Furthermore, ship paint application is the most important part to control the performance or quality of antifouling paints. High performance paint systems are especially sensitive to misapplication and knowledge of the application characteristics and recommended film thickness is vital to obtain optimum results. For optimum service life, the surface must be completely free of all contaminants that might impair performance and should be treated as such to assure good and permanent adhesion of the paint system. The quality of surface preparation has a direct relation with the lifetime of a system. Nowadays, the paint application method commonly used airless spray. The degree of skill of the personnel can affect the performance of paints. Besides that, paints materials, coating compatibility and environmental conditions also need to be concidered. Different paints materials have different properties, thus have different effects on the paints performance.
Uniqueness. As individuals interact and construct the world around them, they develop their own unique and personalized understanding of various phenomena (Den- zin, 1994; Finlay & Ballinger, 2006). The manner in which one person interprets a situation can be very differ- ent from how another individual ascertains meaning from the same event. This variability is embraced and cele- brated in qualitative concept mapping. As researchers, we attempt to understand phenomenon based on the mean- ings that people bring to them (Creswell, 2014; Denzin & Lincoln, 2005; Finlay & Ballinger, 2006). Uniqueness is embedded within the details of an individual’s concept map. These details encourage a connection between the voice of the participant and the audience. For example, “the story of Anne Frank reaches us in ways that the num- ber ‘six million’ does not. A focus on the individual allows for a noticing, a perception, and a connection” (Bresler, 2006, p. 57). This dialogic connection with the uniqueness of a participant’s concept map encourages the researcher to move beyond his or her preconceptions and expand his or her conventional interpretations, thereby, generating new and meaningful knowledge (Bresler, 2006; Butler-Kisber & Poldma, 2010; Corbin & Strauss, 2008).
Finally, we found that in contrast to influence, popularity can be obtained spontaneously or accidently. We observed that (1) popular bloggers consistently write about a wide range of ‘hot topics’ to foster high traffic, and (2) they have few popular posts on a cooking topic (Table 3). These properties of popular bloggers infer that they have few steady readers with common interests about a recipe and have far more lurkers, as shown by qualitative indicators and in the validation assessment. In contrast, influential bloggers are more dedicated to cooking topics; therefore, they have far more influential posts (Table 3). As a result, they have more steady readers with common interests, regularly interacting with the bloggers.
SCOT informs our study by reinforcing the notion of conducting interpretivist research in IS. Since the first principle of SCOT is “interpretive flexibility” our storytelling method utilizes the principle of technology design as an open process that arises from negotiated meanings within a group. We leverage the second principle of SCOT , which is that of relevant social groups, in our storytelling method by interviewing shared social groupings comprised of users and managers of IT within a company. We use the third principle of SCOT, that of closure and stabilization, to understand where a story is in its life cycle; thereby identifying when an innovative technological artifact and the story about an artifact are in their final forms. Technological frames are the focus of the fourth and final principle of the social construction of technology approach. The IS researcher using storytelling from a SCOT perspective is actively seeking the technological relevance of stories being told.
For this current work, we developed a methodology to consider individual NMDR relationships in a risk assess- ment context. We expanded a stepwise decision tree to assess the likelihood of NMDR relationships reported. This analysis can be completed with a weight of evi- dence approach to evaluate all the data available for the substance of interest. This approach enables assessing the consistency of the dose-response relationship. The steps in this approach involve assembling the relevant data (either positive or negative), evaluating these data for quality and relevance, and integrating the different points of evidence to support conclusions concerning specific properties of the substance. Thus, the relevance and the impact of NMDR relationships reported on EDCs can be better understood and incorporated into the risk assessment method to determine the potential impacts of such substances on human health. Another important point to determine is the extent of experi- mental exposure (the range of exposure level in which an NMDR relationship occurs). The literature review performed for this current study enabled an analysis of the NMDR relationship profiles reported by the authors.
