The ALP activity in the OMG presented a sharp rise compared with those in the other groups and no signifi- cant difference between OBG and SG, suggesting that the rabbiteye blueberry diet played a bone-protective role in the ovariectomized rat model. Moreover, the OPG level in OBG was significantly increased compared with those in the OMG and SG. It is well known that the balance between bone formation and bone resorp- tion is essential for bone mass and bone microstructure . ALP is assessed as a marker of bone formation , while OPG is identified as an inhibitor of osteoclas- togenesis, osteoclast differentiation, and activation both in vitro and in vivo . Significantly lower ALP ac- tivity and higher OPG level in OBG than in OMG were detected, revealing that rabbiteye blueberry can prevent osteoblast development by increasing the OPG level and can prevent osteoporosis by inhibiting the ALP activity.
Among the 10 anthocyanins identified in the extract, malvidin-3-galactoside, and malvidin-3-glucoside were found to be the major individual anthocyanins (relative amount 64%). While delphinidin-3-galac- toside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galacto- side, cyanidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-galactoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, peonidin 3-galactoside, and malvidin-3-arabinoside were considered as the minor individual anthocyanins (relative amount 36%). This result is in line with that of Li et al. (2013), who found 9 anthocyanins in rabbiteye blueberry (Brightwell) from Nanjing with malvidin-3-galactoside and malvidin- 3-glucoside as the major individual anthocyanins. While Wang et al. (2012) reported 11 anthocyanins in rabbiteye blueberry (Garden Blue) from the USA, malvidin-3-galactoside was the major anthocyanin. However, conversely to these studies, a new antho- cyanin such as cyanidin-3-glucoside was identified in the extract obtained at the optimised HHPE.
Many cultivars of rabbiteye blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei Reade) have been re- cently developed with diverse vegetative and cropping characteristics, but scientific data on their performance in Alabama is limited. An experiment was established at the North Alabama Horticulture Research Center, Cullman, AL (lat. 34˚11'N, long. −86˚47'E), USDA Hardiness Zone 7B, to evaluate the per- formance and horticultural value of the following rabbiteye blueberry culti- vars: “Alapaha”, “Baldwin”, “Brightwell”, “Climax”, “Ira”, “Montgomery”, “Onslow”, “Powderblue”, “Premier”, “Tifblue”, and “Yadkin”. Cultivar flo- wering and ripening season, yield potential, fruit quality characteristics, and vegetative growth were investigated during 2009 and 2010. “Alapaha”, “Cli- max”, and “Premier” were found to have early ripening in north Alabama. “Alapaha” flowered later than the earliest flowering cultivars, but ripened consistently early, and this later flowering can serve to protect “Alapaha” crop from late freeze damage. Cultivars were not found to differ with respect to their cumulative yield in their fifth and sixth leaf. “Brightwell” and “Climax” had the firmest berries, while “Climax” and “Premier” had the sweetest ber- ries.
21 Read more
Rabbiteye blueberries (V. virgatum Aiton), while praised for small stem scars, improved firmness over highbush cultivars, ease of mechanical harvesting, and superior keeping quality in storage, have also been reported to be have tougher skins after extended frozen. Growers and processors alike fear that significant increases in blueberry skin toughness following extended frozen storage could lead to a decrease in demand for the species. Furthermore, industry representative have been of the opinion that later harvests produce the toughest berries. The objectives of this study were to objectively determine by mechanical textural analysis if there is a change in the toughness of rabbiteye blueberry skins over time when frozen, and also if later harvests resulted in fruit with tougher skins before, and especially after frozen storage. In addition, the objective data were compared to sensory panel data to determine whether consumers could detect any changes in firmness and/or toughness, and if they found them to be unpalatable. In the first year four rabbiteye cultivars; Premier, Tifblue, Powderblue, and Ira, one highbush cultivar; Beaufort, and one rabbiteye - highbush hybrid variety NC 3465 were picked, individually quick frozen (IQF) and stored at -14° F for a total of 13 months. A second harvest of Premier, Powderblue and Tifblue were
81 Read more
We find that the rabbiteye blueberry cultivar ‘Premier’ attracted a pollinator community distinct from other cultivars. We expect that this difference is the result of the abnormal flower morphology of ‘Premier’ rather than among-cultivar differences in nectar volume, concentration, or volatile profiles (Rodriguez-Saona et al. 2011). We posit that Apis were abundant at ‘Premier’ flowers due to the ease of access to their nectaries. However, wild bees were more abundant at other rabbiteye cultivars than ‘Premier’. Wild bees visit blueberry primarily for pollen, not nectar (Dogterom 1999), and may prefer flowers with a complete corolla, enabling more uniform handling—we commonly observed Bombus and Habropoda bracing themselves at the aperture of the corolla while sonicating flowers to release pollen. Alternately, wild bees may be avoiding interspecific competition with Apis at ‘Premier’ flowers (see Chapter 3). Our findings suggest a kind of within-crop niche partitioning that may infact reduce cross-pollination in intercropped plantings: Apis may skip over less- attractive ‘Brightwell’ or ‘Powderblue’ plants to preferentially forage at ‘Premier’, and wild bees may do the opposite, avoiding ‘Premier’. Despite the potential for reduced cross-
