of Medicare [20-22]. Knowledge of how the Canadian public prioritizes government spending for those public health-related goods currently outside the scope of the national health insurance system has not been explored. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to examine public preferences for new government spending on prioritization of a wide range of public health goods cur- rently outside the scope of Medicare (i.e. home care, pharmacare, dental care, vision care and child care). These spending priority areas have been found to be repeatedly requested by Canadian citizens for improved government support, and are the largest expenditures for uninsured health and social services in Canada [17,19]. In particular, child care, a non-traditional health service, is included in our priority list, as well as dental care, a highly demanded service and commonly neglected item in health care priority discussions. Until now, studies have only explored public preferences for government spending on home care, pharmacare and child care independently. This study aims to ascertain public preferences for the aforementioned services, in relation to each other. Exploring public preferences can inform new government spending generally, and by comparing current methods of financing with public preferences, can specifically show if there are differences between government approaches and public priorities. Examining the social and economic circumstances underlying preferences can also help identify specific populations to whom policies and/or programs could be tailored .
10 Read more
We are not aware of any studies that have used stated preference methods to examine the complementarity or substitutability of government funding and private dona- tions for medical research. Stated preference studies are increasingly being used in the field of health, particularly to examine public preferences regarding health care priority setting . A stated preference approach was also used successfully in a recent study examining the effects of different forms of tax relief on charitable giving . Although surveys comprising hypothetical questions have disadvantages, they are particularly useful when informa- tion about revealed preferences (i.e. data from observed behaviour) is unavailable – in this case, when seeking to understand the potential impact of a cut in government spending that has not yet occurred.
14 Read more
This paper presents an analysis of public preferences for a low carbon future UK and compares them with three future scenarios proposed by the UK government based on data from 10,983 self-selected participants who engaged in the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change ‘My2050’ on- line simulation. Participants expressed a stronger preference for demand- side options than for supply-side ones. They also chose fuel switching (to electricity) and technical energy efficiency measures above more behaviour focused options. Renewable energy options (wind, solar, marine and hydro) were preferred to other low carbon supply options (nuclear power, carbon capture and storage), with offshore wind power more popular than onshore. Nuclear power was the least popular generation option.
49 Read more
informed consent in this context, and how this legislation and professional guidance will affect other jurisdictions, remains unknown. Whether public preferences for explicit consent are robust in the face of practical and value-based challenges associated with consent also remains unknown. To deepen our understanding of public preferences for this complex policy issue and to inform the development of strategies related to storage and use of NBS bloodspots in a shifting legislative context, we report results from a study that engaged the Canadian public on this policy question.
12 Read more
The aim of this study was to determine public preferences for analgesic tablet colour and the inﬂuence of socio-demographic characteristics on preferences. A cross-sectional questionnaire delivered as a street survey conducted in Birmingham city centre, UK. The survey obtained information from a sample (n=387) of people aged 16 to 75 years. Results were examined to identify associations between colour preference and socio-demographic characteristics. 60% of respondents preferred a white tablet colour for pain relief, with no signiﬁcant diﬀerence reported by gender or ethnic group. A signiﬁcant diﬀerence between males and fema- les was observed for the second most preferred colour, which was pink for females (χ 2 =5.221, p=0.022) and
Among the study population, 99.1% expressed their preferences for error disclosure; 962 (90.6%) and 1055 individuals (99.5%) reported their preferences for error disclosure in the minor error scenario and the major error scenario, respectively. Table 3 presents the required components of medical error disclosure and table 4 shows the likelihood of taking legal action against physicians in case of error disclosure from the people’s point of view. The results showed that error disclosure by the physician compared to error disclosure by another physician had lower possibility of formal complaints (OR = 2.87, CI = 2.22-3.70) (P < 0.0001).
providing the highest marginal benefits. The public preferred less expenditure on income support. The choice experiment also identified the impacts of demographic factors. The approach is offered as a complement to prior approaches that research public preferences for budget allocation, with prospects for revelation of richer information for informing social decisions.
17 Read more
Due to their convenient use, oral solid dosage forms (OSDF) are more popular preparations nowadays (1). Their visual appearance and ease of swallowing have an effect on public preferences and acceptance of this type of pharmaceutical preparations (2). It has been agreed that the formulation of medicine, color, size, shape, and taste are related to the credibility of the treatment (3, 4). Thus, the importance of visual characteristics of OSDF has been investigated. Few reports addressed public preferences and expectations toward the appearance of OSDF have been found. Soft gel was preferred over other forms and was found to be easier in swallowing than coated tablet and tablet; white was the preferred color; the preferred shape was strongly arched circular (2, 5). Researchers stressed the importance of pill color that has been associated with specific expectancies. Red OSDF considered as strong and active while blue and green as depressants (6). Moreover, it was found that red and orange capsules were ranked as strongest while white capsules were rated as weakest (7).
