, it seems important that EU policy-makers realise the need for deep and constructive cooperation between public and private players in shaping and implementing legal rules. This can result in a more suitable environment for entrepreneurs (who, incidentally, seem to trust large intermediaries and platforms more than they do public institutions). Harmonised rules at EU level, such as the recently adopted General Data Protection Regulation and the Network and Information Security Directive, are important to facilitating growth and rapid scaling up of innovative platforms. Online platforms are subject to existing EU rules in areas such as competition, consumer protection, protection of personal data and single market freedoms which would benefit from coordination in support of the platform economy.
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The ineffectiveness of entrepreneurship policy : is policy formulation to blame?

The ineffectiveness of entrepreneurship policy : is policy formulation to blame?

sector support of entrepreneurial activity helps drive economic growth, increases employment and strengthens international competitiveness (Audretsch and Beckmann 2007; Van Praag and Versloot 2007). Such policies are considered to be the most important policy instruments for a global and knowledge based economy (Gilbert et al. 2004). Yet despite their popularity, the effectiveness of enterprise policy is questioned (Curran and Storey 2002; Richard et al. 2007; Huggins and Williams 2009; Williams 2013), with critics attributing its lack of effectiveness to the way in which policy has been implemented. However, Shane (2009, p. 142), writing in Small Business Economics, offers a more fundamental explanation for the lack of effectiveness of enterprise policy, simply that it is “bad public policy.” He argues that “there is a lot of evidence that these policies lead people to start marginal businesses that are likely to fail, have little economic impact, and generate little employment” (Shane, 2008, p. 158). Previously, Storey (2000, p. 276) had made a similar point, arguing that enterprise policies which are currently pursued, are "rarely specified and appear to reflect the need to do something or seen to be responding, rather than as part of a coherent agenda designed to achieve clear objectives." But this begs the question why the legislative process produces ‘bad’ public policy? Recent analyses suggest that it may be attributable to the ways in which policy ideas originate and develop (Dennis Jr 2011; Williams 2013). Most of the enterprise policy literature has focused on the implementation (Mole 2002; Xheneti and Kitching 2011; Vega et al. 2013) and evaluation stages (Storey 2002; Bennett 2008; Lenihan 2011; Cowie
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A model with policy network approach for entrepreneurship policy making

A model with policy network approach for entrepreneurship policy making

When we describe public policy, the term "policy" leads us to the concept of intertwined interests, inter-organizational relations, and governance (Yan, 2014, 122-126 and Rhodes, 2007, pp. 423-45). Policy networks are made up of actors that interact with one another to influence public policy (Sabatier, 1999: 118) and widely affect the dynamics of policy and its implications (Henry et al., 2011: 419). Conflict, cooperation, and power relationships are three important aspects of policy networks (Fischer, 2013: 6). In other words, networks play a key role in establishing collaboration between organizations in order to identify solutions to organizational problems and increase the degree of success of individuals and organizations in achieving goals. Yan, 2014: 122). In short, this concept refers to the way in which powerful people work in the labyrinth of public and private organizations and run a specific policy domain (such as entrepreneurship or training). Usually, bureaucrats, policy makers, professionals, and stakeholder groups discuss issues and problems with each other and provide solutions to deal with them. Over time, such relationships create networks of interconnections and equal expectations.
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Mid-term review of the LIFE+ Regulation. Commission staff working document. SEC (2010) 1120 final, 30 September 2010

Mid-term review of the LIFE+ Regulation. Commission staff working document. SEC (2010) 1120 final, 30 September 2010

