increase articulation between different parts of the qualification system and also link vocational, applied and academic learning. The Group also describes the main technical features of NQFs and credit transfer systems and their potential benefit to Qatar. In these ways, the aims of the Qatar Qualification Framework Group reflect the findings from the international literatures, particularly those of early starter nations, referred to in this report. 1.7 They also state that an early priority will be to map the diversity of qualifications being used in Qatar, including those from Australia and Scotland, according to level and category, In meeting the needs of Qatar, the Group observed that an emerging framework would have to initially focus on the area of vocational competence. Moreover, they asserted that Qatar developments had to cross-reference these to one or more international frameworks for validity and transferability, notably the European Qualifications Framework (5). Another priority will be the establishment of a national qualifications authority, which is independent and not attached to a particular ministry.
39 Read more
An intention of the National Qualifications Framework is to rectify this. However, the framework as a priority in the government’s reform project “has been developed and designed with certain aims, most of which are futuristic” (Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework and the Education and Training Quality Authority (Bahrain) (October 2018). The goal of achieving international recognition of Bahrain’s framework and contributing to regional and global development of frameworks is partly achieved by alignment, in 2017, with the Scottish framework. Within two or three years, it is intended to have alignment with the Malaysian Qualifications Framework, the New Zealand Qualifications Framework, and the Irish Qualifications Framework – an initial comparison report being produced for the last-mentioned in 2014. Currently, Bahrain is “heavily involved” in a meta-framework for the Gulf region, and also in the Arab Qualifications Framework “which crystallises the efforts of ANQAHE (i.e. the Arab Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, which was established in 2007 with the support of the World Bank, UNESCO and the British Council).
16 Read more
9.2 The most directly comparable framework in the rest of the UK is the Credit and Qualifications Framework for Wales (CQFW), launched in 2003 (CQFW 2003a, 2003b). The Northern Ireland Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme (NICATS) was launched in 1999, with a focus on higher education, but recent progress has been slow, partly because of the need to coordinate with other UK developments. In England there has been substantial interest in credit approaches, especially in Further Education, adult learning and their interface with higher education (Tait 2003a, 2003b). There were several local or regional initiatives, including Open College Networks (OCNs) and programmes for access to higher education. However the government in England took a more cautious approach until the 2003 Skills Strategy, which announced its intention for the first time to develop a credit framework for adults (DfES et al. 2003). In 2004 the development of this framework became combined with the ongoing reform of vocational qualifications, and the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) launched a consultation on proposals for a Framework for Achievement (FfA), a unitised framework of vocational qualifications based on a central database of units designed to a standard template (QCA 2004). The FfA would include qualifications not currently in the NQF but it would exclude informal learning and most school and higher education qualifications. It would cover England, but with the intention that it should be capable of recognising achievements across EWNI, and that it should link as closely as possible with the CQFW and the SCQF. A parallel consultation was held in Northern Ireland.
101 Read more
A further potential problem regarding the development of EQF-related NQFs may arise from the fact that the outcomes-approach forms a new terrain for many European countries. As presented in the learning outcomes section above, a large number of national qualifications systems are traditionally input-based and process-oriented. Syllabuses form central parts of education and training organisation. In this context also the recognition of informal and non- formal learning – in the literature alternately brought up as a consequence or a rationale of outcomes-approaches – raises further potential problems. Traditionally input-oriented countries like for instance Germany often have quiet rigid systems with a high degree of formalisation and institutionalisation, socially attaching great value to formal degrees and certificates (also in a social sense). Thus, implementing an outcomes-approach involves fundamental changes that go (even) beyond practical tasks. Young sets out that in the past those countries that forced a radical one-off break with their previous qualifications systems have faced the most acute difficulties. 78
54 Read more
“Even though I am not an Early Years specialist I would say that a simplification of the Early Years qualification framework is essential. We are recruiting to a lot of posts which require capability to work with young children at the moment and I have almost given up trying to work out how one qualification relates to another! Almost every application form turns up a new qualification we haven't come across before. Even my Early Years specialists haven't heard of half of them. It becomes very difficult to make judgements about which qualifications are the most useful. It was pointed out to me by our HR staff that equal opportunities issues arise from this in that there can be a tendency to 'go with what you know' and appoint people from our own region who have qualifications we recognise from institutions we know.”