The analytical models are mainly combined with numerical equations for the problems of the pavement under the wheel load. Different assumptions can be considered, such as elastic asphalt and viscoelastic as well as static or dynamic load. Mainly on deformation at the bottom of asphalt and tension layers focus on subgrid. The pavement structure was considered as layers with uniform characteristics. Therefore, this analytical model calculates the three-dimensional contact tension between the wheel and the pavement and the shape of the contact area. Basis and subgrid are considered linear and the asphalt layers can be linear or viscoelastic. This model is based on the results of direct shear stress tests at an axial load constant. The curves obtained from this experiment can be defi ned by three parameters: the maximum shear stress (shear stress curve versus shear displacement), the interaction modulus between the layers (the same curve slope) and the friction coeffi cient after the failure. Due to the ability of ABACOUS software, this project is done with this software. One of the methods widely used to predict viscoelastic responses of asphalt mixtures is the fi nite element method. ABAQUS software is one of the tools that can simulate mixed asphalt behavior based on a fi nite element method, taking into account all the determinant parameters. The use of the Prony series is one of the common techniques for describing the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixtures in ABAQUS software. For this purpose, it is necessary to determine the parameters required for this fi eld, including proven constants, moment elastic modulus, and asphalt mixture poison ratio. On the other hand, the determination of these parameters through testing in addition to spending time and costs requires laboratory equipment. Therefore, in this thesis, a three-dimensional fi nite element model with ABAQUS software was constructed to analyze the persistent pavement using theoretical relations without conducting the experiment. Also, viscoelastic behavior of common asphalt mixtures and time dependence of its responses at different temperatures can be modeled in ABAQUS software. After performing the shear stress test for different axial loads, different temperatures, with or without a single coil, they found that all parameters are temperature dependent and the coeffi cient of friction does not depend on the applied axial load. This new model improves the accuracy of the fi nite element model and its important role can be an analytic expression that includes all the variables that are effective in the problem.
Thus, a qualitativemethod was used. Interviewing was chosen above a survey, since the opportunity to ask for more information and opinions of participants was considered most relevant to answer the research questions. This way, more information is gathered about why the method is continued or discontinued. There were separate interview schemes for school leaders, teachers and data experts. All interviews were conducted in the months May, June and July 2014. All interviews lasted approximately 45 minutes. In the interview schemes, questions were related to the themes in the theoretical framework (see figure 1). Thus, questions were asked related to the role of the school leader, to professional development and to team collaboration. Examples of the questions asked are: What was the role of the school leader in continuing the data team? Did you or one of your colleagues ever think that you needed more professional development? In what way do teachers learn from each other within the data team? In addition, the school plan and the school prospectus of all schools were included in the study. Indications of the datateam method and the use of data were collected from these sources.
GTM as s research tool widely became the most widely claimed of any qualitativemethod, used and in some areas according to Bryant (2014) it eclipsed all other methods--- qualitative and quantitative------- taken together. The outputs were very much frivolous and Editors and Reviewers were perplexed by some of the GTM –oriented papers seemed to indicate that GTM amounted to nothing much more than stages of data gathering--- usually in the form of open –ended interview-------------followed by analysis of the data to produce codes or categories, which then mysteriously led to the “emergence” of some end result. (Bryant 2014). This result itself was sometimes termed a “grounded theory,” often its theoretical claims seemed at best weak and often non-existent. Often writers of such account often lay claim that they deliberately ignore any literature shed light on the generic research area and had set off on their research “without any preconceptions” or have discounted any potentially relevant experiences, ideas, or pre-existing knowledge, that might influence their investigations. Terms such as “theoretical sensitivity,” “emergence,” “theoretical sampling”, and “theoretical saturation”---- sometimes accompanied by fleeting references to “grab,” “fit,” “work,” were used often to pass some rigor and substantiation but the overall effect on many reviewer is one of bewilderment and suspicious.
Often, a method is chosen on the basis of practicability [51,69]. Focus groups seem efficient because it gives a quick overview of opinions of multiple users at the same time . Conducting interviews is a time-consuming process but offers the possibility of obtaining detailed and thorough information compared with, for instance, a questionnaire . Some issues are for ethical and privacy reasons better dealt with in interviews, whereas a focus group will allow for easier reflection on common experiences . This study did not confirm the idea that interviews lead to deeper insights or more detailed information as Van Boeijen et al  state; in this study, differences were found in the domains and underlying topics that were addressed, and results seemed of similar level of detail. Nor did this study confirm that ethical and privacy issues were better dealt with in interviews compared with focus groups . In both settings, interviews and focus groups, employees in this study felt free to speak. From a practical point of view, our study showed that conducting focus groups is a more efficient qualitativemethod to evaluate an mHealth app than conducting interviews. Although both evaluation methods address overlapping issues, a focus group might offer more information on common or different experiences, for example, on factors such as (middle) management support, employee support, participation, information, and communication. In interviews, detailed individual experiences might have a more prominent role, such as the individual working conditions and individual factors such as readiness for change, perceptions, and appraisals.
