Pyramids of Giza

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Shallow geophysical techniques to investigate the groundwater table at the Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt

Shallow geophysical techniques to investigate the groundwater table at the Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt

The integrated interpretation of ERT, SSR, and GPR surveys was performed at the Great Pyramids of Giza site to success- fully investigate the groundwater aquifer and water table ele- vation and assist hazard mitigation. An integrated interpreta- tion of three-layer models is assumed to depict the subsurface layers and a better delineation of the aquifer layer. The sur- face layer is composed of sands and gravels with a seismic velocity of 500–1000 m s −1 and a wide range of resistivity between 50 and 1200 m; the thickness varies between 3 and 6 m. The aquifer layer shows a velocity of 1200–2500 m s −1 and a resistivity range of 40–80 m, with a thickness be- tween 8 and 30 m correlated with marly limestone. The third layer shows a high velocity at 2800–3800 m s −1 and a re- sistivity range of 40–100 m correlated with limestone and dolomite in the saturated zone. The average water table depth is about 15 m, which is safe for the Sphinx where the base foot has an elevation of 20 m. The shallow water table eleva- tion at Nazlet El-Samman village reaches 16–17 m and might recharge the aquifer below the Sphinx and Valley Temple, which is considered a severe hazard on the site. A perched
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The Great Pyramids of Giza; Evidence for Cast Blocks

The Great Pyramids of Giza; Evidence for Cast Blocks

were clearly carved and hoisted into place, while SOME of those in Khufu and Khafra were clearly cast?. 2600 2500 2400 BC 1.0.[r]

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Archaeoastronomical Study of the Main Pyramids of Giza, Egypt: Possible Correlations with the Stars?

Archaeoastronomical Study of the Main Pyramids of Giza, Egypt: Possible Correlations with the Stars?

The different inclinations of the axes of the pyramids and of the Orion Belt with respect to the corresponding North-South direction (terrestrial, in the first case, celestial in the second one) can be simply due to religious motivations. Actually the south-eastern corners of the three Giza pyramids are aligned in good approximation towards the great solar temple of Heliopolis (Lehner, 1985a, b; Goedicke, 2001; Magli, 2009a, b). More pre- cisely the straight line connecting the south-eastern corners of the two extreme pyramids (those of Menkaure and Khufu) passes about 12 m away from the corresponding corner of the central (Khafre) pyramid; however, since this discrepancy is less than 2% of the distance (637 m) between the corners of the extreme pyramids, it is reasonable to conclude that the disposition of the main pyramids on the Giza plain was likely dictated by reli- gious considerations. In any case, it is worthwhile to note that obviously the Giza diagonal does not give con- straints to the relative distance between pyramids. In other words this alignment towards Heliopolis does not necessarily imply that the pyramid had to be placed on the ground as we see them today: there are endless possi- bilities to position three pyramids in a way that respects the alignment of their south-eastern corners along a stray line. For this reason the question of the orientation of the pyramid axis is unessential for our goals (and in fact the test performed in the present work is insensitive to this parameter).
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Double contour geodesic shells with 
		tetrahedral pyramids

Double contour geodesic shells with tetrahedral pyramids

Stage 2. After lifting all of the points and forming the faces of the pyramids, we transfer control to the program code fragment that generate the second contour. We will perform the formation of the second contour inside the Moebius triangle by adding rods connecting the tops of some of the tetrahedral pyramids. To do this, we use the lin _ function of GDL which receives two vertices of the formed line as parameters.

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The Giza written landscape and the double project of King Khufu

The Giza written landscape and the double project of King Khufu

pyramids, and indeed each pyramid had a specific name associating the monument with his owner; in a sense, the pyramid's name is a sort of further entry to be added to the royal titulary, the list of traditional names which characterized each Pharaoh A second example of a written element of the sacred landscape at Giza is clearly the Akhet hierophany which is also, as we shall see in a moment, a pyramid name. With the Akhet sign the structural analogy which connects writing with the cosmos and thus with the sacred landscape is brought to yet a higher level of sophistication – notwithstanding the crystal-clear, immediately recognizable and non-esoteric nature of her message. This level is precisely that of the cosmos, since it not sufficient to have two giant pyramids each weighing some 8 millions of tons to obtain the Akhet sign – yes, to write it – but also the sun in the correct position once a year is needed. Now, the question is, who was the king responsible for such an astonishing
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Control Rights, Pyramids, and the Measurement of Ownership Concentration

