Race and Racism in Higher Education

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Developing research informed strategies for teaching 'race' and ethnicity in higher education

Developing research informed strategies for teaching 'race' and ethnicity in higher education

Secondly, in a very similar way to recording expert or academic knowledge, video ethnography can capture personal narratives; giving special insight into lived experiences recorded in people’s own words and in their own domains. The decision to include substantial examples of individual narrative was made for several reasons. Video narrative records are a powerful visual form bringing an authenticity of lived experience to the teaching of race and ethnicity. Critical Race Theory (CRT) notably, recognises the power of individual voices to provide a ‘counter story’ to expose and challenge consensus (Ladson-Billings 1985, Delgado 1998). These theorists have argued that storytelling can reflect the experience of racialised minorities, an experience which is essentially different because it takes place within the frame of racism. Therefore, to move outside hegemonic whiteness and better understand the oppression experienced, these voices need to be heard and understood in their own terms. Similarly to Muecke’s view of the restrictive lexicon of white Australia (see Text 1, ppl9, 100, 140, 165) CRT seeks to rupture this consensus and hence counter the commonsense understandings which are dominant. Les Back (pictured in Fig. 3 above) discussed the manner in which dominant meanings were imposed on our understandings of
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The Erasure of Race and Racism

The Erasure of Race and Racism

The section on equal opportunities in the full human re- sources strategy document outlining plans for 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 remained very vague, with the only specific one relating to job evaluation. The plans included “implementation of MU’s revised policies in respect of equal opportunities as a whole”; harnessing “the outcome of its comprehensive review and consultation exercise on the wording and scope of its Equal Opportunities policy ...combined with the outcomes of audit by the Equality Challenge Unit to address ... staff and student per- ceptions of EO”; “target setting and action planning to enable MU to make significant progress” towards ensuring “its staff profile ... reflects [that of] student communities”; “to ensure equal pay for work of equal value”; to implement job evalua- tion using the Higher Education Role Analysis system (HERA); and to “continue to experiment with advertisement of posts in ethnic minority publications”. While the review of the institu- tion’s equal opportunities policy(sic) was linked in the docu- ment to the requirement of the Race Relations Amendment Act, the only ethnically targeted initiative related to advertising in community journals.
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Working through whiteness, race and (anti) racism in physical education teacher education

Working through whiteness, race and (anti) racism in physical education teacher education

activities like tennis or hockey deemed ‘suitable’ for girls at that time, there were very few experiences we remembered as racialised, such as the ‘risking’ of netball in London where black girls may be in the opposition. Racialised experiences were very much ‘other’ to ‘our’ (white) experiences, taking place outside the white spaces of our childhood lives; we were not racialised, others were. As noted above, these limited understandings of race and our own privileged positioning within whiteness, were far from disrupted by Anne and Fiona’s move into higher education; our fellow student teachers were mostly white (with the odd exception, students who were quickly constructed as the ‘exotic other’ -because of their skin colouring and their childhood experiences, so different from our own). Hayley, ten years younger, experienced a different route to university teaching, and engaged academically in issues of race and racism as part of sociology studied at school and in her Leisure Studies university degree. Even then, this introduction was limited to a ‘few weeks where we would address the different levels of racism, cultural, institutional, individual racism, stacking and some of the research that was beginning at that time, in early 1990s’. Our own education was, at best, grounded in what Cross (2005) calls the ‘soft, safe’ codes of multiculturalism and diversity, rather than racism, white privilege and power.
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Investigating Race and Racism through African American Art and Artists

Investigating Race and Racism through African American Art and Artists

Smith (1996) claimed, “When the African American really considered his or her own experience, a different style of art was produced…” (as cited in Young, 2013, p. 52). Many researchers have demonstrated that African American students who felt more positive about African Americans and about being African American had higher self-esteem (Marks, Settles, Cooke, Morgan, & Rowley, 2004). However, the art world has largely ignored or discredited non-European cultures while deifying European-descended artists and cultures. From the white dominated mainstream art world, European ethnocentrism has led to “the distortion, devaluation and even the abrogation of non-European art practices and aesthetics” (Bowen, 2008, p. 111). Chalmers (1978) criticized “racism as the cause of the Eurocentric bias in art education” (as cited in Bowen, 2008, p.104). We need to conduct extensive research on the differences in values, attitudes, behaviors, traditions, histories, and styles of lives held by diverse cultural and ethinic groups. For example, McFee (1998) asked:
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Nuestra voz : an articulation of transformative resistance through the voices of Latino_a youth