LIFE08 ENV/IT/000435 ANTARES (budget €1.1; EU co-financing 50%): REACH has introduced stricter European legislation on the handling, use and disposal of new chemicals. This aims to address the problem of chemical compounds ending up in the environment, but it also increases the cost to producers, who must demonstrate that a chemical is safe for the environment and human health. It has been estimated that at least 30 000 new chemicals will be introduced in the coming years in Europe. This project aims to show which non- testing methods (NTM) can be used to demonstrate compliance with REACH legislation and under what conditions. It seeks to bridge the gap of knowledge on which methods can be used in practice to avoid animal testing. The project will carry out a preparatory survey of all current methods for assessing compliance with the REACH legislation. This will help identify the exact criteria that the NTMs must meet. It will also evaluate the available experimental data for the eco-toxicological, toxicological and environmental endpoints for REACH. LIFE09 ENV/BE/00410 DEMOCOPHESII (budget 3.4; EU co-financing 49.87%): Human Biological Monitoring (HBM) has long been used in the medical surveillance of workers. Currently it is increasingly used as a tool in environmental research and in health policy development. The European Environment and Health Strategy, launched in June 2003 by the European Commission as the SCALE initiative, paid particular attention to the potential of HBM. The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a harmonised approach to HBM in the EU by implementing a pilot study in 16 Member States and sharing the expertise with five additional countries, which will be adhoc members of this project. The work will be guided by the external team, COPHES (COnsortium to Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale), which will prepare guidelines and protocols for all tasks, train beneficiaries, deliver preparatory materials and evaluate the process within the framework of an FP7 Concerted Action that started in December 2009.
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AN ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANISMS FOR ESTABLISHING COOPERATION BETWEEN PUBLIC AUTHORITIES, THE PRIVATE SECTOR, AND THE PUBLIC IN DOMESTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT IN UKRAINE

AN ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANISMS FOR ESTABLISHING COOPERATION BETWEEN PUBLIC AUTHORITIES, THE PRIVATE SECTOR, AND THE PUBLIC IN DOMESTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT IN UKRAINE

In Ukraine, studies on the mechanisms for cooperation between the authorities, the private sector, and the public are only starting to gain traction. Scientists are highlighting aspects of establishing cooperation, one of the most common forms of which is public- private partnership (PPP). Despite a comprehensive PPP regulatory framework, this sec- tor in Ukraine faces a number of problems regarding the transparency of government ac- tivities, the lack of publicly available project registers and the complexity of their prepa- ration, and a dependence on budget fluctuations (Khodakivska and Mohylnyi 2018, 535; Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine 2010; The EIU 2017, 46). In the 2009 business environment rating, Ukraine ranked 72 nd among 82 countries (The EIU 2019).
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CORRECTIVE FACTORS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT WHEN DETERMINING THE RENT FOR LAND PLOTS AS A TOOL FOR FILLING THE BUDGET IN A MUNICIPALITY (THE EXAMPLE OF THE CITY OF CHELYABINSK)

CORRECTIVE FACTORS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT WHEN DETERMINING THE RENT FOR LAND PLOTS AS A TOOL FOR FILLING THE BUDGET IN A MUNICIPALITY (THE EXAMPLE OF THE CITY OF CHELYABINSK)

2. Basangova, N. A., and G. D. Mandzhieva. 2016. “Certain Aspects of Regulation of Land and Property Relations in the Context of Strengthening the Revenue Base of Local Self- Government.” In Proceedings of the Conference “Economic Security and Financial and Credit Relations in Modern Conditions: Approaches, Problems and Directions of Im- provement,” 107–12. Elista: Kalmyk State University Named After B. B. Gorodovikov. 3. Donetkov, E. S. 2014. “The Ratio of Private and Public when Establishing a Regulated

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ELITE CAPTURE OF BUDGET CORRUPTION IN THREE INDONESIAN REGIONS

ELITE CAPTURE OF BUDGET CORRUPTION IN THREE INDONESIAN REGIONS

The distribution of “project fees”—a portion of public funds made available to regio- nal leaders and bureaucrats by private-sector actors (Dorotinsky and Pradhan 2007)—is commonplace in Malang City, Malang Regency, and Batu City. These fees are expected by bureaucrats, and are guaranteed through the abuse of power, bribery, and lobbying activities (Tans 2011; Thurmaier and Willoughby 2001). In Batu City, for example, the mayor demanded 500 million rupiahs from a 5.26-billion-rupiah project. Meanwhile, in Malang City, a member of local parliament asked for 1% of the regional budget, which was allocated through the diversion of waste management funds as well as an ongoing Islamic Center project. To become involved in these projects, private-sector actors were required to pay bribes to legislators and be willing to provide project fees to the regional leader. Meanwhile in Malang regency, the regional leader used bureaucrats and a local political community (the Rendra Center) to demand that private-sector actors involved in a Department of Education project paid project fees; the Rendra Center thus offered these projects to private-sector actors who were willing to provide a share to the regional leader (Arias 2018).
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Public Entrepreneurship and the Politics of Regeneration in Multi-Level Governance

Public Entrepreneurship and the Politics of Regeneration in Multi-Level Governance

