Qualitative Research

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Qualitative research is not a paradigm

Qualitative research is not a paradigm

research. This covers certain realist (Madill, 2008) forms of thematic analysis, including iterations and aspects of grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), framework analysis (Gale, Heath, Cameron, Rashid, & Redwood, 2013), and consensual qualitative research (Hill, Knox, Thompson, Williams, Hess, & Ladany, 2005). Rather than accepting the legitimacy of (post)positivist modes of qualitative research, this cluster of epistemologies appear to be construed as the prima face province of quantitative methods. So qualitative research is, for example, described as sometimes “ accommodated to the goals and criteria of quantitative research ” ( italics added Jackson, 2015, p.x). Similarly, while Landrum and Garza recognize that it cuts both ways, they refer to “incursions of quantitative into qualitative
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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH   IT’S IMPORTANCE IN PRESENT EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IT’S IMPORTANCE IN PRESENT EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

In-depth interviews are optimal for collecting data on individuals, personal histories, perspectives and experiences, particularly when sensitive topics are being explored. Interviews in qualitative research are usually wide ranging, probing issues in detail. Researcher encourages subjects to express their views at length.

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Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A View for Clarity

Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A View for Clarity

In trying to differentiate between these two research approaches, it may help to consider each program’s goal for conducting research on teaching. From a quantitative aspect, the goal of research is “collecting ‘facts’ of human behavior, which when accumulated will provide verification and elaboration on a theory that will allow scientists to state causes and predict human behavior” (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998, p. 38). On the other hand, the goal of qualitative research is to “better understand human behavior and experience...grasp the processes by which people construct meaning and to describe what those meaning are” (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998, p. 38). In more succinct terms, the goal of quantitative research can be: to show relationships between variables, statistical description, establishing facts (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998), validation (Krathwohl, 1998), prediction and control (Gage, 1989), and testing hypotheses (Gall, et al., 1996). Conversely, the goal of qualitative research, depending on the conceptual framework of the study (cultural studies, feminism, post modernism, and critical theory), can be to develop understanding (Maxwell, 1996; Bogdan & Biklen,1998), describe multiple realities, develop grounded theory (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998), description (Krathwohl, 1998), generation of insight (Gall, et al., 1996), and giving voice and empowerment to the maginalized in society (Cherryholmes,1993). Krathwhol (1998) offers the perspective that all research falls along a continuum with quantitative research at one end and qualitative research at the other with survey research in the middle.
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Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research

Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research

Patton (2001) advocates the use of triangulation by stating “triangulation strengthens a study by combining methods. This can mean using several kinds of methods or data, including using both quantitative and qualitative approaches” (p. 247). However, the idea of combining methods has been challenged by Barbour (1998). She argues while mixing paradigms can be possible but mixing methods within one paradigm, such as qualitative research, is problematic since each method within the qualitative paradigm has its own assumption in “terms of theoretical frameworks we bring to bear on our research” (p. 353). Even though triangulation is used in quantitative paradigm for confirmation and generalization of a research, Barbour (1998) does not disregard the notion of triangulation in qualitative paradigm and she states the need to define triangulation from a qualitative research’s perspective in each paradigm. For example, in using triangulation of several data sources in quantitative research, any exception may lead to a disconfirmation of the hypothesis where exceptions in qualitative research are dealt to modify the theories and are fruitful.
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The Craft of Doing Qualitative Research in Prisons

The Craft of Doing Qualitative Research in Prisons

Our preference for qualitative research methods and particularly ethnography fits with this constructionist paradigm. We aim to better understand the cultural meanings of social actions to actors and normative bonds, which are often important in everyday social life (Bottoms 2008). This interpretative understanding requires attention to formal and informal interactions and a sensitive analysis of the particular in the local and social embeddedness of the routines and habits of the researched group. A long‐term approach to slow and deep immersion in the penitentiary world is required to develop an understanding of and to interpret prison cultures; the experiences of staff and prisoners; their mutual interactions and their interactions with rules and regulations imposed from above; the impact of the implementation of new managerial structures; prisoners’ rights; and new early release decision‐making structures This has resulted in case studies which show, irrespective of the formal research aims and objectives set by the authorities, that each prison has its own dynamics, routines and cultures which are formed by the specific composition of the prison population and of staff characteristics and their interactions. Our choosing to prioritize qualitative research methods does not imply, however, that this approach should be used to the exclusion of the use of quantitative data found, for example, in judicial or penitentiary files or reports of disciplinary hearings (see for instance Snacken et al. 2000).
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A Qualitative Research on Administration Ethics at School