Control Rights, Pyramids, and the Measurement of Ownership Concentration

WLP, are not grounded in a theory of firm ownership. However, any measure of control rights exerted via a pyramid that is so grounded will have to recognise that there may be other reasons for the existence of pyramids in addition to the separation of control and cash-flow rights. These other reasons include minimising transaction costs (Goto 1982), dealing with governance issues involving joint ventures and relationship-specific investments (Emmons and Schmid 1998) or acting as an internal capital market when external capital markets are imperfect (Almeida and Wolfenzon 2006). Treating pyramids that exist for these reasons as if they exist solely to separate control from cash-flow rights is likely to be a source of error. A proper understanding of the role of pyramids in corporate governance requires more attention to be paid to the reasons for the existence of such ownership structures. Our results show that the conflict of interest between controlling and non-controlling owners of listed German firms does depend on the extent to which the largest owner’s control and cash-flow rights differ, but it is not obvious that pyramids are a major factor in this separation.
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A project about Pyramids...and Mathematics. (Source: )

A project about Pyramids...and Mathematics. (Source: )

The most enigmatic of sculptures, the Sphinx was carved from a single block of limestone left over in the quarry used to build the Pyramids. Scholars believe it was sculpted about 4,600 years ago by the pharaoh Khafre, whose Pyramid rises directly behind it and whose face may be that represented on the Sphinx.

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Training a Statistical Machine Translation System without GIZA++

Training a Statistical Machine Translation System without GIZA++

to overcome the asymmetry of the alignment generated by the IBM Models. A remaining disadvantage, however, is the high model complexity. This paper describes a word alignment training procedure for statistical machine translation that uses a simple and clear statistical model, different from the IBM models. The main idea of the algorithm is to generate a symmetric and monotonic alignment between the target sentence and a permutation graph representing different reorderings of the words in the source sentence. The quality of the generated alignment is shown to be comparable to the standard GIZA ++ training in an SMT setup.
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Active appearance pyramids for object parametrisation and fitting

Active appearance pyramids for object parametrisation and fitting

Object class representation is one of the key problems in various medical image analysis tasks. We propose a part-based parametric appearance model we refer to as an Active Appearance Pyramid (AAP). The parts are delineated by multi-scale Local Feature Pyramids (LFPs) for superior spatial specificity and distinctiveness. An AAP models the variability within a population with local translations of multi- scale parts and linear appearance variations of the assembly of the parts. It can fit and represent new instances by adjusting the shape and appearance parameters. The fitting process uses a two-step iterative strategy: local landmark searching fol- lowed by shape regularisation. We present a simultaneous local feature searching and appearance fitting algorithm based on the weighted Lucas and Kanade method. A shape regulariser is derived to calculate the maximum likelihood shape with re- spect to the prior and multiple landmark candidates from multi-scale LFPs, with a compact closed-form solution. We apply the 2D AAP on the modelling of vari- ability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and validate its performance on 200 studies consisting of routine axial and sagittal MRI scans. Intervertebral sagittal and parasagittal cross-sections are typically used for the diagnosis of LSS, we therefore build three AAPs on L3/4, L4/5 and L5/S1 axial cross-sections and three on parasagittal slices. Experiments show significant improvement in con- vergence range, robustness to local minima and segmentation precision compared with Constrained Local Models (CLMs), Active Shape Models (ASMs) and Ac- tive Appearance Models (AAMs), as well as superior performance in appearance reconstruction compared with AAMs. We also validate the performance on 3D CT volumes of hip joints from 38 studies. Compared to AAMs, AAPs achieve a higher segmentation and reconstruction precision. Moreover, AAPs have a significant im- provement in efficiency, consuming about half the memory and less than 10% of the training time and 15% of the testing time.
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Theory of Economic Development (Pyramids of Development)

Theory of Economic Development (Pyramids of Development)