Nuestra voz : an articulation of transformative resistance through the voices of Latino_a youth

Central to critical race and LatCrit theory is the assertion that the experiences of people of color not only contribute to a legitimate form of knowledge creation, but are essential to understanding how racial subordination is maintained and perpetuated (Delgado Bernal, 2002; Fernández, 2002; Parker & Lynn, 2002; Solorzano, 2000, Villalpando, 2003). The data of this study consist of the content of the radio shows, open ended interviews and ethnographic filed notes, all of which privilege the voices and experiences of the individual participants and allow the reader to better understand the complexities and nuances of the lived experiences of a group of Latino adolescents. This methodological approach is well aligned with the emphasis that LatCrit theory places on creating counter narratives within social institutions e.g. schools that have adopted hegemonic practices (Delgado Bernal, 2002; Fernández, 2002; Parker & Lynn, 2002; Villalpando, 2003). Integral to LatCrit theory is a commitment to social justice and stemming from that commitment is an attempt to link the academy with the community (Villalpando, 2003). This project came about precisely as a result of my personal adherence to that commitment. My time in the academy was the first time as an adult that I was not directly involved in the academic pursuits of marginalized youth. Although I enjoyed the intellectual rigor of my coursework, I deeply missed the level of community involvement I was previously accustomed to. My work with the youth of El Puente provided an interface between the academy and the community, an interface, I like to believe, benefitted both.
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Promoting Tolerance Through Learning about Human Evolution and Creation Myths

Promoting Tolerance Through Learning about Human Evolution and Creation Myths

Mia shared that institutionally-supported racism was difficult to address when leadership did not share the same values. While reflecting on a mandatory active shooter training, Mia highlighted the struggle she and her colleagues faced when the campus refused to respond to blatant racism. During a mandatory active shooter training, the facilitator routinely selected only Men of Color to act as the gunman and used stereotypes and derogatory language throughout the event. Mia was one of the ones to complain to leadership but expressed that the campus failed to act. The same trainer was chosen for several years in a row with no changes to behavior. In this way, the campus was complicit in allowing a session that perpetuated racism and placed a burden on Men of Color. In addition, it created triggers for many students and staff required to attend the trainings and left the staff solely responsible for the debriefing and support of those present,
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Race and Education

Race and Education

outcomes and vitality, many factors in early childhood contribute to a successful or detrimental educational experiences. For starters, child poverty in America is a serious concern. While poverty affects all age groups, individuals under the age of 18 are affected the most harshly. Therefore, a large majority of children, the future people of America, are living in poverty stricken conditions. Studies show that the effects of poverty on education is profound and multidimensional – those who experience poverty conditions are at high risk for academic failure (Katel, 2011). With this knowledge, one would assume that the United States is adequately funding and supporting early education, child care services, and programs designed to enriching the children of the future. However, early education receives very little money when compared to other expenditures, such a military expenses. This senior project will explore the discrepancies in race and education, and the contributing factors of minority exploitation in the American school system. The discrepancies in prenatal care, poverty, early childhood education, and the criminalization of minority students all contribute to a segregated, exploitative school system.
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Relationship between transformtion and institutional culture

Relationship between transformtion and institutional culture

students from the underprivileged black communities who enlisted at previously white universities, wind up feeling unwelcome at those institutions. Nehawu further presented that a disguised type of prejudice is rising in post-politically-sanctioned racial segregation South Africa. This type of prejudice frequently dodges racial phrasing, while at the same time remaining positively imbedded in the everyday activities of numerous organizations. As indicated by Nehawu, this type of prejudice drives institutional culture. Alluding to Randall (2006), Nehawu featured that the peril in institutional prejudice is that it is frequently obviously and secretively imbedded in the establishment’s way of life, foundational strategies and rehearses and that such societies, arrangements and practices are regularly not racially roused, however are persuaded by reasons, for example, effectiveness, profitability and meritocracy. In such conditions, the most serious risk may lie in that people and additionally institutions of higher education may not know about the embedded types of prejudice (SAHRC Report 2016). It is evident from this report that after almost 23 years of democracy in South Africa, some of the universities are still lagging behind in terms of transformation and their institutional culture. This has led to the recent campaigns like “Rhodes Must Fall”, “Fees Must Fall” and the “Outsourcing Must Fall” protests. The government in trying to remedy the situation set up a Fees Commission of Inquiry, trying to find a better model of funding students at universities. Figure 3 indicates the gender disparities at institutions of HE in South Africa.
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Racism and the Pinkerton syndrome in
Singapore: effects of race on hiring decisions