A Qualitative Research on Administration Ethics at School

In this study, data were collected according to interview method from qualitative research methods. The purpose of a structured interview is to identify the parallels and differences between the information that the interviewed individuals give and to make comparisons accordingly (Brannigan, 1985). In this research, a preliminary examination was made before the pilot application, and a draft list was prepared by searching the related literature. Subsequently, questions were prepared and applied for pilot practice, interview form was prepared for the actual interview application by carrying out pilot analysis and evaluations, determining repetitive and unnecessary questions and finalizing the interview form. Appropriate days and hours were determined with the administrators who agreed to participate in the survey and interviews were carried out. All of the interviews were conducted by the researcher individually. interviewers were asked questions in a mutual communication, were encouraged to give detailed and in-depth information, and feedback was made. The purpose of the research was stated and a photocopy of the research permission document and the interview questions were shown to the participants by explaining the ethics subjects that the data of this interviewer would be used only for research, the name of the person who interviewed, the name of the school would be hidden. Voice recordings were made with the people who gave permission in the interviews, and note-taking technique was used with those who did not.
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Qualitative Research Method: Grounded Theory

Qualitative Research Method: Grounded Theory

Studies that incorporate grounded theory approach are basically a step towards conceptual thinking and theory building rather than empirical testing of the theory. Hence, a qualitative research approach is used in these types of studies. Particularly it is conceptual thinking and theory building that’s why the researchers usually are going to conduct an inductive, constructivist ‘Grounded Theory’ approach. As it is the systematic development of theory in social settings and it depends upon inductive approaches which is appropriate for the study mainly aim on theory development (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Furthermore, the research questions and literature review by it-self leads and support for conceptual thinking and theory building rather than empirical testing of the theory and this type of study follows an inductive theory building approach. Gray (2009) argued that deductive reasoning moves towards hypothesis testing to verify, refuse or modify a theory based on empirical data, whereas inductive reasoning seeks to discover a binding principle and to construct generalizations, relationships and even theories by analysing the data collected for this purpose. However, he also emphasized that the inductive process may still have some pre-existing theories or ideas when approaching a problem. Nonetheless, it does not pursue to approve or negate the existing theories, but endeavours to create outlines, stabilities and significances by collecting data (Gray, 2009).
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Qualitative Computing and Qualitative Research: Addressing the Challenges of Technology and Globalization

Qualitative Computing and Qualitative Research: Addressing the Challenges of Technology and Globalization

CAQDAS availability, many qualitative researchers have still not been exposed to or learned to use these tools (DAVIDSON & DiGREGORIO, 2011). Many, indeed, hold strongly negative views about the use of this kind of computer technology in qualitative research. Why, we asked ourselves, does this circumstance continue? What are the barriers to use? What kind of supports do users need? Who is at fault? Does the problem lie in academic training? Or in the focus of disciplines or methodologies? And, is all of this worrying about CAQDAS going to be a moot point in a year or two, when the Internet takes over everything and stand-alone tools are relegated to the morgue of qualitative research technologies? That was a sobering thought for all of us. [17]
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Qualitative Research and Cochrane Reviews

Qualitative Research and Cochrane Reviews

A synthesis of evidence from qualitative research can explore questions such as how do people experience illness, why does an intervention work (or not), for whom and in what circumstances? In reviews addressing healthcare delivery, it may be desirable to draw on qualitative evidence to address questions such as what are the barriers and facilitators to accessing healthcare, or what impact do specific barriers and facilitators have on people, their experiences and behaviours? Findings of QES may be generated, for example, through ethnographies and interview studies of help-seeking behaviour. Evidence from qualitative research can help with interpretation of systematic review results in understanding how an intervention is experienced by all of those involved in developing, delivering or receiving it; what aspects of the intervention they value, or not; and why this is so. Qualitative evidence can provide insight into factors that are external to an intervention including, for example, the impact of other policy developments, factors which facilitate or hinder successful implementation of a programme, service or treatment and how a particular intervention may need to be adapted for large-scale roll-out (Roen 2006).
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Grounded Theory and Qualitative Research

