R&D and mobility of human capital

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R&D, Competition and Growth with Human Capital Accumulation : A Comment

R&D, Competition and Growth with Human Capital Accumulation : A Comment

It is now possible to characterize the skilled labor market equilibrium in the economy considered. On this market, because of the homogeneity and the perfect mobility across sectors, the arbitrage ensures that the wage rate that is earned by salaries which work in the final good sector, intermediate goods sector or R&D sector is equal. As a result, the following three conditions must simultaneously be satisfied :

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R & D sector outsourcing, human capital formation and growth in the context of developed versus developing economies

R & D sector outsourcing, human capital formation and growth in the context of developed versus developing economies

Our work can be extended in several directions. First, in this entire work, we assume that new knowledge is freely available to all the economies. Instead, one can characterize the growth path and the convergence condition of the economy by ruling out the assumption that world technology level is freely accessible. Second, till now all the work in this area has been abstracted from international trade in commodities. One can develop a dynamic Ricardian model of international trade around the core idea of our work and can study cross-sectoral allocation of skilled and unskilled human capital in the context of international specialization in goods production and trade. Third, one can analyze the consequences of heterogeneous cost of education depending on his/ her parental education level and can study the impact of that on growth rate, inequality and intergenerational mobility of an economy depending on its distance to frontier. This would certainly yield further insights on the relationship between distance to frontier and composition of human capital and economic growth.
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International human capital mobility and FDI: Evidence from G20 countries

International human capital mobility and FDI: Evidence from G20 countries

Regarding the sending country of international students, there is a concern about the brain drain as having a negative effect on the sending country. However, as Park (2004) and Le (2010) have emphasised, the sending countries can expect the cross-border R&D spillovers, arising from international student flows, as a channel. This beneficial effect is recognised because the interna- tional students who acquire R&D-induced technological knowledge through education and post- schooling job experience in their destination country of study may contribute to the productivity increase in their sending country when they return. Recent trends of international students were analysed in Kaushal and Lanati (2019), suggesting that for English-speaking countries, persisting large flows are indicative of the rising demand to acquire tertiary skills rather than to migrate for permanent settlement. Therefore, the human capital obtained from studying abroad is beneficial to both destination and sending countries.
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Intergenerational mobility, composition of human capital and distance to frontier

Intergenerational mobility, composition of human capital and distance to frontier

with higher skill-biased technology or with lower wage compression leads to a higher inequality and higher mobility and vise versa. This holds under the assumption that poor parents not only have less ability to spend on children’s education but also have a lower willingness to pay for it. Das [2007] shows that initial income differences persist even under convex technology and convex preferences. Empirical findings of Solon [1992], Solon [2002] and Lee and Solon [2009] show that intergenerational correlation in the long run income is relatively high for both son’s and daughter’s income. By considering macroeconomic dynamics, Borjas [1992] empirically shows that the skills of the current generation depend not only on parental income but also on the average skills of the ethnic group in the parent’s generation. However, none of these studies have considered the possibility of endogenous Research and Development (R & D) based approach in the analysis of intergenerational mobilities and inequality.
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Job and residential mobility in the Netherlands: the influence of human capital, household composition and location

Job and residential mobility in the Netherlands: the influence of human capital, household composition and location

Furthermore, we aim to establish the effect of an individual’s salary on joint job and residential mobility, as the proposed negative effect of one’s earnings on job mobility and the assumed positive effect of salary on residential mobility may conflict. We assume employees to derive utility from the financial remuneration they receive for their work. Since the likelihood to find a job which is even better paid decreases with the magnitude of the present salary, interfirm mobility can be assumed to be lower for employees with higher wages (e.g. Bergin, 2008; Boockmann and Steffes, 2007; Burdett, 1978; Henneberger and Sousa-Poza, 2002). Furthermore, joint job and residential mobility can be expected to be particularly costly, since both the employee’s place of residence and workplace have to be adjusted. A potential new employer would thus have to match the employee’s present salary, and to make up for the costs involved. On the other hand, individuals with higher earnings have a higher chance to be able to afford their ideal type of residence in their preferred neigborhood, city, or region, and might therefore be more willing to realize a combined job and residence change.
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Capital Mobility: An application of Saving-Investment Link for Tunisia.

Capital Mobility: An application of Saving-Investment Link for Tunisia.