22 Read more
It seems likely that to achieve longer term continued growth in the number of tertiary level graduates, the education and training system in Australia will need to have a number of different pathways for both entry into and progression through undergraduate degrees. It is somewhat surprising with the emphasis on being a clever country that the Australian education and training system has been reluctant to embrace some developments, which have been adopted and proved to be effective in other developed countries and regions. In a country noted for its early development of initiatives such as distance education and professional doctorates, we seem to be reluctant to digress from such a strong focus on traditional, academic progression as the primary pathway for responding to the emergent needs of the Australian labour market, i.e. completed vocational qualifications (plus work experience) tend to provide entry and advanced standing into university programmes. A review of university credit policies indicates that the actual credit is more likely to be based on university qualifications that has been previously completed by an individual rather than any other source of learning.
14 Read more
Unlike the majority of learning pathways offered by Australian providers, workbased learning offers a customised pathway for each student. To the extent that the structure set out above is the basis for all workbased-learning awards and is more or less a ‘given’, this ‘framework’ enables a student to pursue multiple pathways to achieve their learning objectives. This may involve elements of course work as required but also involves completely individualised project plans that plot the course of the student’s learning journey. The way of achieving the learning is via the medium of the workbased projects but this may involve the student in multiple roles, in multiple settings and seeking to achieve divergent outcomes. The outcomes of this learning may be a new product or an improved way of doing a particular activity or project at work. In any event, the artefacts for assessment may be presented in a variety of ways consistent with the student’s learning outcomes. All these divergent approaches are subjected to assessment in ways consistent with all education and training programs and in line with the qualifications framework for that jurisdiction. The scaffolding of the workbased learning program provides a multiplicity of in-built pathways.
14 Read more
It is feasible to access educational programmes through the Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL), provided that diverse, reliable and valid methods of assessment are devised. RPL is an assessment strategy in which knowledge and skills ac- quired through non-formal ways of learning or through experiential events can be identified, acknowledged, assessed and validated . The strategy could be beneficial to employees who have been out of the education system for a long time and who want to return to the higher education system. One of the strengths of RPL is the potential to challenge traditional procedures for admit- ting candidates to higher education which tend to be based solely on certifica- tion. Even where work experience is a requirement for eligibility to admission tests to access higher education, in most cases admission tests require that can- didates recall prior formal knowledge . RPL is critical in widening access by providing an opportunity to candidates to use prior learning to articulate non-certificated knowledge, skills and competences acquired and to acknowl- edge the relevance of work-based knowledge. Tabatadze and Gorgadze  sug- gest that universities and colleges should shift away from the elitist criteria of admission to the inclusive criterion of education because it embraces access and equity. Therefore, RPL provides an opportunity for individuals who do not have formal qualifications to enter higher education institutions on the basis of learning derived from an accumulated amount of work experience .
12 Read more
An analysis of higher education for medicine reveals a comprehensive pattern of learning, moving from early stages of basic awareness and knowledge of the essentials through to developing skills. The right to practice in more specialised areas of medicine requires greater levels of training and education (Booth, 1995). In project management, we have a fragmentation of training and education. Non-registered training organisations have carved out a sizeable niche providing continuing professional education (CPE) courses. Registered training organisations (RTOs) and the Technical and Further Education (TAFE) sectors offer programs structured around the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF)
14 Read more
activities, developers of the qualifications framework identified three main types of competences: functional, cognitive and general. It is not always easy to establish a clear limit distinguishing these types of competences. It is the general and cognitive competences that tend to be awkward to distinguish. It is not quite clear, for example, which competence type should cover is- sues such as general education knowledge, knowledge of methods of op- erational performance and capacities to apply such knowledge in practice, etc. The concept of competence in the national qualifications framework is based on the functional approach applied in many current qualifications frame- works – NVQ (national vocational qualifications) in the UK, qualifications frameworks of Australia and New Zealand and others (Delamare Le Deist and Winterton, 2005). Different to the NVQ of the UK which is criticised for lack of attention to systematic acquisition of knowledge and skills in voca- tional education and training institutions (Warhurst, Grugulis and Keep, 2004), the concept of competence in the national qualifications system of Lithua- nia attributes an important role to integrating systematically provided knowl- edge and skills in designing and providing competences and qualifications. For example, general education plays a crucial role in progressing from one qualification level to another (especially in the first level of qualifications). The role of general education in the qualifications structure presented sig- nificant problems for experts in the working group for developing the na- tional qualifications framework. The question was whether general educa- tion can be assessed as a certain qualification and, if so, what place this qualification occupies in the national qualifications framework. Intense dis- cussions led to the conclusion that general education cannot be identified with professional qualifications. However, it constitutes a significant back- ground and condition for qualification acquisition and qualification growth; (b) Characteristics of the activity – autonomy, complexity and changeability. Describing each level of qualification the following questions are answered: • How do characteristics of activity specific to the level of qualifications in- fluence the needs of functional, cognitive and general competences re- quired to accomplish functions of activities? In other words, what function- al, cognitive and general competences are needed to accomplish a task with certain characteristics of autonomy, complexity and changeability? • How do characteristics of activity influence acquisition and development
266 Read more
However, there are some issues for conducting equivalence research between academic and skills areas where the qualification descriptions in the MQF are not specifically tailored to the knowledge, skills and competences domain as contained in the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). This study was carried out to determine the descriptions of each qualification level within the Malaysian Qualifications Framework that could be proposed for use in the research of equivalence between the fields of academic and skills. This study is based on the objectives that to identify the descriptions of each qualifying stage within the MQF that may be proposed for use in research of the equivalence between skills and the academic via APEL process.