Grounded Theory and Qualitative Research

Historically, researchers have discussed what are called “moments” in qualitative research and the place that various GT approaches hold within this system (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005). Most agree that GT started in the “second moment” when the 1967 book was pub- lished. Later works, such as Strauss and Corbin’s work, were critiqued as lacking attention to ontological and epistemological issues such as how researchers view the world, what counts as knowing and understanding phenomena under study, and the role of the researcher—all needed to design a high-quality study (Birks & Mills, 2011). Subsequently, GT researchers developed theoretical frameworks that GT methods and methodology are embedded within. Corbin and Strauss (2008) enlarged their discussions of GT by attending to philosophical issues such as pragmatism and interactionist theories from the Chicago Sociology traditions, themes that Strauss actually outlined years earlier (Strauss, 1987). The focus on pragmatism infl uenced the development of axial coding, with this perspective serving as a focal point for the grounded theories that these researchers developed (Kelle, 2005). Researchers note that GT has moved to a “fi fth moment” in which attention is paid
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The Journal Project: Qualitative Computing and the Technology/Aesthetics Divide in Qualitative Research

The Journal Project: Qualitative Computing and the Technology/Aesthetics Divide in Qualitative Research

school, I have listened to her work evolve and learned how she used clues from narrative, technique, historical materials, knowledge of dress and culture, to create an interpretation of the meaning of a small, restricted set of artifacts with which she works. As I developed this presentation, I suddenly became aware of how much I had absorbed about visual critique from talking with her about her work. Excited by this revelation, I called her and demanded she send me all of the published articles we had talked about over the years. Reading them for the first time (as opposed to hearing them talked out), I realized the extent of what she had taught me and how it had influenced the ways I looked at art I was making and my views of interpretation in qualitative research (CARNS, 2006, 2009, 2010). CARNS's perspectives on how to examine visual data is an important part of the way I undertook the fine grained analysis of the art pieces using the analysis tools available to me through NVivo.
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Leading article: What is (post)qualitative research?

Leading article: What is (post)qualitative research?

epistemological assumptions, which underlie different research approaches. I would add ontological and axiological distinctions as well. Epistemologically and ontologically the quantitative-qualitative distinction has its roots in the positivist-interpretivist split. This split arose when social scientists challenged the idea that the social sciences should be modelled on the natural sciences (Le Grange 2000). As Giddens (1976, 13) writes, “those social scientists who still wait for a Newton are not only waiting for a train that won’t arrive, they’re in the wrong station altogether”. According to Giddens (1976, 55), understanding within the natural sciences occurs by the method of causal explanation from the outside (erklären) whereas in the social sciences inquiry is based on understanding (verstehen) humanity through and empathetic identification with the other, a grasping of their subjective experience. The upshot of this is that the same style of explanation, for say, electrons in motion cannot be used for human actions, which have appeal to beliefs, desires, and goal directedness. In other words, in order to understand human actions an intentional stance is required. Howe (1992) avers that such an intentional stance excludes the natural sciences approach altogether. He points out that in this way the natural sciences has come to be identified with positivism and the intentional stance with interpretivism. Consequently, “positivism and interpretivism [are deemed to be] incompatible by virtue of various familiar dualisms, such as objectivity versus subjectivity, fixed categories versus emergent categories, the outsider’s perspective versus the insider’s perspective, a static reality versus a fluid reality, and explanation versus understanding” (Howe 1992, 239). This incompatibility was the basis for what became known as the quantitative- qualitative divide during a period of robust contestation in educational research (particularly in the USA), which Gage (1989, 135) characterised as “the paradigm wars”. Over time, qualitative research expanded to also incorporate research informed by critical theories and poststructuralist thought. In the USA, in particular it became an umbrella term for an array of methodologies which arose after the hegemony of positivism had been challenged. In documenting the history of qualitative research in the USA, Denzin and Lincoln (2008, 20‒27) outline eight moments of qualitative research, which I shall paraphrase:
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JOURNEYING WITH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH LEARNERS: AN
AUTOETHNOGRAPHIC ACCOUNT