Incorporating qualitative methods into infection control and other applied health research has been increasing in recent years because these methods can add richness and explanation to complex systems in a way that cannot be described through quantitative variables [1, 2]. Moreover, interdisciplinary studies are becoming increasingly com- mon in this research area, involving research teams with multiple disciplines represented, including: qualitative and quantitative researchers, healthcare personnel, epidemiol- ogists, occupational health, and infection control profes- sionals, and others . Results from qualitative studies utilizing interdisciplinary research teams can provide insight into decision-making processes, institutional man- agement and culture, and systems challenges [3, 4]. Quali- tative research methodology is diverse, with approaches stemming from multiple social sciences, including psych- ology, sociology and anthropology, as in ethnography and phenomenology [5, 6]. Grounded theory, a common methodical approach in qualitative research, develops a theory inductively based on analysis of data . Each qualitativemethod has strengths and limitations, and must be chosen with careful consideration of study aims and objectives.
Researchers may want to use more than one approach for a number of reasons. Because each method has its strengths and weaknesses, there is an argument that each method will be able to illuminate another layer of the topic. Another reason for mixing methods may relate to what data are most likely to persuade the intended audience. A full discussion of the issues involved in using different methods is beyond the scope of this chapter and book but further discussion of some of the theoretical and practical issues involved can be seen in: Bryman (2006); Greene, Caracelli, and Graham (1989); Madill and Gough (2008); Todd, Nerlich, McKeown and Clarke (2004); and Yardley and Bishop (2007). One of the dangers in mixing methods is that important differences in the epistemological assumptions of methods may not be considered (Madill & Gough, 2008).
According to the relevant literature, qualitative samples are often purposive (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Patton, 2002) . Thus, based on the research purpose, the data sources for this study constituted a purposive sample (see Benson et al., 2009; Bryman, 2008; Teddlie & Yu, 2007) of articles published in seven internationally- acclaimed peer reviewed journals in the field of applied linguistics. The data consisted of a corpus of articles published over a period of 14 years, between 1995 and 2008 (with the exception of LTR whose publication started in 1997). More specifically, the sampling scheme for this study was “multi-layered” (see Alise & Teddlie, 2010), which involved the selection of (a) the journals and (b) the articles.
really surprising and we all are happy to see that.” Out of 12 sisters posted in Labor room 8 sisters had experienced and offered breast crawl in their duties. They all said that immediately after delivery and cutting cord baby was put on mother’s abdomen and with mother’s skin to skin contact. They all knew and agreed that babies even in future should be put close to mothers soon after delivery and breast feeding should be started within half an hour. Benefits of breast crawl: all agreed that it is a good method for early initiation of breast feeding. They said:
Carbapenems belongs to the group of β-Lactam antibiotics which is having a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities that means they are able to act on gram positive, gram negative as well as anaerobic and aerobic bacteria’s 1 . They are having a strong resistant structure that delivers them mostly resistant to β-lactamases. Carbapenem antibiotics were originally generated from carbapenem Thienamycin, which was considered as a model and originated from Streptomyces cattleya. Some common FDA approved carbapenems are meropenem, imipenem, doripenem and ertapenem. These were administrated via (IV)as they taken parenterally by intravenous infusion because it show maximum absorption than oral administration till now. Carbapenems get metabolised by an enzyme i.e. Renal Dihydropeptidase-I except imipenem all other can metabolised directly by an enzyme but Imipenem require co-administration with an inhibitor i.e. Cilastain which helps in breakdown 2 . After all procedure they eliminated by kidney. There are some adverse effects 3 after taken into body parenterally which are very common in all carbapenems as reaction at injection site, nausea, diarrhea, rashes on skin, abdominal pain etc not lasted more than day/(s) depends upon physical conditions of patients.In previous studies 4 , 5 various methods were opted for carbapenems to get information about its stability, compatibility, quantification in its bulk as well as in pharmaceutical forms 6 or determination from different biological matrices either by animal or human samples like urine as well as human plasma 7 . HPLC method was also used for quantitative analysis of certain carbapenems in human bile and peritoneal fluid 8 in the study it
Focus groups are often designed in a topdown manner, with participants carefully sampled and numbers restric- ted to a recommended number (18). However, consistent with the participatory and decolonizing approaches, com- bined with the lived reality of research in the Pacific, the interpretive focus groups, we facilitated a more bottom-up approach. The sizes of groups varied accord- ing to the local social, cultural, and physical conditions. The number of women in the interpretive focus groups ranged from 415 women. On one occasion (30 July, 2013), MRM and RT arrived at a village in a rural area expecting to facilitate individual interviews, consistent with the research ‘design’. Instead, we were greeted by a group of women (n 8) ready for a collective discussion. We responded by facilitating an adapted focus group dis- cussion (unfortunately, we were not prepared to facilitate a group and did not have our storyboarding materials with us). Being responsive and devolving power in groups requires researcher flexibility while being consistent with research principles and ethics. Researchers using this expanded interpretive focus group method can enable leadership and co-participation within story circles and the broader interpretive focus group, which can produce new understandings of existing data and generate new primary data.
