Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of essential oils in various medicinal plants

Top PDF Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of essential oils in various medicinal plants:

Phytochemical Study of Essential Oils of Six Medicinal Plants

Phytochemical Study of Essential Oils of Six Medicinal Plants

Materials and Methods: Six medicinal plants were selected for our study: Artemisia vulgaris, Ocimum basilicum, Syzygium aromaticum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, and Rosmarinus officinalis. The extraction of the EO was carried out by hydrodistillation using a device of the clevenger type. The yield of EO is the ratio of the mass of the EO to the mass of the plant material used, expressed as a percentage. The physico-chemical characteristics were studied and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the phytochemical composition was carried out using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
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INSECTICIDE EFFECTS OF MOROCCAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

INSECTICIDE EFFECTS OF MOROCCAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

Mosquitoes cause the vector-borne diseases [1] and their impact on human public health is very considerable [2], causing millions of deaths every year [3]. There are responsible for transmitting parasitic diseases such as malaria, filaria, dengue fever [ 4], affecting the man and/or the animal [5] and problems of culture. Mosquito control with insecticides is very effective on culicid mosquitoes, but has several disadvantages. He has many disadvantages being harmful to the environment [6] including the phenomenon of insect resistance to insecticides [7]. Indeed, the therapeutic virtues of medicinal and aromatic plants have been experimented for centuries and the valorization of their essential oils in various applications notably as anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antifungal, bactericidal, antitoxic, anticancer and insecticides has been reported [ 8-10].
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A Review on Extraction, Isolation, Characterization and Some Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Various Plants

A Review on Extraction, Isolation, Characterization and Some Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Various Plants

It is a versatile, robust, and widely used technique for the isolation of natural products. HPLC is an analytical technique for the separation and determination of organic and inorganic solutes in any samples especially biological, pharmaceutical, food, environmental, industrial etc. Currently, this technique is gaining popularity among various analytical techniques as the main choice for fingerprinting study for the quality control of medicinal plants. In order to identify any compound by HPLC, a detector must first be selected, The extent or degree of separation is mostly determined by the choice of stationary phase and mobile phase. Modern HPLC uses a non-polar solid phase, like C18 and a polar liquid phase, generally a mixture of water and another solvent. High pressure up to 400 bars is required to elute the analyte through column before they pass through a diode array detector (DAD). A DAD measures the absorption spectra of the analytes to aid in their identification. HPLC is useful for a compound that cannot be vaporized or that decompose under high temperature and it provides a good complement to gas chromatography for detection of compounds [48].
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Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Phytochemicals and Pharmacological Value of Some Dye Yielding Medicinal Plants

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Phytochemicals and Pharmacological Value of Some Dye Yielding Medicinal Plants

an effective panacea for various skin affection. In stomatitis, halitosis, dental caries and cavities, halitosis, dental caries and cavities, khadira (Acacia catechu in Sanskrit is known) is used with great benefit, due to vitiation of kapha doshas. It dries up the mucous secretions and regains the taste sensation.The extracts of Acacia catechu exhibits various pharmacological effects like antipyretic, antiinflammatory, antidiarrhoeal, hypoglycaemic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities 21-22 .

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Efficacy of essential oils of various aromatic plants in the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt and inducing systemic resistance in chickpea seedlings

Efficacy of essential oils of various aromatic plants in the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt and inducing systemic resistance in chickpea seedlings

that medicinal and aromatic plants are potential sources of microbiocide compounds attributed to secondary metabolites which have the advantage of being part of a wide variety of chemical structures and possessing a very wide range of biological ac- tivity (Cowan 1999). These compounds have target specificity, are biodegradable to nontoxic products, and are potentially appropriate for integrated use (Harish et al. 2008). Bioactive compounds from plant origins can be effectively utilised against soil- borne pathogens or as an antifungal agent in a safe manner (Belabid et al. 2010; Soylu et al. 2010). In modern times, the use of essential oils (EOs) and their derivative compounds have been of great inter- est due to their antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of plant pathogens (Gahukar 2018). These properties are commonly attributed to the presence of active components, such as thymol, carvacrol, and linalool (Ahmad et al. 2011; Herman et al. 2016). Moreover, various studies have shown that treatment with EOs might induce plant systemic resistance by triggering a variety of substances responsible for plant defence mechanisms such as peroxidases and phenolic compounds, known to be implicated in cell wall strengthening and lignification against phytopathogens in natural conditions (Ben-Jabeur et al. 2015).
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Review: Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Chemical Profile of Centella asiatica