The second strand of literatures, which are fewer in number, attempt to avoid the problem associated with cross sectional approach, by employing time series methods. These include Agbetsiafa (2002) and Maminingi (1997) that employ time series in their studies on African countries. Of the two works, it is only Maminingi (1997) that consider Tunisia in its sample. The recent developments in Tunisia including efforts to limit barriers placed on capital mobility in the face of huge external financing requirements of Tunisia raises question on the continued validity of Maminingi (1997) findings on Tunisia. For example, Tunisia’s financing requirements amount to about USD 3.2 billion in 2005 and USD 3.5 billion in 2006. It was projected that external resource requirements will be covered mainly by medium and long-term public and private loan disbursements in the amount of 1,904 million US dollars, foreign direct investments amounting to USD 1.5 billion and grants for the balance of 0.2 billion US dollars (AFDB, 2005). The gap in financing requirement persists in the presence of no restrictions on foreign direct investment in Tunisia (Ghazi, 2005) and policy over the years have focus on how to meet the requirement of local investment. In 2005, the Tunisian authorities began to liberalize their capital accounts in order to attract external savings, diversify the financing of the balance of payments and the composition of portfolios, and enhance the efficacy of the domestic financial markets (AFDB, 2005). Foreign investors are to hold up to 100% of project equity without prior authorization in most sectors in Tunisia. Besides, foreigners investing in agriculture can hold up to 66% of companies’ capital. Shares of operating Tunisian companies can be freely purchased up to 50% of capital without authorization. In addition, foreign investors were allowed to repatriate profits and proceeds from the business transaction without any restriction. Tunisia continued to diversify its economy by signing a free-trade association agreement with the European Union in 1995 (FIPA, 2011a, b).
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D. R.

D. R.

Internet usage patterns among the medical and engineering students highlights that majority of the study population have been using internet for less than 2 hours per day and [r]

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R&D, competition and growth with human capital accumulation revisited

R&D, competition and growth with human capital accumulation revisited

In this paper, we have presented a generalization of the Bucci’s (2003) model in which have disentangled the monopolistic mark-up in the intermediate goods sector, the intermediate goods share in the final output and the returns to spe- cialization in order to have a better measurement of competition. Indeed, unlike Bucci (2003), in our model, the measure of competition is completely independ- ent of the intermediate goods share in the final output and the returns to speciali- zation. Our main finding is that the result of the Bucci’s (2003) model depends critically on the assumption that there is no difference between these three parameters 11 . Indeed, for all values of parameters except λ = α, we could show that the competition does not play any role in growth. This result is explained by the complementarity of innovation and human capital assumed in the research production. Moreover, we have shown that an increase in competition raises the level of production per capita, increasing consumer’s welfare.
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Population Ageing and International Capital Flows. ENEPRI Occasional Papers No. 4, October 2003

Population Ageing and International Capital Flows. ENEPRI Occasional Papers No. 4, October 2003

Although the problem of population ageing is a world-wide phenomenon, there are significant differences in the magnitude and timing of ageing across countries. The differences are most pronounced between the developed countries on the one hand and the developing and emerging regions (Africa, Asia and Latin America) on the other hand. In principle, these differences could help to relieve the consequences of ageing around the world. Ideally fast-ageing countries should temporarily invest their excess savings in countries that are less subject to ageing. Model simulations suggest that the fast-ageing countries (Europe, Japan, and the US) will improve their net foreign asset position in the next 10 to 20 years, when it reaches a turning point. Existing evidence on international capital mobility casts doubt on the opportunities for investing in international capital markets. First, capital mobility is rather limited, especially within developing countries. This considerably reduces the scope for investing the surplus of the ageing countries in ‘younger’ areas. Second, the rapidly growing new and old Asian tigers appear to finance their growth by high rates of savings themselves.
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INFLUENCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT’S SOCIAL CAPITAL ON MOBILITY DEMAND AND EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENT

INFLUENCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT’S SOCIAL CAPITAL ON MOBILITY DEMAND AND EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENT

Social capital, built through meaningful interactions between people, facilitates the learning and use of human capital skills and knowledge. Social capital therefore promotes active and sustainable learning. A learning environment poor in social capital will concentrate on skill and knowledge acquisition in a top-down fashion, will underplay the importance of trust and interpersonal issues such as self-confidence, and assume learners know why they are there and are self-motivated. Signals of a strong social capital learning environment include connected to community and outside sources. Investigation of the influence of social capital in the process of formal education is aimed at establishing a framework in which education in modern societies appears as a relevant and (in) sufficient channel of social mobility. Social capital could improve opportunities for upward mobility through make relationship in network. However, family and friends social network likely to be disadvantaged and limited opportunity for the kinds of social interaction that could potentially lead to upward social mobility. Parents‟ involvement was also found to be a strong predictor of achievement. The voluntary nature of costly link formation also creates exclusionary mechanisms that impede poor households‟ use of social network capital. The social capital extension requires strong assumptions for the derivation of values but the valuation of sense of community is likely to be an important new support for policy measures. The expansion of higher education access and degree attainment has created greater expectations for upward mobility. Studies investigating school mobility have typically demonstrated a negative relationship between mobility and academic achievement. Hope and aspirations for upward mobility, a better life and the deep value for education are tightly held by families. The purposes of this article are to compare students‟ background variable with social capital variable and to determine relationship between social capital and students‟ education achievement. These articles also try to relate social capital with mobility demand and education achievement. This explanatory basic study involved several secondary schools in Kedah DarulAman, Malaysia. Pragmatism approach used to collect data from respondents. The number of respondents was 898 students.
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Unemployment and Endogenous Reallocation over the Business Cycle

Unemployment and Endogenous Reallocation over the Business Cycle

mobility in two ways: (i) by comparing the reported occupation at re-employment with the one per- formed immediately before the unemployment spell and (ii) by comparing the reported occupation at re-employment with all those occupations the individual had performed in past jobs. This distinction only had a minor effect our results. The results presented in the paper are based on the first method for two reasons. For (time-averaged) statistics calculated over the full SIPP dataset (1986-2011) we want to focus on the set of unemployment spells that we can assign the occupational mobility unambigu- ously. For time series (cyclical patterns), we do not take into account occupations not immediately preceding the unemployment spell, as the length of the available data history varies between the start and end of a panel, and could create spurious patterns. Since the occupational data is collected only when the worker is employed, this procedure is valid only for job changes (with an intervening un- employment spell) after the first observed employment spell. For these cases, we assume that after an employment spell, the unemployed worker retains the occupation of the last job and stays with it until he/she re-enters employment, were the worker might perform a new occupation. Under this procedure we have allowed the unemployed worker to keep his/her occupation when he/she undergoes an inter- vening spell of non-participation that leads back to unemployment. If this spell of non-participation leads directly to employment, however, we do not count this change as it does not involve an unem- ployment to employment transition. We also have allowed the worker to retain his/her occupation if the employment spell is followed by a spell of non-participation that leads into unemployment. In summary, the worker retains his/her occupation for transitions of the type: E-U-E, E-U-NP-U-E, E- NP-U-E or combinations of these; and does not retain his/her occupation for transitions of the type: E-NP-E, E-U-NP-E or combinations of these. For unemployment spells that precede the first em- ployment spell we have not imputed an occupation and left it as missing to avoid over representing non-occupational movers in our sample. Tables A.2, A.3 and A.4 report the transition matrices of oc- cupational mobility for major occupational groups, where we have use the numbering in Table A.1 to identify major occupations.
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Investment in human capital and the return on education in Algeria

Investment in human capital and the return on education in Algeria

the concurrence (competitive) theory in the work (of Thurow, 1975) mainly to contrast (opposition) to the basic premise of the theory of capital human which says that the education increases the productivity of the individual and considers that the productivity is not the characteristic of the individual, but the characteristic work (the technology), and education (teaching) reveals only the capacities of learner to adapt and learn ,he considers that workers do not differ from each other in the productivity, but by the costs of they afford in learning , training, experience an experience, therefore this theory consider that the employer is ready to form (train) the workers to occupy the suitable jobs (the internal market),and also ready to give higher salaries to the holders of skills to keep them for (a specialized training), but if he is oblige to the external market for work, the educational level is considered as the main fixer to differentiate between the candidates, whereas the employer chose the candidate who realized the conditions of the work’s post with the minimum of educational level required, and when the educational level does not make a difference the concurring candidate for the post the employer then chose one of them.
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Human capital externality and sensitivity of TFP growth