113 Read more
America, has been successfully hybridized with lowbush and rabbiteye blueberry species to create northern and southern varieties, respectively . Many studies have shown that blueberries have beneficial effects on human health, especially with respect to cancers and inflamma- tory, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases [36, 37]. The health effects of blueberries have been attrib- uted to their high phenolic acid, catechin (flavanols), and PAC (condensed tannins) content. PACs are oligomers or polymers of polyhydroxy flavan-3-ol units such as (+)-cathechin and (−)-epicathechin . According to Gu et al., highbush blueberries contain 129–230 mg of PACs per 100 g . Previous studies have reported that cranberry PACs interfere with the pathogenic properties of periodontopathogens and have anti-inflammatory properties . Cranberry PACs differ from PACs iso- lated from other berry fruits, including blueberries, since they are mainly composed of epicatechin subunits with at least one intermolecular A-type bond between O7 and C2 in addition to the carbon-carbon bond . In the present study, we evaluated the ability of PACs iso- lated from highbush blueberries to attenuate several major virulence properties of A. actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium that is strongly associated with localized aggressive periodontitis  as well as with extra-oral infections such as infective endocarditis , bacterial arthritis , and osteomyelitis . We also investigated the effects of blueberry PACs on the integ- rity of the oral keratinocyte barrier, leukotoxin activity, and the LPS-mediated inflammatory response of mono- cytes/macrophages.
14 Read more
Açaí and blueberry stand out mainly for the presence of red pigments called anthocyanin (Su and Chien, 2007, Kang et al., 2011, Rodrigues et al., 2011; Gordon et al., 2012). In addition to anthocyanins, blueberry is an excellent source of quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, procyanidins, catechin, epicatechin, resveratrol and vitamin C, which contribute to antioxidant activity and bring health benefits to people (Rodrigues et al., 2011; Norberto et al., 2013). The Amazon açaí is widely consumed in Brazil but is already part of the eating habits of vast majority of the world’s population. Its fruit exhibit pharmacological and medicinal properties mainly anticarcinogenic (Choi et al., 2017; Wang et al., 2016), anti-inflammatory (Favacho et al., 2011; Kang et al., 2011) Kang et al. (2012) and antimicrobial (Shen et al., 2014; Belda-Galbis et al., 2015) activities. Amazon açaí, in addition to its nutritional qualities, is of great importance for the development of the Amazon region (Gordon et al., 2012).
10 Read more
A relationship between gut microflora and breast cancer was demonstrated in an animal study using germ-free rats. Germ-free rats fed dietary lignan exhibited higher tumour numbers per tumour bearing rat and larger tumour size compared to rats inoculated with lignan-converting bacteria using DMBA for mammary tumour induction (Mabrok et al., 2012). Their finding was consistent with the concept that gut bacteria play a critical role in breast cancer prevention by converting dietary compounds into their active form, which possess anti-cancer function. Prebiotic and antimicrobial properties of blueberries and their polyphenols are well evidenced. Prebiotic effect of blueberries was tested on Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in vivo using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. Rats that received 4 mL/ kg body weight of blueberry extracts (‘Centurion’ and ‘Maru’) for 6 consecutive days increased both bacterial populations compared to rats that received distilled water (Molan & Lila, 2009). A prebiotic property of blueberries was examined in a human trial. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus population increased significantly after six weeks’ consumption of wild blueberry powder drink while others, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Clostridium coccoides group were not affected by blueberry consumption (Vendrame et al., 2011). Some contrast was found in a study of bacterial composition in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease. Even though E. coli population decreased compared to mice fed standard diet, Lactobacillus population was also reduced while Bifidobacterium population was unchanged in animals fed with 10% blueberry supplemented diet (Paturi et al., 2012).
233 Read more
Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings and determine whether blueberry sup- plementation can provide soluble factors that exert immune responses, especially in athletes. Future research will also determine whether longer-term blueberry intake in athletic diet can reduce physiologic stress of heavy exertion, in- crease recovery speed, and produce other bene- fits such as neuronal signaling in the brain, func- tional mobility, mediating memory function, neu- rodegenerative disease, and dementia.