Review: Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Chemical Profile of Centella asiatica

The GC analysis was carried out using an Agilent 6890 N GC system. FID detector temperature was 300 æ%C. Relative percentage amounts of the separated compounds were calculated from the FID chromatograms. Identification of the essential oil components was carried out by comparison of their relative retention times with those of authentic samples or by comparison of their relative retention index (RRI) to series of n-Alkanes.

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Antifungal Effects of Thyme, Agastache and Satureja Essential Oils on Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani

Antifungal Effects of Thyme, Agastache and Satureja Essential Oils on Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani

Rasooli and Mirmostafa. 17 Brifely, sterile Mueller–Hinton agar medium (Merck) was used for antibiogram assays. The disc size used was 6 mm paper (Whatman No. 1). Different dilutions of the oils were prepared with DMSO. The fungal suspension was streaked over the surface of Mueller–Hinton agar using a sterile cotton swab in order to get a uniform microbial growth on both control and test plates. Under aseptic conditions, the discs were placed on the agar plates and then 10 μl of each oil dilutions was put on the discs. Ten microlitre dilution solvent (DMSO) was added to the discs in the control plates. The plates were then incubated at 30 °C for 48 – 72 h in order to get reliable microbial growth. Diameters of microbial inhibition zones were measured using vernier calipers. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) were assessed based on the modified procedure. 17 For determining MFC a broth dilution method in test tubes was used. Fifty μl of each dilution of the oils was added to 5 mL of Yeast Extract Sucrose broth tubes containing 10 7 spores/ml. Then tubes were incubated while shaking for evenly dispersing the oil throughout the broth in tubes. The highest dilution (lowest concentration) showing no visible growth, was regarded as MIC. Cells from the tubes showing no growth were sub-cultured on potato dextrose agar plates to determine if the inhibition was reversible or permanent. MFC was determined as the highest dilution (lowest concentration) at which no growth occurred on the plates.
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Inhibition of Ecoli and Staph A of Essential Oils, Cinnamon and Cloves

Inhibition of Ecoli and Staph A of Essential Oils, Cinnamon and Cloves

pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and P. aeruginosa. The oil contained eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) and camphor as major compounds. The major compounds with an antibacterial effect were found to be camphor, thymol, and carvacrol. The essential oil of Salvia officinalis contains α-thujone, camphor, and 1,8-cineole as the major chemical constituents and was shown to inhibit human bacterial pathogens such as S. aureus and Providencia stuartii. Some pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella enteritidis, S. typhimurium, and E. coli) were inhibited by the essential oils of thyme and oregano. The essential oils showed an MIC value of 0.25% to ≥2% v/v. In another study, Salvia spp. (S. officinalis, S. sclarea, and S. lavandulifolia) and Thuja spp. (T.
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Antimicrobial Studies of Essential Oils of some Medicinal Plants against Multi Resistant Acinetobacter Strains

Antimicrobial Studies of Essential Oils of some Medicinal Plants against Multi Resistant Acinetobacter Strains

The present study determined the antibacterial activity of ten essential oils in Tables 4-6. The results revealed that all Acinetobacter isolates are sensitive to clove even at low concentration. This match with [39] who found that clove oil was active against Gram-negative bacteria. This due to eugenol, the major constituent of clove oil; eugenol exhibits pharmacological effects on almost all systems in the body. Eugenol possesses significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, in addition to having analgesic and local anesthetic activity [40].

