Public education is currently not serving all of its students well, as evidenced by the persistence of racialized disparities in student achievement. Dubois (1903) identified the presence of racialized disparities in society over a hundred years ago and stated that the problem of the twenty first century was “the problem of the color line” (p. 54). Critical Race Theory scholars, Ladson-Billings and Tate (1995), draw a connection between the presence of racialized disparities in society and persistent inequities in student academic achievement among different racial groups, suggesting that these inequalities are the predictable result of a racialized society (p. 47). Ladson-Billings (2006) further reframed these academic inequities as an “Education Debt” that incorporates social, historical, economic, political, and moral factors that contribute to a state of accumulated educational injustice and debt (p.5). In a study aimed at closing the racialized achievement disparity, Noguera and Wing (2006) advocated for open and truthful dialogue about race as an essential part of the process of school reform (p. 164). The purpose of this research is to examine educator and administrator experiences and perceptions of participation in intentional ongoing race- and equity-focused professional development in a public school district in Oregon, and the extent to which it may contribute to addressing and closing racialized student academic achievement.
Equity considerations combine with environmental constraints and hedonic psychology to suggest that in the long run unsustainable consumption patterns are self-defeating. Many observers agree that what appear as conflicts between the dictates of economics, on the one hand, and those of ecology, on the other, diminish when a long rather than a short time-frame is adopted (Porter, 1996). The only way to find economic solutions today which are not ecological disasters tomorrow is to attune economic solutions to a more sophisticated, long-term understanding of individual, group, national, and global welfare. For this to be possible it is necessary that the level of sophistication of the human race – the incidence of an ability to see long- range and subtle interactions of cause and effect – be considerably increased. For that, the best hope is a vast increase in the level and quality of education of all peoples. (Homer-Dixon, 1999.)
Critical Race Feminism, a Precursor to Social Justice Leadership. No one label will ever sufficiently serve as a ‘blanket for all’. The constructs that are ‘race’ and ‘gender’, for example, in no way account for the many entrenched interconnections that subsist within and between groups (McCall, 2005; Richardson & Loubier, 2008). Homogeneous grouping of any kind is limiting and overreaching, at best (Bunch, 1987; Chafetz, 1997; Coleman & Ferreday, 2010; Roosth & Schrader, 2012). Critical race feminism, as a theoretical frame, responds to this by fusing two unidimensional constructs (CRT and FT) into one (CRFT). The purpose of this step is to provide the foundation, utilizing extant literature, to address the array of factors relevant to black women, intersectionality, and the interconnection of multiple identities. Moreover, as representatives of educational equity and attainment, this study concomitantly explores the experiences, perceptions, and implications, all relevantly and directly connected to the paths of black women in – as well as those aspiring towards – positions of leadership within the educational sphere.
In conclusion then, the authors have assembled a grid of analysis suitable to the task of apprehending various facets of ‘race trouble’ – a concept which despite its depoliticizing potential does open up the analytical field in a new and exciting way. They are likewise to be commended for the multiple analytical frames that they manage to integrate in Race Trouble. There is inspiration to be found in the joint utilization of such ideas (recitation, performativity, distributed repression, spatio-discursive practices, habitus, to name only a few). The psychological and structural analysis of racism has much to learn from such hybrid combinations. The missing piece in this otherwise impressive ensemble of analytical frames – and here one can identify an imperative for the contemporary psychological analysis of racism more generally - is an analysis of the role of racializing affects in race trouble.
Warther (1995), developed a price pressure hypothesis using mutual fund outflow and inflow time series data. In his theory, he established that a surge in prices is as a result of temporary liquidity and reverses after a short time span.Share prices initially surge based on investors’ expectations and information asymmetry but prices revert to their original level. Equity inflows may affect security prices because high subscription of securities by foreign investors indicating improved performance of domestic stocks and result to price pressure. Also, stock prices may adjust in the same direction with flows due to information disseminated relating to a particular stock market and as a result, positively correlate with returns, Warther (1995).
location as predictors of breastfeeding outcomes in the United States. Throughout the literature many studies showed a disparity in breastfeeding outcomes among blacks and whites as well as for women located in southern states. National Immunization Survey (NIS) data from 2011 – 2015 were analyzed for children born during 2010–2013 to describe breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity through 6 months and duration at 12 months among black and white infants. Among the 34 states with sufficient sample size (≥50 per group), initiation rates were significantly (p<0.05) lower among black infants than white infants in 23 states. Fourteen out of these 23 states, including Mississippi, were located in the south. Being that Mississippi has one of the highest rates of cancer and one of the lowest rates of breastfeeding in the United States it is imperative that health professionals examine state specific facilitators and inhibitors to breastfeeding that could ultimately positively impact overall health outcomes. Also, since research has identified both race and location as a predictor of low breastfeeding outcome rates, studying Mississippi, a state with a large African American population located in the south adds a wealth of knowledge to current research and fills in gaps that could address health disparities.