Racism and the Pinkerton syndrome in Singapore: effects of race on hiring decisions

Three resumes were constructed in consultation with the Career Counsellor of the university. Elements of the resumes were varied to manipulate the strength of the academic qualifications. Some of these elements are listed in Table 1. In addition, we generated four names for each of the three races, resulting in a total of 12 names. Eighteen Singaporean Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to receive one of the three resumes without names (i.e. either strong, moderate, or weak in academic qualifications). The participants reviewed the resume and completed the Perception of Warmth and Competence Scale (Bloodhart, 2009; Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) and the Hiring Decision Scale (Barrick, Swider, & Stewart, 2010). Subsequently, they recom- mended a monthly salary for the job applicant given the starting salary range of $2,800 to $3,562 for a psychology graduate in Singapore (Ministry of Education, Singapore, 2015). Lastly, partic- ipants were randomly presented the 12 names, one at a time, and identified the race of the individual using five options: Chinese, Malay, Indian, White, and Others. Preliminary analyses suggested that participants were able to discriminate between strong, mod- erate, and weak academic qualifications in terms of perceived com- petence and applicant suitability, and recommended salary. Also, they were able to correctly identify the race of the individuals based on the names presented.
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Quality Teaching & Higher Education System in...

Quality Teaching & Higher Education System in...

Education in ancient India was highly advanced as evident from the centres of learning that existed in the Buddhist monasteries of the 7th century BC up to the 3rd century AD Nalanda (Perkin, 2006). In these centres, gathering of scholars-- Gurukula-- used to be engaged in intellectual debates-- parish ads-- in residential campuses. A few of these centres were large and had several faculties. Historians speculate that these centres had a remarkable resemblance to the European medieval universities that came up much later. The ancient education system in India slowly got extinguished following invasions and disorder in the country. Till the eighteenth century, India had three distinct traditions of advanced scholarship in the Hindu Gurukulas, the Buddhist Viharas, and the Quranic madaras as, before the British set up a network of schools to impart western education in English medium (Perkin, 2006) The first such college to impart western education was founded in1818 at Serampore near Calcutta. Over the next forty years, many such colleges were established in different parts of the country at Agra, Bombay, Madras, Nagpur, Patna, Calcutta, and Nagapattinam. In 1857, three federal examining universities on the pattern of London University were set up at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
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Innovation in higher education: Diffusion of democracy in education

Innovation in higher education: Diffusion of democracy in education

To assess the lecturers' perception on democracy in education, the first research question: "What are the teachers' conceptions on - the role of -democracy in education?"- was divided into two sub-questions:i. What is your perception of the word "democracy" in other words "what comes to your mind when the word "democracy" is mentioned? For Anna, "I directly think about having many political parties and that I am free according to my beliefs to join any party". While Karl commented, "Well, I believe that this word "democracy" means that people are equal to one another. All citizens are treated equally and fairly by the government". Fiona's understanding was different: "for me democracy means safety.
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Utilizing Students’ Personal Technology in Higher Education