The paper explores one explanation for this uneven distribution of powers: public entrepreneurship. While the concept challenges institutionalism’s limited treatment of institutional change, accounts often fail properly to locate the actions of entrepreneurs within a context of MLG, restricting our understanding of how such a setting may enable or constrain agency. In a multi-level polity – or more specifically, in policy fields that incorporate institutional actors from many sites – numerous policy processes play out across different levels and are often misaligned. Within the UK, sub-national actors have been firmly subordinate to actors at higher levels and the former are reliant on the latter for resources to devise and implement policies. MLG is a potential alternative source of mobilization by sub-national actors (Marshall, 2005, 2006). Successful entrepreneurship thus depends on how well actors operate within and across governmental levels and the ways in which particular policy ideas are perceived at particular junctures across these levels. The paper examines the restructuring of the institutional regime governing central–local relations. It presents a case study of Sheffield’s entrepreneurial actions in the field of urban regeneration. The study demonstrates the importance of entrepreneurial activities, such as lobbying, policy framing and institutional development, in producing institutional and policy change within a system of MLG. However, while we acknowledge the importance of entrepreneurial actions in explaining such change, we also point to the contingent and path-dependent nature of such entrepreneurship. In particular, we identify the temporal sequencing of agenda shifts across governmental levels as a crucial aspect of the policy process. Overall then, we explore the dynamic relationship between strategic agency and contingent opportunity structures.
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INTEREST GROUPS IN THE FIELD OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY: WHO ARE THEY AND WHAT DO THEY DO?

INTEREST GROUPS IN THE FIELD OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY: WHO ARE THEY AND WHAT DO THEY DO?

Annotation. This article analyses interest groups in the agricultural sector in Lithu- ania, and compares them with the rest of the population of interest groups across other sec- tors at the national level. The analysis is based on data from the International Comparative Interest Group Survey (CIGS). A survey of organizations representing various interests was carried out from September to November 2016, and covered all Lithuanian interest organi- zations operating at the national level. The survey was designed to clarify the development of these organizations, their daily activities, and their applied strategies, as well as identify- ing the challenges they face. In accordance with this study, the aim of this article is to iden- tify the profile and specificity of interest groups in the field of agricultural policy. The data showed that the share of agricultural interest groups is one of the largest amongst the rest of the population of Lithuanian national interest groups, but the number of members of this sector’s interest groups is lower than average. In the agricultural sector, interest groups are distinguished by the fact that they are clearly dominated by sectoral associations – one of the types of business groups. The Lithuanian agricultural interest organizations that were analysed apply both direct and indirect pressure strategies equally, but they are more likely than other organizations to contact the representatives of the state bureaucratic apparatus. These are predominantly bureaucrats working in ministries and ministers themselves, al- though it has to be mentioned that members of the Seimas were also frequently in contact with the Lithuanian agricultural interest organizations under study.
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ESTABLISHING ORDER REGULATIONS IN MUNICIPALITIES AS AN ELEMENT OF LOCAL SECURITY PROTECTION

ESTABLISHING ORDER REGULATIONS IN MUNICIPALITIES AS AN ELEMENT OF LOCAL SECURITY PROTECTION

The third group of tasks includes those that are implemented as part of the normal (standard) operation of local government bodies. In the case of municipalities, this area includes the obligation to draw up operational plans for flood protection (Art. 31a of the Act on Municipal Local Government), announcing and dismissing the ambulance service and alarm, and the right to establish a uniformed municipal guard (Art. 1 para. 1 of the Act of August 29, 1997, on Municipal Guards, i.e., OJ 2018, item 928), at the territory of the municipality and outside (with regard to fire protection) the municipal professional fire brigade (Art. 17 of the Act of August 24, 1991, on Fire Protection, OJ 2018, item 620). However, in the case of services appointed in the strict sense to protect public safety and order and fire protection – the Police and State Fire Service having the status of state-owned formations – the activities of municipal bodies have only a limited impact (Ostapski 2009; Polinceusz 2013).
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URGENT DECENTRALIZATION PROBLEMS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AT A REGIONAL LEVEL: POLITICAL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND SOCIOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS

URGENT DECENTRALIZATION PROBLEMS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AT A REGIONAL LEVEL: POLITICAL, ADMINISTRATIVE AND SOCIOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS

One should not overlook Eurointegration amongst the crucial factors, having con- tributed to the intensification of decentralisation processes in the Czech Republic. Undoubtedly, rapprochement of the Czech Republic with EU public administration required improvements in the scope of local fiscal policy. R. Jahoda, J. Pekova, and J. Selesovky (2003) argue that it is of primary importance to extend the administrative competences of territorial communities in the scope of their own revenue allocation. On the other hand, the extended fiscal autonomy of territorial communities will not be able to institutionally fill local budgets due to the lack of effective political and public control. Moreover, the Czech Republic’s accession to the European Union failed to result in an immediate positive dynamic in terms of regional decentralization. According to M. Baun and D. Marek (2006), a centralized approach to the allocation of European financial funds has remained a problematic one.
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COLLABORATION BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND AGRIBUSINESS FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION: BALANCED DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL SUSTAINABILITY

COLLABORATION BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND AGRIBUSINESS FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION: BALANCED DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL SUSTAINABILITY

For agribusiness companies, the most important innovation partners are from other companies both at the national and international levels. However, the situation with re- gard to government institutions at the international level is completely different. Totally unimportant innovation partners for agribusiness companies are found in the shape of international public organizations (0.0). Additionally, national government institutions also do not see any advantage for collaboration in biogas with government institutions at an international level (0.0). This therefore demonstrates the closed position of Lithuanian government representatives regarding shared experiences in biogas as an option for bal- anced sustainability in rural regions as well as the adequate, timely, and qualitative de- velopment of the sector using international advice and international support measures.
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ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICABILITY OF EXISTING METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF PROJECT ORIENTED MANAGEMENT FOR GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICABILITY OF EXISTING METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF PROJECT ORIENTED MANAGEMENT FOR GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

Today in Kazakhstan, almost all local executive authorities and local governments participate in the development and implementation of targeted programs of social and economic development. The existing system of developing and implementing targeted programs, which governed by Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 636, dated February 15, 2018, “On Approval of the Strategic Development Plan of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2025 and Recognizing Certain Decrees of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan,” does not comply with the requirements of the time, as evidenced by the findings of international scientists (Foster et al. 2005; Marken 2016; Tweedale et al. 2016). A. Fariz (2015) considers that the success of targeted socio-eco- nomic development programs should be measured not only by the economic compo- nent, which is of course important for achieving the objectives of the program, but also by contributing to the strengthening of territorial sustainable development. M. Soko- lova and A. Fernandez-Caballero (2009) believe that now in Kazakhstan there is a need to establish a uniform procedure for the development and implementation of targeted programs implemented for public funds by standardizing their methodology based on a project-oriented approach. According to G. Legien et al. (2017), the main idea of project and program management is the creation of a new value, and this should be reflected in a new standard of public administration which currently does not exist in Kazakhstan.
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DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A COMPONENT OF REGIONAL POLICY IN LATVIA

DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A COMPONENT OF REGIONAL POLICY IN LATVIA

In recent years there have been many discussions about development course for Latvia. Consequently, in 2010 by Saeima, the Latvian Parliament, was developed and approved a long-term planning document “Sustainable Development Strategy of Latvia until 2030”. Now it is the main strategic planning document in Latvia, and it also refers to the regional policy and planning documents. In 2030 for Latvia one of the accents is interaction of rural-urban territories, to provide a balanced development – “regardless of the geographical location, the competitiveness and attraction of territories will be determined by the ability to offer qualitative and attractive living environment, as well as wide range of public services”. The spatial development perspective puts emphasis on the three main aspects: a) accessibility and mobility possibilities, b) settlement as the economic development, human life and work environment, c) spaces of national interest – unique specific territories, significant for the development of the whole country. In this vision of development a significant role is given to spatial planning to provide infrastructure, public service, communications, energy, sustainable resource application. All these factors are important also for providing favourable environment for entrepreneurship.
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Evaluating policy approaches for tackling informal entrepreneurship