Human capital externality and sensitivity of TFP growth

Many theoretical literature suggests that human capital enhances TFP growth. The role of human capital in promoting total factor productivity (TFP)growth has been strongly supported by many economic theories. By The literature review about economic growth we distinguish three theoretical stages characterizing the evolution of thinking about TFP determinants all basically centered on the human capital as the main determent of TFP growth. From exogenous growth theory developed by Harrod (1939), Domar (1946), Solow and Swan (1956) centered macroeconomists’ attention throughout the 1960’s and 1970’s on tangible (physical) capital formation as the driver of economic growth. Through endogenous growththeory developed by Romer (1986, 1990a, b), Lucas (1988), Barro (1991) and Mankiw, Romer, and Weil (1992), Barro and Lee (1993), (Young, 1994) and many authors were based on empirical studies and centered on human capital externalities (formation, education, schooling, training, “spillsover”). To the new economic theory of growth based on the degree of open economies(integration rate) Coe and Helpman (1995),foreign direct investment (FDI) as a source of spillovers, Grossman and Helpman (1991), capacity of production and use of new technologies (ICT) Goldon (2000), Colechia & Schreyer (2001), Oliner & Sichel (2002). In other side many studies examined the relationship between human capital and TFP growth, Wei & Hao (2011) found some studies which report a significant and positive estimated impact of human capital on the TFP growth. While others find significant and negative effects of human capital. Recently Turner, Tamura & Mulholland (2013)concluded through the Case Study on the US economy that Input per worker growth explains three-fifths of output per worker growth. This
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Uncertain R&D Outcomes and Cooperation in R&D

Uncertain R&D Outcomes and Cooperation in R&D

Economic growt h and development of a country depends, to a large extent, on the country’s capability of doing research and development (R&D) successfully. But R&D activity involves a huge expenditure in setting a research lab, installing scientific instruments and recruiting scientific personnel. It requires well-directed and well-coordinated efforts. Even after such investment, an R&D firm does not know a priori whether it will come out with a successful innovation. This means, R&D outcome is uncertain. Often a success comes only after many failures. There is also uncertainty in commercializing and marketing the innovation. Even when success occurs, the innovator does not know whether it will be able to appropriate the required amount of profits before the innovation becomes obsolete. This is because of the problem of spillovers, free riding and imitation of the R&D outcome by the rivals who become competitive at the market place. All these problems lead to under-investment in R&D. 1 So it is an important concern of the policy makers about how to provide sufficient incentives to the private firms for doing R&D.
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Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

The role of job mobility in human capital development literature yields mixed results. Job mobility has received considerable attention in studies related to salary attainment on individual career progression (Ng, Sorensen, Eby & Feldman, 2007). Some studies have suggested that individuals who have undergone inter-firm mobility experienced higher career and income progressions as compared to their counterparts who did not (Lam, Ng & Feldman, 2012; Brett & Stroh, 1997; Ghosh, 2007; Lam & Dreher, 2004). Talent mobility is considered an essential part of firm’s growth, innovativeness and survival (Beckman, 2006). Job mobility is not uncommon in developed economies mainly because of the competition for highly skilled labour resulted in greater opportunity for job mobility. Moreover, the socio economic status of the developed countries and firms make talent mobility more attractive for high skill labour (Harvey & Groutsis, 2015). The phenomenon is also influenced by their recruitment practice where many employees serve on short term employment contract, and employees who could not adapt to the latest marketable skills are more prone to be discontinued after the contract term (Fuller, 2008; Ossorio & Hunsucker, 1989).
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Capital Mobility and Monetary Policy: An Overview

Capital Mobility and Monetary Policy: An Overview

All in all, the existing evidence regarding the determinants of capital inflows to countries points to both push and pull factors playing a role that varies in significance and in magnitude over time and across countries. However, the synchronization of episodes around big or systemic events, the importance of global factors, and the evidence of spillovers of very specific push measures strongly suggests that large episodes of capital inflows, the so called surges, are mainly associated with push factors operating at a global level. Policies taken by the largest global economies seem to define a global financial cycle that spills over to the rest of the world. The events of the spring of 2013 following the Federal Reserve’s announcement of its intent to move to a somewhat less expansionary phase of its monetary policy stance have done little to contradict that conclusion.
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Child Care Policy and Capital Mobility