The practical implication of this study was the ‘Quest-review’ method was found successful in collecting data related to psychological stress such as Depression, Anxiety and Stress in healthy subjects as well as their physical activity. The Tamil translated versions of DASS-21 and IPAQ-SF7 was found more ease in administration via ‘Quest-review’ method. These self-reported measures like questionnaires always can be used to document individual level perceptions towards their neighborhood environment, occupational factors and to measure their physical activity over a week or over specific period of time. The presence of interviewer could make the participant subjects more involved in asking and clarifying the possible doubts regarding individual questions. Conversation related to stressful life events from which the answers of each particular type of questions in the questionnaires were done through the interviewer. The readability of the questionnaires was excellent in terms of the level tested by Flesch Reading Ease and Gunning FOG formulas. The random sampling has done for measuring the Cronbach’s Alpha in different 50 subjects was excellent. The test- retest validity in 20 subjects showed the time frame of 14 days was suitable for reproducibility at second time. Our results found that questionnaires are again proved to be better measuring tool in behavioral and epidemiological studies. DASS-21 could measure psychological stresses like depression and anxiety more easily than any other questionnaires in the present study population. Similarly, IPAQ-SF7 is aiming on vigorous, moderate physical activity and walking with avoiding leisure/ free time activity over past 7 days. The clinical studies where parameters to be measured are non quantifiable these questionnaires stand important in act a bridging towards making of integrated qualitative quantitative interpretations. The method will be useful in studies where an invasive measuring tool like sampling of blood, imaging techniques like X-ray, scan etc cannot be done.
Background: A new method has been presented specifically for zoning the quality of groundwater for drinking purposes; this method is the groundwater quality index (GQI) method. The present research used the GQI method to qualitatively zoning of the Lenjan groundwater for drinking purposes. Methods: Three phases were applied in this research. In the first phase, working on the quality data of 38 wells within the studied plain, the raster map of quality concentration parameters, including pH, TDS, Cl, SO 4 , Ca, Mg, and Na parameters, was provided by interpolation using the kriging method
Grounded Theory Method came into being as a reaction against a view of research --- quantitative and hypotheses – oriented ---- which was prevalent among the social science research community in the United States of America at the time. It is imperative that the advent of Grounded Theory Method (GTM) Bryant (2014) enthuses that GTM was marked by its innovation claims and contribution to research practice than it was by its critical position with regard to standard practices. The term Grounded Theory Method as a research tool first came into prominence in the 1960s following the publication of the discovery of Grounded Theory, by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss in 1967. Since grounded theory many other related approaches of conducting research that reach across many discipline such as medicine, social science, psychology, management and many others. Invariably the term grounded theory according to Bryant (2014) refers to the outcome of a research process that has employed the use of grounded theory method, while grounded theory method is simply the method that was applied. It is quite common for researchers and writer to refer to the method simply as “grounded theory” with the context clarifying the meaning. Some of the early research on Grounded theory method was not only co-authored by Glaser and Strauss also by Jeane Quint (Strauss et al 1964) later known as Jean Quint Beloliel, who transformed the practice of care for the terminally ill in the course of her professional career as a nurse.