Utilizing Students’ Personal Technology in Higher Education

Due to growing educational technology, a variety of research in EFL highlight the need to shift from traditional teacher-centered learning towards student-centered learning (Hmaid, 2014; Nakatani, 2005; Gulnaz, Alfaqih, & Mashhour, 2015; Başal, 2012; Zare, 2012). In a traditional one-size-fits-all model of education, students play passive roles, having no control over their own learning, just receivers of teachers’ knowledge, and teachers make all the decisions concerning the course, teaching methods, and the different forms of evaluation (Ahmed, 2013). In a traditional learning environment, students are assigned to a grade level and attend class, where they meet their teachers face to face at the same time and get the same learning materials limited to what their teacher has arranged in advance, without regard to individual learner’s learning requirements and demands (Kinshuk, Chang, Graf, & Yang, 2009). In contrast, in student-centered learning, students are actively involved in learning process, have greater input into what, how and when to learn it, and take responsibility for their own learning (Ahmed, 2013). Brown (2008) also states that student-centered learning approach refers to an active learning process where students are involved in what to learn, and designing, teaching, and evaluation are based on the learners’ needs and abilities. Students engaging actively in the learning process, according to Park (2003), tend to understand more, learn more, remember more, enjoy it more and be more able to appreciate the relevance of what they have learned, than passive students. The teacher acts as a facilitator, guide, co-learner, and co-investigator, and the learner plays the role of an explorer, teacher, and producer (Ahmed, 2013; Jones, Valdez, Nowakowski, & Rasmussen, 1994). Froyd and Simpson (2008) refer to two reasons why
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Who Stole the Soul: Black Student Sociopolitical Solidarity in the Twenty-First Century

Who Stole the Soul: Black Student Sociopolitical Solidarity in the Twenty-First Century

research (and perhaps other schools like it) are shaped when viewed through the three theoretical models described above. What are the various interpretations that will unfold? Is it possible that some Black students consciously or subconsciously subscribe to Tinto’s earliest engagement ideas, and shun aspects of their Black cultural selves in order to fit within what they perceive to be the institutional expectations? Is it possible that some students, by way of a higher socioeconomic status, recent roots outside of America, or limited Black cultural exposure do not relate to notions of “Blackness” and/or group responsibility the way that previous generations of Black students have? Has the possible cooptation or demise of the Black student movement furthered a push toward racelessness and/or individuality? Are there pockets of students in an emergence, or a “pre-emergence” stage of a new social movement? If so, will their efforts fall in line with Shelby’s notions of pragmatic Black nationalism, or better fit within some other model? How do students currently enact their social justice agendas? Do they feel tension between this work and their identities as students, or have they become more savvy in the ways that they have engaged on campus, fluidly fusing their efforts as students, leaders, and change agents? What roles do institutional elements play in all of this, from the central administration to the various offices, faculty, and partners that students connect with? Can the continuous flow of Black graduates from selective institutions fuel some sort of change for Black Americans most in need? Can it do so without a specific agenda, or will it require more tangible commitment and strategy? Will anyone take up that cause, and be unafraid to name it? Might it be members of our twenty-first century “Talented Tenth,” or do they only exist in theory?
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Exploring student engagegment practises at a South African university: Student engagement as reliable predictor of academic performance

Exploring student engagegment practises at a South African university: Student engagement as reliable predictor of academic performance

concerned about performance of Black students, perhaps to the neglect of Coloured students. Regarding the mean engagement score of Discussion with Diverse Others (DD), Black students scored significantly lower than Coloured students. This reflects how often students engage with peers who are perceived different along categories of economic, religious and political views and race and gender. The results suggest that UWC Coloured students are more likely to engage with diverse others than their Black student peers. Moreover, the Coloured group at UWC has a high in-group variance, and the data may reflect this diversity within the group of Coloured students. However, as universities are not exempted from the scars of our history, our peer-to-peer and student-and-staff interactions, as well as our campus environment may tend to be segregated along lines of race, as is reported from other higher education contexts in South Africa (Cross, Shalem, Backhouse and Adam 2009; Jansen 2009).
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Managing Emotional Labour in Higher Education; Scale Development

Managing Emotional Labour in Higher Education; Scale Development

In this course of study the item generation was based on the study carried out by researchers, the concept of emotional labour of other researchers used various fields in emotional labour to generate items for the survey that were rendered to respondents. A total number of 50 questionnaires were administered to the above respondents, this study documents was carried out in selected universities located otta, ogun state Nigeria. All respondents received and returned the questionnaire to the researcher. The main resolve of the methodology is to analyse the aim of the study which seeks to examine all about emotional labour in higher education. A questionnaire based survey was used in getting the opinions of people. Age, gender, length of service, marital status and educational prerequisite were recognized. The questionnaire also contained 4 variables and constructs. The response of each respondent were later recorded for quantitative analysis, the use of quantitative content analysis in analyzing the data gotten from .v defendants proved to be very useful. The findings of this study are a product of the coded and analysed data. The items generated in separately section of the questionnaire are reflections of the indicators that were decorated by the professors who received them. The questionnaires checked 4 indicators. Sample size of 50 was used for this study with the average age range of accused been between 16-56years and above.
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The Essential of Life Skills in the Basic Education Subject Learning in Higher Education