Child Care Policy and Capital Mobility

Earlier reports have described effects of child care policy on fertility and education investment in an endogenous fertility model. Nevertheless, these studies examine closed economies in which capital accumulation is achieved by saving or small open economies in which capital accumulation is not considered. We can regard a capital mobility model as another model for which capital accumulation in one country affects capital accumulation in another country. Our paper presents consideration of capital mobility and examines how child care policy in one country affects another country. Results show that child allowances and education subsidies positively or negatively affect human capital accumulation in the foreign country even if fertility and human capital accumulation can be raised in the country in which child care policies are provided.
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Stocks and flows of natural and human-derived capital in ecosystem services

Stocks and flows of natural and human-derived capital in ecosystem services

Natural capital has been variously defined as the stock of phys- ical assets in the environment (water, trees, minerals, species, etc.), but also the processes (e.g. water purification, climate regulation) from which we obtain benefits (e.g. NCC, 2013). Wider definitions (e.g. Daily et al., 2000), which include whole ecosystems, cause dif- ficulties when trying to understand how the natural components combine with other, human-derived inputs to produce ecosystem services, and fail to recognise how the quality of capital also affects the ecosystem services produced. In this paper we define capi- tal ‘stocks’ as being assets in the environment and capital ‘flows’ as transformations or movement of those stocks. We adopt an encompassing definition of natural capital as “A configuration (over time and space) of natural resources and ecological processes that contributes through its existence and/or in some combination, to human welfare” (Dickie et al., 2014). We discuss below how knowl- edge of their characteristics and the interactions between natural capital stocks and flows is essential in order to understand not only how services are delivered but how they might be managed sustain- ably. The distinction between natural and human-derived capital is not clear in the context of domesticated plants and animals. We use the term cultivated natural capital (Daly, 2005) to include crop
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Capital Mobility in the World: TPP Experience

Capital Mobility in the World: TPP Experience

Golub (1990) and Tesar (1991) showed high saving-investment relationships for various cases by examining the Feldstein and Horioka (1980) model. Hoffmann (2004) demonstrated that long-run capital mobility has been stable over the century, and variation in the mobility of capital seems to have been affected by short-run capital flows. Adedeji & Thornton (2007) indicated that capital mobility in African countries has increased because of the reflection of the realization of market-oriented reforms including the privatization and rationalization of the public sector and the partial liberalization of the exchange regimes and financial systems. Rocha (2009) indicated that heterogeneity and cross-section dependence completely change the estimation of the long run coefficient, and there is an intermediate degree of capital mobility, and the coefficients are stable. Behera (2015) used the Pedroni and Westerlund cointegration tests and found that saving and investment are related. Akadiri, Ahmed, Usman, and Seraj (2016) found that short- and long-run relationships between saving rates and investment rates in Turkey exist with a large structural break in 1993. Behera (2016) indicated that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between domestic saving, investment, and current accounts in all groups regardless of their degree of financial openness in the newly industrialized economies. Behera (2017) indicated that the degree of capital mobility is higher when the newly industrialized countries become more against their domestic capital regulation after the 1980s. Drakos, Kouretas, and Vlamis (2017) discovered that there exists a strong relationship between saving and investment in the long-run that is consistent with the existence of a financial constraint for 14 EU countries. Hwang and Kim (2018) demonstrated that the global and country-specific factors account for almost 50% of the saving-capital mobility and has increased particularly in Europe.
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Human Capital on the High Seas   Job Mobility and Returns to Technical Skill During Industrialization

Human Capital on the High Seas Job Mobility and Returns to Technical Skill During Industrialization

One often thinks of a naval officer as a master of seamanship, navigation and gunnery. Beyond this, latter 19th century naval officers had different opportunities to develop skills as liaisons to iron and steel foundries, ship building yards, supply-chain managers, electrical and lighthouse inspectors, lawyers, engineers and bureaucrats. Their training also enabled some of them to develop skills in the art of diplomacy and negotiation, mathematics, chem- istry, electricity, telecommunications and numerous other fundamental tools useful in private industry. Certain military jobs undoubtedly enhanced general human capital, and made cer- tain personnel attractive candidates for jobs in other rapidly expanding private sectors. This is supported by words from the U.S. Navy Chief of the Bureau of Construction and Repair in 1913, who blamed the loss of human capital principally on the private sector’s preference for the technically proficient (McBride 2000). 13 Just as officers today have the option to exit
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