The economic development is the term represents “long -term economic planning which based on infrastructure development, trade development and most importantly human development. These pyramids are basically interconnected with economic development. In other word, the new theoretical aspects considerable compared with prior studies of economic development. There are further factors which purposely get rid of development barriers in economic planning, secure from dissolving assets of nations such as, deforestation, flood management, land of agriculture, and climate impact. These are most fundamental variables ignored by economic planner. This research study further elaborated wealth of natural resources in the example of other Asian countries like, Malaysia and china. Moreover, human development is the skeleton of economic development. They should be keep healthy and nourish which are provided complete legal material of living standards, therefore, health of nation would be controlled and maintained. Besides, education is an essential for human development, consequently, ignorance of appropriate basic level of education can lead the nation to dark of unaware of civil society i.e. harmful for growing economy at globalize world. Human without education like stagnant of literate people in economy that deliberately useless for industrial services and repercussion economic growth.
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Will Pyramids Built of Nuggets Topple Over?

Will Pyramids Built of Nuggets Topple Over?

This pyramid scheme can be easily adapted for question answering evaluation since a nugget is roughly comparable to a Semantic Content Unit. We propose to build nugget pyramids for answers to complex questions by soliciting vital/okay judg- ments from multiple assessors, i.e., take the original reference nuggets and ask different humans to clas- sify each as either “vital” or “okay”. The weight as- signed to each nugget is simply equal to the number of different assessors that deemed it vital. We then normalize the nugget weights (per-question) so that the maximum possible weight is one (by dividing each nugget weight by the maximum weight of that particular question). Therefore, a nugget assigned “vital” by the most assessors (not necessarily all) would receive a weight of one. 1
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Multichannel Texture Segmentation Using Bamberger Pyramids

Multichannel Texture Segmentation Using Bamberger Pyramids

A multichannel texture segmentation algorithm is presented based on the image pyramids produced with the Bamberger directional filter bank. An extensive evaluation of Bamberger pyramids and their design parameters is presented. The impact on segmentation performance of factors like the number of pyramid levels, number of directional channels, redundancy and filter specifications is considered. The proposed system is shown to provide some of the best results reported to date when compared with other multichannel representations under similar evaluation conditions. It is further shown that segmentation results using the maximally decimated directional filter bank rival those of the undecimated case. To the knowledge of the authors, such performance has not been previously observed for decompositions with decimated channels.
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Crowdsourcing Lightweight Pyramids for Manual Summary Evaluation

Crowdsourcing Lightweight Pyramids for Manual Summary Evaluation

We paid workers $0.50 per reference summary annotation assignment gener- ating 8 SCUs, yielding a total Pyramid creation cost of $48 including fees for the 2005 dataset 10 topics and $96[r]

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Leverage in Pyramids: When Debt Leads To Higher Dividends *

Leverage in Pyramids: When Debt Leads To Higher Dividends *

Endogeneity of ownership structures requires that ownership is dynamic and adjusts when conditions change. We have measures for ownership with two-year intervals. Thus, we can investigate for three two-year changes (1997 to 1999, 1999 to 2001, and 2001 to 2003) whether the classification (widely held, block-non pyramid, block-pyramid) has changed and, for pyramids what the changes in the equity wedge are. In our sample [3 x 350 = 1,050 pairs], we find 960 pairs where we can investigate a change over two years. In 817 cases (85.10%) we find no change in the classification of ownership structure/use of pyramids. In this set of 960, 477 pairs are pyramids in both years (besides 340 other stable pairs, such as block-controlled firms without pyramids). In the set of 477 stable pairs of pyramids, the average absolute change in the wedge is 0.339, which is relatively small in comparison with an average wedge of 1.840. The stability of the ownership structure implies that endogeneity of this variable is not likely to induce biased estimates. Although all regressions in Tables 2 and 4 use one-year lagged ownership measures, this lag may not be sufficient to account for reverse causality. As an additional robustness check we repeat all regressions in these tables with three-year lagged ownership measures. Obviously, we lose some power in our tests because we cannot use the first two years of our panel. The results (not reported) in Table 2 and Table 4 are robust to this three-year lag. 26 In a few instances the
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A Study of the Simple Geometrical Relationship of the Main Monuments of Giza and a Possible Connection to Stars

