Pulmonarysequestration is an uncommon congenital condition in which a part of the lung becomes separated from the caudal foregut during embryonic development, resulting in that part of the lung having no bronchial communication with the normal tracheobronchial tree [1–3]. Sequestration is characterized by the abnormal lung receiving its arterial blood supply from one or more abnormal vessels that usually arise from the descending thoracic aorta or from the abdominal aorta (with the vessel penetrating the diaphragm to reach the seques- tered lung). Surgical resection is usually indicated in virtually all cases of sequestration to treat persistent symptoms, prevent future complications, and/or to confirm the diagnosis [1, 4, 5].
It can be divided into two distinct groups, intralobar and extralobar sequestra- tion, depending on the type of pleural envelopment. Intralobar sequestration accounts for about 75% - 85% of all pulmonarysequestration. It has venous drainage through the pulmonary veins, but may occur through other venous systems. It is closely connected to the adjacent normal lung and does not have a separate pleura. It presents later in childhood with recurrent pulmonary infec- tions . Extralobar sequestration accounts for 15% - 25% of all pulmonarysequestration. It has venous drainage through the systemic veins into the right atrium, being separated from the adjacent lung and enveloped by its own pleura. Usually present in the neonatal period with respiratory distress, cyanosis and or infection -.
Pulmonarysequestration (PS) is a congenital lung mal- formation that consists of a nonfunctioning lung tissue with no apparent communication with the tracheobron- chial tree . The blood supply to PS is through aber- rant vessels from systemic circulation, most commonly the descending thoracic aorta. The term sequestration is derived from the Latin verb sequestare, which means ‘ to separate ’ and it was first introduced as a medical term by Pryce in 1964 [2, 3]. PS is rare, representing about 1 to 6% of all congenital lung anomalies and may go
Pulmonarysequestration is a relatively rare congenital lung malformation that accounts for between 0.15% and 6.4% of all congenital pulmonary malformations . It is classi- fied into two types, extralobar sequestration (ELS) and intralobar sequestration (ILS). ELS is separated from normal lung tissue by its visceral pleura, whereas ILS is incorpo- rated within normal lung tissue . In both ILS and ELS, the sequestered lung is sup- plied by anomalous arteries (aberrant arteries) from the systemic circulation . Aber- rant arteries usually arise directly from the aorta, but they may also originate from the intercostal, subclavian or celiac artery. If repetitive infections occur in the sequestered lung tissue, spreading inflammation makes it very difficult to obtain an adequate opera- tive view. Therefore, to ensure safety, it is important to collect comprehensive preoper- ative information on the site of the sequestered lung, the number of aberrant arteries, and the route of the draining vein.
Pulmonarysequestration is a relatively uncommon aber- ration of the lung that is characterized by lung tissue that has a systemic arterial supply . It accounts for up to 6% of congenital pulmonary malformations . If a sequestration is identified, resection is generally required because of the risks of infection and misdiagnosis as a malignant lesion . Intralobar sequestration accounts for 75% of pulmonary sequestrations diagnosed, of which 98% are located in the lower lobes and the majority (58%) on the left side . Thus, accurate location of the aberrant artery is necessary.
Pulmonarysequestration is a heterogeneous group of lesions with anomalous connections between the various components of the lung. The primary role of imaging in an individual patient is to depict the aberrant vascular anatomy for diagnosis and accurate surgical planning. A high index of suspicion is required, both by the clinician and the radiologist, in making a presumptive diagnosis. Any persistent intrapulmonary opacity in the lower lobes of a child or young adult, on a chest radiograph, should prompt further evaluation with cross- sectional imaging. Non-invasive CT and MR angiographic techniques are useful for depiction of vascular anatomy. Multi detector CT angiography, which allows simultaneous imaging of the aberrant vascular anatomy as well as the lung parenchyma, has now become the first-line examination in the preoperative assessment of pulmonarysequestration. Diagnostic catheter angiography is only required in select problematic cases.
The instrumental examination involved measuring the body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as assessing breath sounds (wheezing and other noises). Instrumental diagnostics was carried out once a day during the patient's stay in the hospital and 1 time per month for 1 year after discharge. The laboratory examination included the following blood tests: the complete blood count to determine the total number of blood cells; coagulation factor test; hepatorenal function test, CEA test; and HIV antibody test. CT Angiography (CTA) was applied to diagnose pulmonarysequestration, whereas Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) was conducted before operation in order to localize abnormal vessels.
Reforestation is a widely embraced carbon sequestration technique [37,38]. However, its capacity in sequestering carbon is limited by competition with other land use pur- poses such as agriculture. In addition, as forest and under- lying soil mature, the carbon sink becomes saturated. If the trees are cut or burned by fire, the stored carbon would be lost back into the atmosphere. Such concerns had led to a disappointingly small role of reforestation in the Kyoto Protocol under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Wood har- vest and burial comes most naturally to such forests because they are by definition managed. Reforestation fol- lowed by wood burial will extend the lifetime of such land carbon sink indefinitely. Because much marginal land suitable for reforestation is currently not utilized, the ear- lier such activities are undertaken, the earlier is the effect. 2 Deforestation: cutting off the CO 2 source
Soil is the thin mantle (usually we can say 2 m thick), that covers most of the earth’s solid surface. It is a system of organic material, inorganic material and living organisms. So here ‘soil carbon’ refers to the total carbon in soil and it includes both inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic soil carbon is the result of both weathering of rocks and of carbonic acid in the soil precipitating as carbonate minerals such as calcite and dolomite. Inorganic forms are usually ignored when discussing agricultural production and carbon sequestration. The reason behind it is that the timescale for inorganic forms of carbon to change and interact with atmospheric carbon is thousands of years. On the other hand Organic soil carbon is a measure of soil organic matter and comes from the leaf litter, plant roots, branches, soil organisms and manure.
At the onset of ALI/ARDS, there is increased pulmonary neutrophil recruitment and activation in addition to positive correlations between IL8, myeloperoxidase and alveolar–capil- lary permeability, suggesting an association between neutrophil activation and the development of lung injury. In vitro, physiological concentrations of salbutamol failed to show an effect on neutrophil chemotaxis, viability or apoptosis. Treating patients with ALI/ARDS with intravenous salbutamol increased the number of circulating neutrophils, but had no effect on alveolar neutrophil numbers or on neutrophil activation or alveolar inflammation. The beneficial effects of salbutamol in reducing extravascular lung water seem to be unrelated to the modulation of neutrophilic inflammatory pathways.
on reducing the carbon footprint and is also able to improve the compressive strength of concrete. During this process, the sequestered carbon dioxide chemically reacts with cement to produce a mineral, trapping carbon dioxide gas in the concrete. Hence, sequestering carbon dioxide gas in concrete does not only on a bigger scale reduces carbon footprint, but it also reduces the impact the construction industry has on the environment. This paper presents a detailed review on the chemical reaction that takes place during the sequestration of carbon dioxide and the research published on the effects of carbon dioxide sequestered concrete on its properties. The impact this process has on the concrete industry and the environment is discussed in this paper.
direct and indirect carbonation process routes, but direct aqueous carbonation is a more popular process. The minerals which are used for carbonation process consist of magnesium calcium silicates are expensive, and much energy is required to convert them into carbonates with acceptable kinetics. However, mineral carbon sequestration using waste residues not only absorb CO 2 but also improves their stability by neutralizing the