85 Oprah Winfrey (Nelson and Hwang, 2012). In this way, the individual can claim a racial identity based on scientific data in varying degrees of detail depending on the price they can afford. This has triggered a wave of individuals uploading videos to YouTube of themselves with a letter from a genetic testing company declaring an affiliation with a country, or an area of a continent, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The video would sometimes start with the user collecting a DNA sample to be sent for testing, but most were centred on a “reveal”, in which the user is filmed opening an envelope, containing a letter and sometimes a map. For example, one video features a self-defined black male user discovering he has European ancestry on his father‟s side, which he claims he already knew about, but his final words to the camera are “Peace! Black Power!”, which the authors hold is a reinforcement of his self- definition as a black man, rather than European DNA posing a question to his identity (ibid.: 279). These can be construed as part of a search for a “true” racial self that is defined scientifically, though it still seems to be open to reinterpretation according to how the user “feels” about this heritage, and whether it affects them in the present. Though somewhat disparate, both Mercer‟s (1994) observations regarding hair, and Nelson and Hwang‟s (2012) research on genetic testing become performative statements of „race‟. With the former, attempts to “whiten” hair, or presenting “natural” hair become statements about the racialised self; with the latter, genetic “truths” may have implications for how one views one‟s „race‟. These become performative statements that are part of the “doing” of „race‟.
Winning the Race Revisited in 1999, the follow-up to the original thematic in 1997, reported that the Service had been less than vigorous in addressing the recommendations and guidance of the earlier Inspection. It was disappointing to find the Service failing to maximise the opportunities that Winning the Race had presented. The lack of activity was all the more surprising given the evidence offered to The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry and the attendant publicity reported during the fieldwork phase of the Revisit Inspection. Such is the importance of sound CRR to contemporary and future policing that this third Inspection was announced in Winning the Race Revisited. The concentration of inspection effort in a relatively short space of time on a single, though multi-faceted, topic is unique in the history of Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary (HMIC). As opposed to the conventional thematic approach of concentrating on a representative sample of focus, every one of the 43 forces in England and Wales was visited and inspected.
As Peter Osborne and Stella Sandford put it, ‘[“r]ace” is a concept with a disreputable past and an uncertain future, yet it continues to trouble the present, both politically and intellectually’, even whilst, today, there is a ‘widespread acknowledgement of its lack of objective validity as a principle for the classification of human differences’ (Osborne and Sandford 2002: 1). In other words, there is no objective reason why people should be compartmentalised by their skin colour any more than by the colour of their hair, their height or the number of teeth or moles they might happen to have. Consequently, today, critics such as Paul Gilroy argue against using the term ‘race’ at all, given its status as invented essentialising fiction that was primarily used as an instrument of social domination (Gilroy 2000). Nevertheless, the sheer weight of the historical processes of what Gilroy calls ‘racialisation’ also means that we obviously have to take the effects of such historical classifications seriously. ‘Racialisation’ has been used as a means of regulating power through the control of peoples’ bodies – through, for example, slavery, genocide, asylum and social stratification.
The racialization of space and the spatialization of race relate to various dynamics involved in the (making sense of a) portion of a certain space that is inhabited, trespassed, dwelled, viewed and imagined (Lipsitz 2011; 2007; Neely and Samura 2009; Linke 2014; Kipfer 2007; Keith 2005). In doing so, a certain space acquires a certain degree of specificity and is, as such, recognizable, identifiable and provider of sources of identification, more or less ephemeral, that may appeal to certain individuals and collectives. In their important collection Place and the Politics of Identity, Keith and Pile (1993) expose the simultaneously contingent and autonomous power of place in providing platforms for various kinds of relational identifications, from the most protectionist and exclusionary to various forms of liminality, hybridity and togetherness. Place is continuously, relationally in the making.