ABSTRACT: The assessment of Biology Learning based on Indonesian National Qualifications Framework has been validated by experts as very valid 95.43%. Furthermore, the assessment of Biology Learning was carried out practicality by lecturers on the subject of evaluation of Biology Learning Processes. The purpose of this study is to result an assessment based on the Indonesian National Qualifications Framework in lectures on Evaluation of Processes and practical Biological Learning Outcomes. This research is development research using the Plomp’s model. The instrument used was a practicality questionnaire. The data analysis technique uses the percentage formula. The results showed that the practicality of assessment of attitudes and values, knowledge and skills was 98.30% with very practical criteria. It can be concluded that assessment based on Indonesian National Qualifications Framework at attitudes and values, knowledge and skills in the course of Biological Evaluation and Learning Outcomes have very practical to Process Evaluation and Biology Learning Outcomes.
In order to keep the discourse presented below within manageable boundaries, it is limited to initial vocational education and training (VET) delivered in FE. While this inevitably means that the discussion is partial, it does encompass perhaps the most active area of policy development in relation to skills development. The role of public policy is essentially that of intervening where market mechanisms might result in market failure of one kind or another. Such failures have been well documented and relate, amongst other things, to allocative efficiency (e.g. providing a qualifications framework, setting training standards, etc.), capital market failures (e.g. paying for the training of young people), and information failures (e.g. indicating the returns to various qualifications) (Hogarth et al., 2009). In essence public policy has been oriented towards
25 Read more
Established and recent entrants to project management are often unsure whether to seek professional certification or higher education, and the advice they receive is contradictory. Professional bodies appear to promote cer- tification processes as de facto professional qualifications in lieu of formal education. The Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM) uses the RegPM certification process (http://www.aipm.com.au/html/regpm.cfm) to gain considerable revenue but has always strug- gled with the conflict between the AQF levels of the certification (levels 4 to 6) which equate to Diploma, Advanced Diploma and Associate Degree, and industry’s expectations that highly competent practitioners would have qualifica- tions well above Advanced Diploma level. The irony is that many of the recipients of profes- sional certification already have competencies appropriate to postgraduate qualifications at university level. The Project Management Insti- tute (PMI) promotes their suite of professional certifications (http://www.pmi.org/Certification. aspx) and earns considerable revenue from the program, but the PMI certification has no align- ment with any qualifications framework (such as the AQF). In the case of both AIPM and PMI, certification is unrelated to any requirement for membership of that body, which is a significant anomaly.
Working Across Traditional Healthcare Boundaries Advanced practitioners often work across traditional health- care boundaries, being fully integrated into new care path- ways and the multidisciplinary team. This clearly delineates the advanced practitioner from the largely uniprofessional focus of the radiographer practitioner grade. The transition from practitioner to advanced practitioner requires signifi- cant investment at the individual, service and organisational level if it is to succeed and become firmly embedded within healthcare practice. To achieve this status requires addition- al knowledge, skills and expertise, and this is most compati- ble with Masters level (EQF Level 7) study (SCoR 2005), with evidence of successful integration of advanced clinical compe- tences within a postgraduate framework (Piper et al 2010; 2014; 2015). Lack of formal education has several poten- tial consequences, including lack of transferability between hospitals, reduced recognition, and lack of opportunity for career advancement. Radiographers should be encouraged to see postgraduate study as an essential component of advanced practice (EFRS 2011b), though currently only 39% of educational institutions with a pre-registration radiog- raphy programme currently offer Masters programmes for Description
HWE Mining sub-contractors and employees employed on a contract basis such as labour hire employees must have the relevant qualifications, training and experience before beginning employment with the company. The Learning and Skills Development Policies and Procedures Manual stipulates that HWE sub-contractors must undertake training at their own expense. This generally applies to external or accredited training only as HWE Mining has a statutory obligation to provide relevant operational and OHS training such as inductions, equipment assessments, company procedures and other safety based training to all employees, including contractors.