Evaluating policy approaches for tackling informal entrepreneurship

because trust as well as distrust are contagious. In many cases trust seems to spread out from above to toward lower levels, and distrust, from the bottom upwards’. Accordingly, when an entrepreneur loses trust because of observing a case of corruption for example, they start to think in a stereotyped way and to consider that there is corruption in all cases and therefore, this leads to institutional distrust. Further quantitative and in-depth qualitative research is therefore necessary to identify the formal institutional deficiencies which lead to low levels of trust. For example, investigating 18 countries in Asia-Pacific region, Autio and Fu (2015) concluded that the quality of institutions has a substantial influence on informal entrepreneurship and an increase of the quality of economic and political institutions with one standard deviation can double the prevalence of the formal entrepreneurship on one hand and, reduce by a half the prevalence of the informal entrepreneurship on the other hand. Thus, identifying the precise formal institutions failures would enable tailored policy measures for enhancing the level of trust between entrepreneurs as well as between entrepreneurs and government. Future studies, moreover, might experiment with asking entrepreneurs directly about their engagement in the informal economy, rather than whether their direct competitors engage in informal economic practices. At present, it is an a priori assumption that such direct questions are not feasible, with no evidence-base that this is the case. Experimentation with more direct questions on participation in informal economic practices would therefore be useful in future surveys to evaluate its feasibility.
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Mapping the Intellectual Structure of Entrepreneurship Research: revisiting the invisible college

Mapping the Intellectual Structure of Entrepreneurship Research: revisiting the invisible college

This research revealed “groups” of similar topics.  Each  group  reflects  a  distinct  theme  in entrepreneurship research, although many of the groups are related. The results show such labels as groups of topics that have more clearly defined boundaries  as  to  which  scholars/documents  on which to focus. These groups are the research streams in the field of entrepreneurship. In 29 years, the Babson/Kauffman Conference published a total of 1,122 articles identified by 61 research topics and  grouped  in  20  research  streams  (table  1). These results show that the field of entrepreneurship is a transversal discipline, in which one phenomenon can be studied from different perspectives. Schild, Zahra and Sillanpää (2006) analyzed 733 articles from 30 journals with entrepreneurship-related content.  A  similar  result  was  obtained  in  their study. These  authors  identified  25  scholarly communities  because  they  segmented  certain research streams. For example, they discuss value creation  from  corporate  entrepreneurship,  and corporate entrepreneurship and venturing.
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Stimulating youth entrepreneurship in the public sector's organizations

Stimulating youth entrepreneurship in the public sector's organizations

We know that the public administration’s main responsibility is to keep the citizens of a country satisfied and with their needs well met. In order to do so, one of the best solutions would be to stimulate entrepreneurship, especially when referring to the younger generations – which are about to make their first steps into the business world, this attitude eventually leading to lower levels of unemployment, not only amongst young people (which will probably employ also elder persons), bigger level of happiness at a national level (this is a very important aspect, because being happy is every individual’s right), more motivated people and, thus, an economic growth from which will benefit all the parts involved in the process, and not only. In other words, it will be a win-win situation for both the public sector and the citizens.
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Business Support as a Critical Success Factor for Incubator Performance, and 
              Moderating effect of Government Policy in Nigeria Context: A Conceptual Model

Business Support as a Critical Success Factor for Incubator Performance, and Moderating effect of Government Policy in Nigeria Context: A Conceptual Model

In validating this conceptual model, the process called for justification of measurements, structural model as well as direction for future scholarly work. Consequently, a quantitative research method will be employed in order to enhance the reliability of the measurements. This research will adopt the established scales instrument for assessing business support, incubator performance and government policy. Accordingly, the questionnaire that would be adopted will be used as the data collection instrument in this study. This is in consonance with Ticehurst and Veal (2000) study which postulated that questionnaire is used when quantifiable evidence about the population is judged to be in accordance with approved usage as an origin of evidence.The scholarly work will cover a data collection process of surveying stakeholders in Nigeria with direct involvement in the incubation initiative. A sample size of 163 will be drawn from a population of 282 managers and entrepreneurs within the Nigeria business incubation programme. In order to ensure an equal distribution of entrepreneurs in the 29 incubation centres located in the 6 geopolitical zone of Nigeria, a quota sampling technique will be used to select 163 determined sample size. According to Cooper and Schindler (2014) ―Quota sampling can be described as a purposive sampling in which relevant characteristics are used to stratify the sample. Sekaran and Bougie (2010) viewed quota as a form of balanced stratified sampling, in which a predetermined proportion of people are sampled from different groups, but on a convenience basis‖. The justification for using Quota sampling technique in this study was for the reason that when sampling frame could not be accessed, quota sampling (i.e., a non-probability sampling technique) is considered appropriate.
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