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Evaluation of Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil from Leaves of Coccinia grandis against Three Mosquito Species

Evaluation of Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil from Leaves of Coccinia grandis against Three Mosquito Species

29’39.8E (elevation: 185m] were collected from local breeding areas of Jalgaon, India and identified using the microscopic exami- nation as per Theodore et al. (2005). The col- lected mosquito larvae were brought to la- boratory and maintained at 25–30 °C with 80–90% relative humidity and 12 h/d/night cycle in plastic trays containing dechlorinat- ed water. Mosquito larvae were fed with 10% sterile sucrose solution and pet biscuits. The mosquito larvicidal activity was performed according to standard procedure recommend- ed by WHO (1981). The extracted dried and pre weighed essential oil was dissolved in 1ml
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Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Hyptis carpinifolia Benth

Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from Hyptis carpinifolia Benth

The results of the determination of the antibacterial activity of the essential oil from H. carpinifolia against the bacteria evaluated are presented in Table 1. In- hibition halos for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were ob- served after exposure to the essential oil, and Gram-positive bacteria were ob- served to be more sensitive. Studies have reported that the higher resistance of Gram-negative bacteria can be attributed to the presence of an outer membrane in its structure that might hinder the penetration and action of essential oil con- stituents [2]. Among the Gram-positive bacteria, L. monocytogenes was more resistant than S. aureus , whereas Gram-negative E. coli were more susceptible to the action of the essential oil, and the other bacteria were only inhibited at the highest concentration assessed.
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Antifungal activity of chemotype essential oils from rosemary against Candida albicans

Antifungal activity of chemotype essential oils from rosemary against Candida albicans

Oral candidiasis is caused by Candida albicans. The symptoms including pain in the oral cavity affect our eating function. While some antifungal agents are commonly used for the treatment of candidiasis, oc- casional consumption of the effective dose cannot be tolerated due to side effects. There is also a possibility of induction of antifungal resistance, thus the devel- opment of replacement agents has been awaited. We aim to explore antimicrobial activities of essential oils. We evaluated the antifungal activities against C. al- bicans of essential oils from seven aromatic plants from three manufacturers, and of three chemotype essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). As a result, we found that the antifungal activity was increased several times by the addition of Tween 80. All the tested essential oils showed stable antifungal activity, however, the variation was observed among the manufacturers of rosemary and eucalyptus. Rose- mary has three chemotypes; CINEOL, CAMPHOR and VERBENON. They derived from a same plant species, but contain different chemical components. The CINEOL, dose-dependently decreased the num- ber of C. albicans in the time-kill assay. Hence we concluded that the components of rosemary essential oil would have an effect on its antifungal activity. A chemotype is the first to consider in measuring anti- fungal activities of rosemary oil.
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Studies on Heterosis for various qualitative and quantitative characters in Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L )

Studies on Heterosis for various qualitative and quantitative characters in Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L )

), a member of is perennial in growth habit but commonly all over the world. It is gaining popularity among the consumers because of its higher content of antioxidants like vitamin C and lycopene. It has commercial of tomatine, a steroidal hormone, which is used as a substitute of diosgenin. Its increasing consumption makes it a high value crop for generating income to the Tomato can be exploited for hybrid seed production g and growing under varied climatic conditions, fruit containing large number of seeds and possessing high degree of heterosis for growth and yield earliness. The choice of parents for hybridization needs to be based upon complete genetic information, the knowledge of heterosis and their combinations for the improvement of characters under consideration. Exploitation of hybrid vigour is one of important means by which the crop yield can be increased. In view of the above facts, the efforts were made to hybrids for high yield, qualitative and quantitative
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ESSENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHIKISTA-KALIKA- A REVIEW .......

ESSENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHIKISTA-KALIKA- A REVIEW .......

After furnishing Gana (group of medicinal plants), author discussed Sanshodhana (purification procedures) and its favorable seasons. Sanshodhana should be adminis- tered after proper Amapachana. Table 2 shows drugs used for Panchakarma proce- dures.

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Chemical composition, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of essential oil of Rumex hastatus D  Don collected from the North West of Pakistan

Chemical composition, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of essential oil of Rumex hastatus D Don collected from the North West of Pakistan

The GC analysis of essential oil was carried out via gas chromatograph Agilent USB-393752 (Agilent Technolo- gies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) with HHP-5MS 5 % phenyl- methyl siloxane capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm film thickness; Restek, Bellefonte, PA) con- nected with FID detector. The oven was set at temperature of 70 °C for one minute and then increased to 180 °C at the rate of 6 °C/min for 5 min and lastly to 280 °C at the rate of 5 °C/min for 20 min. The temperature of injector and detector were maintained at 220 °C and 290 °C correspondingly. The flow rate of car- rier gas i.e., Helium was 1 ml/min and the diluted sam- ples (1/1000 in n-pentane, v/v) of 1 μl were manually injected in the split-less mode.
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Extraction and Qualitative Phytochemical Screening of Medicinal Plants: A Brief Summary