JOURNEYING WITH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH LEARNERS: AN AUTOETHNOGRAPHIC ACCOUNT

Being a relatively new field on inquiry which philosophic underpinning is not fully understood (at least in my academic community), qualitative methodology has been the subject of criticisms because of the non-generalizability of its findings, ‘subjectivity or in qualitative terms ‘perspectivity’ (Patton, 2002) in its data collection and analysis, non-fixed sample, and flexibility of research design, among others. Therefore, a working knowledge of its theoretical traditions is very important. Such would lead the students to appreciate its rigors and work within the parameters defining the methodology with considerations of its philosophic underpinnings, the analyses, and findings. In teaching, “To argue that it is paradigm that is in contention is probably less useful than to probe where and how paradigms exhibit confluence, and where and how they exhibit differences, controversies, and contradictions. As the field or fields of qualitative research mature and continue to add both methodological and epistemological as well as political sophistication, new linkages will be found, and emerging similarities in interpretive power and focus will be discovered.” (Denzin and Lincoln, 2013)
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Recovering the "Individual" for Qualitative Research: An Idiographic Approach

Recovering the "Individual" for Qualitative Research: An Idiographic Approach

This being so, we suggest a return towards taking greater account of the idiographic nature of human being and, in so doing, adopting a more genuinely reflexive conceptual framework for representing our subject matter at the level of the individual. Here we have suggested that a genuine engagement with the principles outlined by KELLY's (1955) "Personal Construct Psychology" would be productive. A new framework for qualitative research also drawing from this tradition would be, we suggest, an avenue for taking a focused consideration of individual person at a level of abstraction consistent with the very structures that condition the understanding and embody the unique personal experiences or qualia of that person. [32]
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Methods for the synthesis of qualitative research: a critical review

Methods for the synthesis of qualitative research: a critical review

Brunton et al [40] and Oliver et al [41] have applied a 'framework synthesis' approach in their reviews. Frame- work synthesis is based on framework analysis, which was outlined by Pope, Ziebland and Mays [42], and draws upon the work of Ritchie and Spencer [43] and Miles and Huberman [44]. Its rationale is that qualitative research produces large amounts of textual data in the form of tran- scripts, observational fieldnotes etc. The sheer wealth of information poses a challenge for rigorous analysis. Framework synthesis offers a highly structured approach to organising and analysing data (e.g. indexing using numerical codes, rearranging data into charts etc). Brunton et al applied the approach to a review of chil- dren's, young people's and parents' views of walking and cycling; Oliver et al to an analysis of public involvement in health services research. Framework synthesis is distinct from the other methods outlined here in that it utilises an a priori 'framework' – informed by background material and team discussions – to extract and synthesise findings. As such, it is largely a deductive approach although, in addition to topics identified by the framework, new topics may be developed and incorporated as they emerge from the data. The synthetic product can be expressed in the form of a chart for each key dimension identified, which may be used to map the nature and range of the concept under study and find associations between themes and exceptions to these [40].
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Holistic research for holistic practice: making sense of qualitative research data

Holistic research for holistic practice: making sense of qualitative research data

Prevalent models of research advocate technical methods to guarantee ‘truth’. They suggest the discovery of a single ‘effective’ way to develop learning and skills through the isolation of particular categories and variables. We argue, by contrast, that holistic research is needed to inform the holistic practice that is pursued by many professionals in Further Education. In order to support the development of research capacity in FE (a key aim of the project on Transforming Learning Cultures in Further Education), this paper considers how holistic data analyses and interpretations were effected in two different qualitative research projects: one on secondary school pupils’ responses to Shakespeare in the National Curriculum, and one on mentoring relationships with ‘disaffected’ young people in post-16 pre-vocational training. We discuss how standard coding techniques fragmented highly personal stories, distorted or obscured key issues and over-simplified complex processes and contexts. In conclusion, we offer arguments for alternative methods of data analysis which may prove supportive of FE practitioner research, as well as providing evidence relevant throughout FE.
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Maximising the value of combining qualitative research and randomised controlled trials in health research: the QUAlitative Research in Trials (QUART) study--a mixed methods study.