Blueberry scorch virus is a new and important pathogen of blueberry in British Columbia, Canada of which the blueberry-infesting aphid Ericaphis fimbriata is a known vector. In a study of the movement of apterous E. fimbriata, significantly more aphids fell when one ladybird beetle was added to E. fimbriata infested blueberry branches than when zero, two, or four were added. Similar numbers of aphids fell in the presence or absence of beetles at low aphid density (10-30 aphids per terminal), but more fell in the presence of beetles at high aphid density (50-70 aphids per terminal). The time taken for aphids to move a minimum distance of 60 cm off infested plants onto uninfested plants decreased with increasing aphid density which has important implica- tions for the spread of the virus.
Abstract: Hyperspectral imaging, with many narrow bands of spectra, is strongly capable to detect or classify objects. It has been become one research hotspot in the field of near-ground remote sensing. However, the higher demands for computing and complex operating of instrument are still the bottleneck for hyperspectral imaging technology applied in field. Band selection is a common way to reduce the dimensionality of hyperspectral imaging cube and simplify the design of spectral imaging instrument. In this research, hyperspectral images of blueberry fruit were collected both in the laboratory and in field. A set of spectral bands were selected by analyzing the differences among blueberry fruits at different growth stages and backgrounds. Furthermore, a normalized spectral index was set up using the bands selected to identify the three growth stages of blueberry fruits, aiming to eliminate the impact of background included leaf, branch, soil, illumination variation and so on. Two classifiers of spectral angle mapping (SAM), multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and classification tree were used to verify the results of identification of blueberry fruit. The detection accuracy was 82.1% for SAM classifier using all spectral bands, 88.5% for MLR classifier using selected bands and 89.8% for decision tree using the spectral index. The results indicated that the normalization spectral index can both lower the complexity of computing and reduce the impact of noisy background in field.
Raw data were analyzed by PacBio SMRTLink (v. 4) with the Iso-Seq analyzing pipeline using default parameters. The processed data were output as two high and low quality Iso-Seq files. High Quality (HQ) isoforms were aligned to the ‘MVC RL1 HGAP4 59’ reference genome with Genomic Mapping and Alignment Program (GMAP) (Wu and Watanabe 2005) on a local Linux server using 90% minimum coverage and 95% minimum identity to identify Mvc specific transcriptome sequences. This allowed us to remove blueberry transcripts from the Mvc isoforms data. Cupcake ToFU (Cupcake ToFU) was used to collapse redundant isoforms in the dataset using the alignment-based method with the Mvc draft genome and default parameters. The collapsed Mvc HQ isoform data were imported into Blast2GO (v. 4.1.9) for functional annotation of the Mvc transcriptome. The set of unique HQ isoforms were queried against the NCBI NR (non-redundant) protein, GO (Gene Ontology), InterProScan, KOG (EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups), and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) databases. Parameters used for running the dataset against all databases were the default parameters in Blast2GO except that the E-value cutoff was set to 1E-10. The InterProScan and KOG results were merged with GO results to build a comprehensive set of functional terms for the Mvc transcriptome.
128 Read more
2012, 10 and 17 DAT in 2013. Over 95% of berries harvested in the 2013 mature blueberry trial were harvested green to ensure all berries harvested before berry loss or grower harvest. Growing conditions. Growing conditions in 2012 included adequate rainfall (approximately 39 cm from March 1 to June 30), along with moderate temperatures. Some weed pressure was present, but species were not weeds that saflufenacil controls (monocotyledonous and grass species not listed on product label) (Anonymous 2013). Weeds most commonly observed included Carolina redroot (Lachnanthes caroliniana), needleleaf rosette grass (Dichanthelium aciculare), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), common pokeweed (Phytolacca americana), and Maryland meadowbeauty (Rhexia mariana). Saflufenacil produced small “superficial” necrotic areas on grass species and Carolina redroot, but regrowth quickly resumed. Broadleaf weeds were not present uniformly across the study or at levels high enough to get an accurate assessment of saflufenacil control. Approximately 7 d before the second application to immature bushes was applied, the studies were
44 Read more
In summary, the cocktail dye which is extracted from Blueberry and Dragon fruit was successfully used as light harvesters in Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The result from UV-Vis absorption spectra and the FT-IR spectra are measured to characterize the ability of the dye to absorb photon in visible light spectrum and identify the functional group of the active components present in extracting dye. The existing of carboxylic acid group has a reversible binding with high equilibrium binding constant that can establish the photosensitizer with TiO 2 surface in