Extraction and Qualitative Phytochemical Screening of Medicinal Plants: A Brief Summary

The botanical identity of the plants studied must be authenticated by an acknowledged authority, especially at the early stage of the investigation, and be specific with not only its genus and species but also with its variety. This practice is more applicable if the plant is obtained from a wild forest, in which the plant can be mistaken with a similar plant, rather than obtained from a registered herbarium. The plants obtained from wild forests, however, grew in their natural home ground and can be deemed unexposed to pesticides and city pollution.
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POTENCY OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL PATHOGENS

POTENCY OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL PATHOGENS

The other mechanism is defensive in nature that is activated only after contact with the pathogen (induced resistance factor) (Tepe et al., 2002). These defensive mechanisms have two phases, one is recognition of elicitors and other is signal transduction, which is responsible normally in regulation of expression of genes related to defensive system (Lamidi et al., 2005). This mechanism induced the resistance in plants either by localized or systematic way. When plant is exposed by pathogen or any other external factor then then systematic and localized defensive system become activated and defend the plant body (Greenberg, 1997; Heath, 2000).
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Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils of Aromatic Plants

Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils of Aromatic Plants

The amount of dead cells which died 5 minutes later by the influence of 0,1% dispersion emulsion of essential oils on gram-positive bacteria Bacillus anthracoides TU-1, Bacillus subtilis BDU-43 and Staphylococcus aureus TU-4 was comparatively analyzed. The high antibiotic effect belongs to the essential oils of Thymus transcaucasicus, Foeniculumvulgare and Salvia officinalis and very weak antibiotic effect belongs to the essential oils of Coriandrumsativum, Rozmarinusofficinalisand Nepetacataria. 27, 37 and 51% cells, correspondingly, of Bacillus anthracoides TU-1, B. subtilis BDU-43 and Staphylococcus aureus TU-4 died 5 minutes latere by the influence of essential oil of Thymus transcaucasicus; 23; 31 and 49%-died by the influence of the essential oil of Foeniculumvulgare; 15, 20 and 42%-died by the influence of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis; 7, 7 and 9%-died by the influence of the essential oil of Coriandrumsativum; 8,6 and 7,7 and 9%-died by the influence of the essential oil of Ziziforatenior; 4,4 and10%-died by the influence of the essential oil of Rozmarinusofficinalis (fig.1).
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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF IRAN

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF IRAN

One of the most significant ancient heritages is sophisticated experience of people who have tried over millennia to find useful plants for health improvement, with each generation adding its own experience to this tradition 4 . Based on literature search 18% of the species are used for medicinal purposes in Iran 1 . Treatment of infections continues to be a problem in modern time because of side effects of some drugs and growing resistance to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, investigation for novel, safer and more effective antimicrobials are a pressing need. Herbal medicines have received much attention as a source of new antimicrobial with low side effect and significant activity 3, 5 . The essential oil yield and their constituents in plants are related to genetic 6 , climate, elevation and topography and genotype (G) 7, 8 , growing conditions (E) and their interaction (G x E) 9 .
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The Essential Oil of Eucalyptus grandis W  Hill ex Maiden Inhibits Microbial Growth by Inducing Membrane Damage

The Essential Oil of Eucalyptus grandis W Hill ex Maiden Inhibits Microbial Growth by Inducing Membrane Damage

Despite the many and varying pharmaceutical properties of E. grandis that are exploited by traditional healers, there has been little or no scientific verification of their therapeutic activities. Various respiratory pathogens that affect the respiratory tracts lead to oxidative stress which in turn triggers asthmatic attack. Substances such as al- lergens, pollutants, chemicals, drugs, bacteria and viruses [39], lead to the recruitment and activation of inflamma- tory cells which have an exceptional capacity for pro- ducing oxidants in asthmatic airways [40]. It is apparent that the search for an effective drug to manage asthma and other related complications should be directed towards agents that are antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflam- matory, anti-allergic, and immune-boaster in nature.
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