Maximising the value of combining qualitative research and randomised controlled trials in health research: the QUAlitative Research in Trials (QUART) study--a mixed methods study.

There were also negative views about the qualitative research having an impact on the speci fi c trial. Qualitative research directed at assessing the feasibility of a trial, which resulted in the trial not proceeding, may be viewed by some as a success but viewed by others as a failure because the triallist could not proceed along their planned route of undertaking the main trial. Our early interviews, when we asked about impact on the trial the question, were sometimes met with denial that impact had occurred because this was considered to be problematic. One interviewee was insistent that allowing the qualitative research to have any impact at all on the trial would constitute ‘ contamination ’ . This was brought about partly through how we expressed the question but also highlighted the fear that qualitative researchers should be careful not to damage the trial as an experiment. As well as this reaction of fear, there was genuine concern about the potential for qualitative research to offer a therapeutic effect and thereby damage the RCT experiment, particularly if the interviews and observation were more intensive than the intervention under study: ‘ . . . particularly where the intervention you ’ re evaluating has got a psychosocial component, you do worry a little bit about interviewer effect . . . a therapeutic effect which can water down the impact of the actual intervention within the trial. ’ (T17, qualitative researcher.)
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Using qualitative research perspectives to inform patient engagement in research

Using qualitative research perspectives to inform patient engagement in research

Eliciting patient suggestions and perspectives requires researchers to build relationships with patients to minimize power imbalances and provide clarity regarding roles and contributions [15, 16]. This closeness with participants is commonly associated with qualitative research as researchers often invest significant time in building rapport with participants to better understand the depth and con- text of participant perspectives. Taking the time to interact and establish trust with patients from the start of a study can help to negotiate roles, balance power, and lead to meaningful patient collaboration [7, 17, 18]. Researchers who engage in participatory action research have estab- lished methods, histories and successes in joining citizens as equals to design and carry out research to meet the needs as identified by the citizen group in ways that enact change [19, 20].
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Qualitative research methods in psychology

Qualitative research methods in psychology

herself in the position of the participant or 'subject' and attempts to understand how the world is from that person's perspective. As this process is re-iterated, hypotheses begin to emerge, which are 'tested' against the data of further experiences e.g. people's narratives. One of the key differences between quantitative and qualitative approaches is apparent here: the quantitative approach states the hypothesis from the outset, (i.e. a ‘top down’ approach), whereas in qualitative research the hypothesis or research question, is refined and developed during the process. This may be thought of as a ‘bottom-up’ or emergent approach, as, for example, in Grounded Theory (Charmaz, 1995).This contrast is part of the epistemological positions that shape our assumptions about the world. King and Horrocks summarise some of these main differences in position as being either realist, contextual or constructionist. They compare these to assumptions about the world, the knowledge produced and the role of the researcher (Table 1). These authors, along with others, such as Colin Robson, advocate adopting a pragmatic approach to qualitative research. As Robson observes, “Pragmatism is almost an ‘anti-philosophical’ philosophy which advocates getting on with the research rather than philosophizing – hence providing a welcome antidote to a stultifying over-concern with matters such as ontology and epistemology.” (Robson, 2011, pp.30) 5 .
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Qualitative Research Methodology

Qualitative Research Methodology

Instead, samples in qualitative research are usually purposive. This means participants are selected because they are likely to generate useful data for the project. To ensure that this sample is credible, and covers the main groups you are interested in, one strategy is a maximum variation sample. This involves selecting key demographic variables that are likely to have an impact on participants’ view of the topic. You can then create a sampling ‘grid’ and recruit groups that reflect various combinations of variables. For ex- ample: age (adolescents, adults, elderly); male/female; low income/high income; rural/urban; ethnicity. Sampling
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