Compared to North City, the statement relating to 'Racial Equality in Sport' is very clear that racial equality should be “... incorporated into all of its work and will take measures to meet the prioritised needs and aspirations of Black and Ethnic Minorities in Sport” (Racial Equality in Sport Statement cited in Leisure and Recreation Services Policy Statements). It also emphasises how aware workers must be in keeping its social objectives close to everything that happens in implementation. West Town was also keen to implement its own version of the CRE’s Racial Equality – Means Quality (1995) standards which they named Equality 2000. This in itself had an overarching effect on practice in sport in West Town, as equality targets were set and performance measured against them over five years. C.C.T. in West Town had to operate in a strategic framework that senior officers, policy makers, and contract writers had to take cognisance of, this clearly lacking in North City. As a result a framework like West Town’s offers much clearer guidance where ‘race’ and sport are concerned, especially where there are pressures to operate a nationally imposed policy like C.C.T. or Best Value. In operating a more collectivist policy on equality West Town presents a framework in which to, at minimum, regulate activity. Authorities like North City who do not have these guidelines in place can only learn from them. West Town recognise that discrimination and disadvantage occurs at the level of the institution rather than just at the level of the individual. This is a more enlightened strategy than the more tacit one emerging out of North City. North City thus runs more of a risk as it reinforces, as it perpetuates, opportunities for disadvantage, discrimination, and racism.
Greater equity and inclusion in education cannot be achieved without better data and analysis for the most marginalised populations. Yet today, many groups remain invisible in statistics at the national and global levels. As the official data source for SDG 4, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) regularly produces indicators, tools, standards and methodologies to guide countries in their data collection, analysis and dissemination. This handbook, produced by the UIS in collaboration with FHI 360 Education Policy and Data Centre, Oxford Policy Management and the Research for Equitable Access and Learning (REAL) Centre at the University of Cambridge, proposes comprehen- sive and standard approaches to the analysis of information on educational equity. It addresses knowledge gaps, presents a conceptual framework to measure equity in learning and offers practical guidance on the calculation and interpretation of indica- tors. The handbook also examines how equity measures are addressed in 75 national education systems, providing concrete recommendations for better data coverage to target the most disadvantaged groups. Lastly, the role of government spending is anal- ysed to shed light on the groups that are most likely to benefit and to examine how resources could be redistributed.
The OTIS database does not allow for raw data to be extracted. Therefore, it was impossible to use statistical analysis software to examine the data. Instead, each variable was cross-tabulated with MDR-TB and then stratified by race/ethnicity, sex, and age. First, each association was stratified by age; then sex, then race independently; then by both age and race; then by both age and sex, and lastly by age, sex, and race. The race/ethnic groups the data were classified in are Non-Hispanic Whites; Hispanics; Non- Hispanic Blacks or African Americans; and Other, which included Non-Hispanic Native Americans and Non-Hispanic Asians and/or Pacific Islanders. The sexes were classified into male and female. The ages were grouped by 0-24 years of age and 25 and above. For all of the variables, only the Yes/No results were used. Therefore, only the variables that could be put into a 2x2 Yes/No table were able to be included. All of the
Apart from brand equity and loyalty, Erlangga Publisher (Samarinda Branch) must be able to create customer experience and brand awareness. This was revealed by Smith & Wheeler (2012), by adding experience, consumers will feel the benefits gained by consumers will increase compared to what has to be spent (in this case the role of perceived quality is very important). According to Chen & Chang (2013), perceived quality and the addition of customer experience, can increase the reputation of a brand. This is important for Erlangga Publisher, for example, because as a national book-based printing company, brand reputation is a reason for measuring the quality of a company. Aaker (2011) argues that brand reputation can be defined as perceptions about quality related to company names, aiming for reputation showing quality to the community. Reputation as surplus value is the advantage compared to competitors. Reputation is an important element for the success of a book published by Erlangga.
to the other two lineup procedures when an other-race identification was made. The ineffectiveness of the sequential lineup for other-race identifications along with the observed benefit of simultaneous comparisons is consistent with expectations given research on the cross-race effect. Given that research finds that other-race faces are weakly or poorly encoded (Sporer, 2001), and that recognition of other-race faces relies more on familiarity (Marcon et al., 2009), it would make sense that being able to compare lineup members would be beneficial for other-race identifications. Further, because the sequential lineup requires the retrieval of specific memory content and theoretically relies on recollection more than familiarity (Gronlund, 2005; Lindsay & Wells, 1985), it would be less suitable for identifications where the culprit is poorly encoded, such as in the case with cross-race identifications. Due to a weak memory trace, people would not be able to identify a culprit on its own, but would need some other information, such as alternative lineup members, to enhance recognition (like the diagnostic feature-detection model suggests). This is also consistent with research that found a trend for increased accuracy for a two-culprit crime when foils that resembled the one culprit were included as the foils for the other culprit (E. C. Wells & Pozzulo, 2006), suggesting that the presence of cues can facilitate accuracy.