This study examines the perceptions and preferences of laypublic about historical Persian Gardens to find useful information that could be applicable for improvement of contemporary urban spaces. In this study, historical Persian Gardens were chosen due to their historical background as first sample of Iranian urban green spaces and their affects in various aspects of Iranian life. Public as largest consumer of urban spaces can provide a positive affects towards the improvement of the urban spaces. This study deals with public‘s preferences of Persian Gardens based on their perceptions of the visual and scenery effects in relation to the characteristics of these gardens. Accordingly, public experiences in the gardens are considered. Experiences are the most crucial part of how people perceive, utilize or live in their green area (Relph, 1976). Tyrväinen et al. (2003) underlined personal meanings as the characteristics of a place for local people based on aesthetic, social and cultural values. Thus meanings and social values need to be examined through behavioral responses of urban residents using preferences in the environment. Therefore, this study would reveal the predominant characteristics and visual attributes of Persian Gardens through residents to help the improvement of the planning and designing of urban green spaces in Iran society.
81 Read more
There were also some limitations to this study. The se- lection of hospitals was a convenience sampling and could raise concerns about the representativeness of the sample. That we used a consecutive, non-random sam- pling technique to select women, and the relatively small overall sample size, and the low preference for CS in our sample, may limit the generalizability of our conclusions. Only a small proportion of women stated a preference for cesarean section, with marginal differences between women in the public (8 %) versus the private sector (6 %). These rates are similar to or lower than those re- ported in other surveys that have been conducted during pregnancy in comparable samples of women in Brazil and Chile between 1998 and 2003. Potter and colleagues reported CS preference rates of 10 and 16 % in women attended in the public and private sector respectively, while Angeja and colleagues reported 11 and 8 % CS preference rates, also respectively [9, 11]. Furthermore, comparable surveys in high-income countries between 1999 and 2005 found preference rates between 3 and 17 %, [7, 8, 12, 13, 26]. Thus, in light of the current evi- dence, our findings suggest that, to date, there is no evi- dence of either secular changes in women ’ s preferences for mode of delivery, or clear differences in the opinions of women receiving care in different health sectors who likely come from varying socioeconomic backgrounds.
follows. First, in this paper, we consider the leadership decision being exogenous. A possible modification of this model with endogenous leadership can complement the findings from Kempf and Rota-Graziosi (2010), Eichner (2014) and others in particular and literature on endogenous leadership in supermodular games with incentive structure in general. Second, consideration of taxes being strategic substitute and their implications for the outcome of the game can enhance the understanding on interaction of political economy with leadership in taxation. Third, extension can be explored by including the public investment decision along with taxation in affecting the flow of capital in the regions. Lastly, another extension can be to consider the case where regions decide the political delegation sequentially 17 . In this case, we can understand the implication of joint sequential choice of political delegation and tax rates on equilibrium outcomes, flow of capital and provision of public goods.
33 Read more
The empirical model is estimated using data on the 3.2 million households living in Northern California’s two largest population centers: the San Francisco and Sacramento Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas. For a relatively small geographic area, this region has tremendous diversity in housing prices, provision of public goods, and job opportunities. In particular, air quality varies widely within the region. Some of the coastal areas near San Francisco have very clean air due to natural weather patterns that limit the accumulation of ground level ozone, whereas the Sacramento area is one of four most polluted in the nation. Chapter 4 describes the data that were used to define the set of location choices and characterize the population of households. The region is divided into 122 housing communities and 8 work destinations, and each (community, worksite) pair is assigned a price of housing, a set of public goods, a set of wage rates, and a commute time. The empirical model explains the location choices made by households in each of 22 occupational categories, where wage options differ across each category and non-wage income differs across workers within each category.
331 Read more
methods should be applied together with traditional methods in pharmacy education in order to enhance the learning process of pharmacy students. Our study, however, has several limitations. Since we relied on self- reporting method, it may not reflect the actual learning style preference of the pharmacy students. The modest response rate in the current study could be another limi- tation as non-respondents may have different learning style preferences. Data obtained from a single university may not be able to generalisable to other universities in Malaysia.
The results outlined in Figure 4 indicated that passengers would like a wide range of payment options to chose from with the option of ‘Tickets paid for with cash (change given) and credit and debit cards’ as preferred means of payment with 583 (58%) respondents indicating this to be their first preference and 200(20%) their second. 60%(287) of males and 56%(296) selected this as first preference. 62%(111) of the 35- 44 age group compared with 56%-59% of the other groups. 60%(286) of the AB/C1 and 56%(281) of the C2/DE group selected this as first preference as did 52%(51) of retired, 60%(323) of working and 58%(75) of students. The second option of ‘Tickets paid for with cash (no change given, no notes) and credit and debit cards’ was ranked second with 106 (11%) of first preferences and with 512(53%) of second preferences resulting in it being ranked second. However, if one considers only first preferences alone this option received the lowest number. 13%(60) of males and 9%(46) of females give this a first preference. Between 10%-12% of all age groups did the same except only 6%(7) of the 65+ preferred it. Social class made little difference to first preferences but a lower number (7%/7) of retired compared with 12% of working and student groups gave it a first preference. The third ranked option when considering first and second preferences combined was to have ‘Tickets paid for with cash (no change given, no notes)’ with 291(29%) of first preferences and 253 (25%) of second preferences. 24%(117) of males compared with 33%(174) of females gave this option their first preference. Larger percentages, 32% and 35%, of the youngest and oldest age group respectively compared with 24%-28% of the other age groups gave this their first preference. 26%(122) of the AB/C1 and 32%(162) of the C2/DE group selected first preference as did 26%(139), 34%(34) and 29%(38) of the working, retired and student groups, respectively.