240 Read more
City and Guilds’ SAP database contains detailed information on active and inactive, accredited and non-accredited qualifications. The classification of assessment types in SAP differs slightly from RITS, but, again, does not include a category to unambiguously denote WBOA (or indeed, other methods or evidence types that are typically used in the workplace, e.g., professional discussion, witness statement, etc., which all typically contribute to a portfolio of evidence – see the next section and Appendix 1 for more details). Figure 1 shows the breakdown of all City and Guilds assessments in the SAP system in November 2011 by assessment type. This illustrates that over half of all assessments are referred to as portfolio, although, a portfolio is a repository of information, rather than a method of assessment (Stone, 2012). As repositories of information, among other things portfolios contain records of results from other assessment methods such as multiple-choice (often underpinning knowledge) tests and short answer questions, and they tend to be widely used in work-based qualifications. It is, therefore, our best guess that portfolios also contain records of WBOA, and that the units that use portfolio of evidence presumably often also use WBOA. This was the case with the qualifications that featured in our fieldwork (City and Guilds Hairdressing, Electrical Installation and Plumbing), and also in a few others for which we inspected the units to find out which methods of assessment are typically used.
149 Read more
standards amalgamated into units of competency. Here the AQF is intended to provide an overarching conceptual framework. However, the Australian experience suggests that when trying to concretise such an overarching conceptual framework and ground it in implementation, the interpretation of the framework and the guidelines is variable; there is a tendency to use it if it fits with what you were doing before or it fits with your own agenda. For example, despite trying to be more customer facing and focusing on competency based VET assessment, within some NSW TAFE Institutes curriculum centres 19 are still using a graded approach to competency even though learners should be judged competent or not competent. There is also an ongoing debate between the commonwealth government and industry over the meaning of the levels in the AQF. Thus some confusion remains over the meaning of qualifications and how programmes leading to those qualifications should be implemented.
115 Read more
Unfortunately, there is considerable waste and duplication in the development of learning resources, most of which already utilise a common industry framework such as the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) (Project Management Institute, 2008). Synergies are largely untapped in terms of the multiple cohorts of project management students across the world, who could undertake learning activities in team-based environments that would reflect an authentic project management workplace of the future. There are challenges in such models though, and assessment practices and integrity of the evaluation of the learning outcomes can be difficult to coordinate (Centre for the Study of Higher Education, 2002; James, McInnis, & Devlin, 2002).
The assumption of a direct and simple link between skills and economic performance is challenged by Finlay et al (2007a) who argue that although for individuals, increasing their qualifications will generally place them in a more advantageous position in the labour market, it does not follow that a general increase in skills levels will improve a nation’s economic position. The improved economic positions of China and India are not led by them having higher percentages of their workforces with the equivalent of Level 2 or 3 qualifications but by their much lower labour costs. Increased workforce skills will not lead to higher levels of economic productivity if there is insufficient investment in capital equipment to take full advantage of these skills. Economic performance can also be hampered by exchange rates, interest rates, and savings rates, none of which are causally dependant on skills (Wolf 2002). None of these arguments justifies not developing skills but they do suggest caution in expecting immediate national economic benefits and possibly in privileging skills and economic development over social justice in education policy. Even if one accepts economic prosperity as the main route to social inclusion worthy of government support, it does not necessarily follow that the best way of achieving economic prosperity is by supporting educational activities that directly develop skills that appear to be most closely related to workplaces. Individuals have weird and wonderful routes through education and employment and only ex post do they often make sense. Attempting to steer work outcomes through ex ante manipulation of course choices seems fraught with difficulties. One can accept the government rationale that social inclusion can be achieved through following an educational trajectory that leads to employment and increased income, without buying into the notion that educational trajectories that are more obviously ‘vocational’ such as basic skills or motor vehicle mechanics are superior in leading to employment than classical philosophy or creative writing. It is stating the obvious to point out that studying classical philosophy, creative writing or flower arranging can be motivational vehicles for the development of a range of skills that have employability utility.
11 Read more