Trial II. In 2001, a multipurpose rep- licated trial was established at KREC. Prior to establishing the blueberry trials, the 2-acre field was fumigated to kill the nut grass (Cyperus rotundus) that covered the entire area. In July, a fumigant mix- ture was applied, 300 pounds of methyl bromide and 100 pounds of chloropic- rin per acre. A soil test indicated that the field pH was approximately 7.0. In September, 5 tons of sulfuric acid was broadcast on the surface of the soil us- ing specialized application equipment. The acid was incorporated to a depth of 10 to 12 inches with flood irrigation, resulting in a pH ranging from 5.0 to 5.5. A complete fertilizer (15-15-15) was broadcast applied at a rate of 400 pounds per acre. Rows were set 11 feet apart. Planting beds were formed using border discs, then rolled to pack the soil. A furrow 12 inches wide and 6 inches
Knowing the physiology of seeds and the elements that influence their germination is fundamental aspects in seminiferous propagation; important techniques are used to obtain genetic variability and development of new cultivars of blueberry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the germina- tion behavior, as well as viability levels, through germination tests and tetrazolium, of Vaccinium ashei Reade seed cultivars Briteblue and Climax. Seeds treated or not with 5 M potassium hydrox- ide (KOH) were submitted to the germination test, on substrates, filter paper (SP) or solid culture medium with half of the salt concentration (MS/2), at temperatures of 10˚C ± 2˚C or 25˚C ± 2˚C. The maximum germination percentage of blueberry seeds was 40%. Both temperatures and sub- strates caused seed germination in the tested cultivars, and pretreatment with 5 M KOH for 5 mi- nutes inhibited germination. Yet, the tetrazolium test, based on coloration of tissue, allowed the establishment of different levels of viability.
The non-extractable proanthocyanin assay is car- ried out in a solution of butanol and hydrochloric acid (97.5:2.5, v/v), when in the presence of the acidic solution proanthocyanidins are converted to anthocyanidins. It occurs through autoxida- tion of carbocations formed by the cleavage of interflacanoid bonds (Naczk & Shahidi 2004). The presence of transition metals enhances the yield of conversion of proanthocyanidins to an- thocyanidins. Ferrous and ferric ions were the most effective catalysts in the formation of an- Table 3. Contents of extractable anthocyanidins in blueberry leaves
A six-year field study (2012-2015) was conducted in the two major wild blueberry growing regions in Maine USA, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). A path diagram based upon structural equation modeling suggests that beyond annual variation, the type of cropping system determined wild blueberry production methods of fertilization and fungicide applications for control of plant pathogens that then both affect the prevalence of Salmonella spp. Fungicide applications have a direct negative effect on Salmonella spp. prevalence and the microbial community on the fruit that positively affects Salmonella spp. prevalence. Fertilizer application has an indirect effect on the presence of Salmonella spp. by determining soil fertility that then determines the blueberry plant nutrient profile. This then determines specific nutrient levels in the plant, especially Cu, K, Mg, Mn, and K. These nutrients (especially Ca, K, and Mg and to a lesser extent Cu, Mn, and Zn) directly affect Salmonella spp. prevalence in a complex mix of indirect and direct, and negative and positive interactions, including the regulation of sugars in the fruit that appears to have a negative effect on Salmonella spp. prevalence. The conceptual model presented in this study generates several new hypotheses to test regarding the ecology of Salmonella spp. in commercial wild blueberry fields in Maine, USA.
oil encapsulated by β-Cyclodextrin was smooth, free of shrinkage and with the least dents. While blueberry essential oil encapsulated by Inulin had the surface with the most shrinkage and dents in comparison with powder particles containing β-Cyclodextrin. Also, results indicated that incorporating Inulin with β-Cyclodextrin led to produce powders with a lot of dents and shrinkage in the surface. In other words, Inulin had a profound influence on the structure and surface morphology of encapsulated powders. Photos showed that powder particles containing Inulin (25%) and β-Cyclodextrin (75%) had spherical surface without shrinkage which was due to increasing β-Cyclodextrin in emulsions. Also, results indicated that there was a fast crust formation in powders containing Inulin that could be related to low levels of surface oil content as there is less opportunity for the blueberry essential oil (core material) to emerge from the surface of particles. While in β-Cyclodextrin samples, crust formation is slower that illustrated more essence droplets could move on the surface.
in PCR assay using the RRSV3/RRSV4 and RR13/ RR14 primer sets yielding PCR products of 548 bp and 487 bp, respectively. Twenty-nine shoots were regenerated from 3 BRRV-infected ones of the first vegetative generation. Only 2 of these were shown by PCR to be infected by BRRV. In the third subse- quent vegetative generation, 29 shoots derived from those 2 positive were tested and only 3 of those were BRRV infected. In the fourth vegetative generation 34 shoots were tested by PCR and none of them was infected (Table 2). We showed that maintaining and propagating BRRV-infected blueberry shoots in vitro as positive controls is impractical due to spontane- ous elimination of the virus from explants in tissue culture propagation.