17 Read more
The importance of consumption externalities has been stressed exten- sively in the literature. Important references include Brekke and Howarth (2002), Easterlin (1995), Frank (1999), and Johansson-Stenman (2002, 2006), and Solnik and Hemenway (2005). It has previously been shown that con- sumption externalities shed important light on our understanding of issues like happiness, economic growth, asset pricing, or optimal (redistributive) taxation. With the exception of Wendner and Goulder (forthcoming), how- ever, no paper has addressed the impact of consumption externalities on the first-best and second-best levels of public good provision. This is the focus of the present paper.
22 Read more
Voluntary provision of public goods has been an important issue in the literature of public economics. Compared to voluntary provision of one public good, voluntary provision of two or more public goods has been paid limited attention, except for several papers such as Kemp (1984); Bergstrom et al. (1986); Cornes and Schweinberger (1996); Dasgupta and Kanbur (2005); Cornes and Itaya (2010); and Ihori et al. (2014). However, it has not been sufficiently investigated how many players contribute to two or more public goods in a Nash equilibrium. 1
11 Read more
services fell in to private or public hands, the user needed written guaran- tees about their rights, which should be included in a European Directive or Charter. In 1994, Jacques Delors, the President of the European Commission (EC) commissioned two of the EU social partners — the “European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic Interest” (CEEP), and the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) — to draft a Charter for SGI as a basis for a Framework Directive, which was published six years later after many rounds of consultation (CEEP and ETUC, 2000, EC, 2003b, EC, 2004). This development was also championed by the European Parliament and supported by the German government (Prosser, 2005). The draft Charter urged for a “bottom-up” approach to social regulation. This draft mentioned that citizens — not users or consumers — are more important and argued that all citizens should be guaranteed rights to: equal access, no discrimination, continuously working, quality and adapt- able services, universal provision, safety, fair pricing, efficiency levels that could be verified objectively, transparency, participation and democratic control. In this way, public services would be a foundation for a ‘Social Europe’ characterised by solidarity, territorial and social inclusion, quality of life and a dynamic economy (Van de Walle, 2006). A logical extension of guaranteeing rights to public services was the establishment of a European citizenship — part of the objective behind the failed European Constitution.
35 Read more
In the counterfactual scenario where the shift in social preferences never takes place, forest managers optimally respond to climate driven increases in MPB-induced mortality by gradually reducing harvest levels from 1990 to 2020 (as opposed to the drastic decline in harvests when social preferences shift). The counterfactual scenario sees more trees harvested, fewer trees available for MPB to attack, and a less severe increase in adult tree mortality due to climate change. The result is a less severe MPB outbreak that peaks in 2015 at 7.7 trees per acre killed.
30 Read more
The analysis presented here can be extended in several ways for future research. First, as our analysis is based on a single measure of reference earnings, derived from predicted earnings of 'people like you', there is ample scope for exploring alternative operational definitions of reference points. Guided by a large literature on reference groups and a growing number of empirical studies testing the importance of reference points, future work could compare dynamic paths of adjustment towards different or competing reference points. In such a context, the issue of heterogeneity in responses to reference values could be revisited by disaggregating the sample into more refined categories. Second, in future work we aim to disentangle the influence of behavioral responses from other factors that may affect the dynamic trajectory towards reference earnings. Such factors include employees' observed productive characteristics, the differential returns to education in the public and private sectors, the prevalence of wage compression in the public sector, and the possible existence of public service motivation, which dampens the
25 Read more
Results: Of the 133 participants, 35% (46/133) were starting, 33% (44/133) had completed two months, and 32% (43/133) had completed eight months of TB therapy. The male to female and public to private hospital ratios in the study population were 1:1. The PS-13 and the SIMS tools were highly acceptable and easily administered. Both scales and the subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach ’ s alpha above 0.70. Patients that were enrolled at the public hospital had relatively lower PS-13 satisfaction scores (0.48 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42 - 0.52)), (0.86 (95% CI, 0.81 - 0.90)) for technical quality of care and responsiveness to patient preferences, respectively compared to patients that were enrolled at the private hospital. For potential problems SIMS subscale, male patients that were recruited at the public hospital had relatively lower satisfaction scores (0.58 (95% CI, 0.40 - 0.86)) compared to female patients after adjusting for other factors. Similarly, patients that had completed eight months of TB treatment had relatively higher satisfaction scores (1.23 (95% CI, 1.06 - 1.44)) for action and usage SIMS subscale, and higher satisfaction scores (1.09 (95% CI, 1.03 - 1.16)) for management of patient preference (PS-13 satisfaction subscale) compared to patients that were starting treatment, respectively.
13 Read more