A Study of the Simple Geometrical Relationship of the Main Monuments of Giza and a Possible Connection to Stars

tions have taken place in the vicinity of the Convergence Point, an extensive settlement of mud-brick buildings is known to have extended from the position now occupied by the modern village of Nazlet el-Samman, east of the Giza pyramid field, southeast through the villages of Nazlet el-Sissi, Nazlet el-Batran and Kafr el-Gebel (Hawass & Senussi, 2008). This settlement was unearthed in the late 1980s and early 1990s during the construc- tion of a new sewage system as part of the Greater Cairo Waste Water Project initiated by American British Consultants (AMBRIC) to prevent the further rising of wastewater close to the plateau at Giza. Several thousand pieces of pottery were found, much of it dating to the Old Kingdom, along with mud sealings of Khufu and Khafre. The remains of the mud-brick buildings, along with the pottery found, suggest that this extensive set- tlement formed part of the pyramid city associated with the cult of Khufu (Hawass & Senussi, 2008).
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Organizational Structure as a Decentralization Device: Evidence from Corporate Pyramids*

Organizational Structure as a Decentralization Device: Evidence from Corporate Pyramids*

This paper examines the pyramidal ownership/organizational structure of newly listed government-controlled firms in China. These controlling owners are constrained by the Chinese laws prohibiting free transfer of state ownership. Pyramiding allows them to credibly decentralize decision rights to firm management without selling off their ownership. Our empirical results support this conjecture. State controlling owners build more extensive corporate pyramids when they are less burdened with fiscal or unemployment problems, when they have more long-term goals, and when their firms’ decisions are more subject to market and legal disciplines. The more extensive pyramids are also associated with higher Tobin’s Q, better labor and investment efficiency and greater total factor productivity. This relation between pyramidal structure and firm operating efficiency however is found to be endogenous to the local government incentives and the regional institutional environment faced by the firms.
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A Multi-Focus Image Fusion Algorithm Based on Contrast Pyramids

A Multi-Focus Image Fusion Algorithm Based on Contrast Pyramids

The density-connectivity among pixels is transitive as density reachability, which is consistent with the imaging characteristics of multi-focus images. In smooth regions, focus measurements are not stable since the EOL is small. Noisy pixels can have larger EOL than the true focused pixels. The density based thresholding and growing can reduce the label errors on smooth regions or noisy pixels. 4. Region mosaicking on contrast pyramids

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A New Angle on Sneferu s Pyramids. By David A. Cintron

A New Angle on Sneferu s Pyramids. By David A. Cintron

Ahmed Fakhry, the first to conduct an investigation of the Dahshur complex using modern methodology in the early 1950’s, proposed this story. Because the pyramid architects had only built step pyramids up until that time, the southern pyramid was begun at too steep of an angle to support its own weight. After the pyramid was begun it was found that the sharp angle was unsafe and causing cracks within the structure, so the angle was reduced and the pyramid completed. But it was too late, the damage was done, and so the southern pyramid was left behind and the northern pyramid was designed with a shallower angle and was completed to satisfaction. 1
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Essential Design of the Great Pyramid Encoded in Hemiunu’s Mastaba at Giza

Essential Design of the Great Pyramid Encoded in Hemiunu’s Mastaba at Giza

In summary, all essential exterior and interior design features of the Great Py- ramid at Giza can be found in the original and expanded dimensions of Hemi- unu’s mastaba in its west-field once the unusual deviations from whole number values are noted. Their presence is compelling evidence that they were added in- tentionally as clues to reveal the essential design themes used to plan this pyra- mid. While there is a remote possibility that Hemiunu incorporated G1’s archi- tectural design into his own mastaba without having conceived it, the much more likely possibility is that he wanted to record his design for posterity in such a way that it could be retrieved. G4000 thus became Hemiunu’s blue-print for G1 firmly anchoring its conception to the 4 th Dynasty and the reign of Khufu.
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Food Chains-Trophic Levels and Ecological Pyramids

Food Chains-Trophic Levels and Ecological Pyramids

FOOD CHAINS primary consumer primary consumer tertiary consumer tertiary consumer quaternary consumer quaternary consumer secondary consumer secondary consumer grass grass- hopper frog s[r]

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