Using individual equity returns from a large cross-section of stocks contained in the SP500, FTS100, DAX30, CAC40 and SPX30 headline indices with value, momentum, and quality fac- tors as predictor variables, we show that our proposed dynamic model generates accurate out- of-sample forecasts. More specifically, for the considered out-of-sample forecast evaluation and portfolio construction period from 2011:06 to 2015:07, statistically significant point forecasts for 173 (281) individual equities at the 1% (5%) level are obtained from a total of 895 stocks. We show further that these statistical gains in the forecasts of the individual stocks translate into considerable economic gains, producing out-of-sample R 2 values above 5% (10%) for 283 (166) of the 895 individual stocks. A trading strategy that constructs long only portfolios for the best 25% forecasts in each headline index can generate sizable returns in excess of a passive invest- ment strategy in that index itself, even when transaction costs and risk taking are accounted for.
Rajni Shankar-Brown, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor, the Director of Education Graduate Programs, the Jessie Ball duPont Chair of Social Justice Education, and the Founder and Director of the Poverty and Homelessness Conference at Stetson University. She is also the President of Stetson’s American Association of University Professors, member of the Hollis Institute for Educational Reform, Co-Chair for the International Society of Information Technology &Teacher Education’s Equity and Social Justice Group, and serves on the Board of Directors for the National Coalition for the Homeless. She is an internationally recognized scholar in the areas of poverty and homelessness, diversity and inclusion, and social justice education. She is deeply committed to addressing social inequities through transformative education and civic engagement. In addition to being a passionate teacher-
Clinical ‘matching’, the idea that a certain clinician would be better suited with a particular patient because of cultural, gender, age or colour considerations has parallels with the adoption policy in the UK. Several decades ago there was no racial profiling in trying to match black and minority children with same race foster or adoptive parents. White parents happily adopted children of colour and numbers of children seeking a home were low. Tizard and Phoenix’s research (2001) found that interracial adoptions fared ok. However a consequence of this was seen by some as damaging to the adopted child. There were questions of identity confusion and cultural dilution. This ultimately led to adoption agencies and social services only being allowed to place children of colour with parents of similar ethnic backgrounds. While this ticked the racial and cultural issues box it didn’t help the numbers of children waiting to be adopted. This is because there were far less foster and adoptive parents of ethnic origin backgrounds. These racial constrictions stopped thousands of children in state care from finding homes simply because of their ethnic background. In 2013, UK Education Secretary Michael Gove changed these guidelines and now finding ‘a perfect or partial ethnic match’ (Doughty, 2013) cannot become an obstacle to finding new parents for child. Councils are no longer legally bound to take the ethnic, religious or cultural background of a child in their care into account when they decide his/her future. This change has since seen adoptions reach a twenty year high as Government reform decided that a warm and loving family home, regardless of race, was better than a council run home. This 180 degree turn in adoption policy implies that race should be a lesser
Additionally, the biracial candidate’s race mix was undefined. This likely allowed room for participants to project whatever idea or identity they wanted onto the biracial candidate they were reviewing. Further, as we see in Study 3, the intervention that was used may have actually primed individuals to think more “essentially” rather than simply activate race thoughts. If that were the case, and the saliency of race became evident at the same time, participants may have misattributed ratings to Biracial candidates, perceiving them as “no different than Black”
independence from the British in 1957 and included Sabah and Sarawak in their federation in 1963. The new state of Malaysia ought to have been engaging in nation-building projects which can be understood as a decolonizing process. Then why has such a nation-state inherited and retained the colonial concept of race? Hirschman stated that even after racist elements have been eliminated from census classification after independence Malaysian society still suffering from “the residue of racial ideology” (16, p570). Why is this concept still surviving in Malaysian society, indeed becoming more prominent than concept of ethnic groups? Farish A. Noor stated that many governments in Africa and Asia including Malaysian that have won their independence against the colonial powers relapsed into “repressive neo-colonial rule” by retaining colonial regulations and system (28, p82).