The Essential of Life Skills in the Basic Education Subject Learning in Higher Education

The results of the RMP analysis on the Basic Education Subject showed that the use of learning methods both approaches, strategies and learning techniques used a varied approach. A more competency-based approach, such as to achieve academic, vocational and competency competencies across curriculum that were social and personal competencies. Stages to provide opportunities for students to gain learning experience through individual activities, in pairs, or in groups through four stages which include: the first stage, through Build Knowledge Of field, namely students were gradually invited to build an understanding of what was learned and the things associated with it . In the second stage, through Modeling, students were introduced to things that already existed or were similar to models to build their understanding of something. Third, Joint contracting, to accelerate mastery of what was learned, students were given the opportunity to carry out various activities in groups both large, small and / or in pairs, this was done to gain experience from others. While the fourth stage was through Independent construction, where students were given the opportunity to strengthen their understanding and skills through individual learning experiences.
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Mitigation Strategies for ERP Implementations in Higher Education

Mitigation Strategies for ERP Implementations in Higher Education

Abstract:- Organizational leaders have increasingly turned to enterprise resource planning (ERP) applications, also known as decision-support systems, to make their organization’s operational, tactical, and strategic processes more efficient and effective in the changing global marketplace. High failure rates in ERP systems implementations make these projects risky, however. Most prior research on critical success factors for conventional ERP implementation has been on large enterprises, resulting in a gap in knowledge on these factors in higher education institutions. A qualitative modified Delphi study with an expert panel of U.S. consultants and three iterative rounds of data collection and analysis revealed consensus on 8 critical success factors in ERP implementations, with the highest agreement on top management support and commitment, enterprise resource planning fit with the institution, quality management, and a small internal team of the best employees. In addition to furthering knowledge in the fields of leadership and enterprise applications, the study expands enterprise resource planning experts’ and scholars’ understanding of strategies to improve project success within the higher education sector. Practitioners in the ERP industry can also apply approaches outlined during ERP implementations to mitigate risk during these engagements. Implications for positive social change include additional job opportunities and higher wages through increased efficiencies in ERP applications.
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Learning Objects Innovation in Higher Education: Students’ Perspective

Learning Objects Innovation in Higher Education: Students’ Perspective

Abstract:- The development of Learning Object (LO) for online learning in higher education that has been done need to be optimized on its utilization. Based on the literature review, analyzing the needs on students’ perspective as the end-users of the online course is necessary. The objective of this research is to obtain the innovation needs in improving the LO from students’ perspective. The research was using the Kavita Gupta (2007) needs analysis model through knowledge and skill assessment approach. The phases include: initial data collecting, planning, analyzing the needs, analyzing data, and reporting. The data were collected by using questionnaire, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), product testing, and LO observation. The subject of the research was students that had taken the Teaching and Learning Theory course. Meanwhile the research object was the course-site of the course in www.fip.web-bali.net. The result of this research found that:
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Travelling into the other's world: South African pre-service teacher education students' construction of difference, belonging and identity

Travelling into the other's world: South African pre-service teacher education students' construction of difference, belonging and identity

This article reflected on the small stories students told as a “by-product” of a digital storytelling project and what these stories could tell us about how students positioned themselves and their peers in post-Apartheid South Africa. The daily check-in sessions at the beginning of each workshop day, in which students reflected on set critical texts, became spaces for students to unpack and explore sensitive issues such as race and privilege. Authors such as Freeth (2013) or Gobodo-Madikizela (2008) argue that particularly in South Africa these spaces are essential to overcome racial divides and challenge some of the indirect knowledge our students bring to the classroom. These conversations not only acted as conduits for these narratives to emerge, but also created bridges to allow students to travel into each others’ worlds and impacted strongly on the final output of this process, students’ digital stories. The conversations also highlighted the importance of intersectionality when addressing identity in post-Apartheid South Africa. These findings are not necessarily new, but are an important reminder of the ongoing need of addressing race and privilege in South African classroom while also showing the challenges when doing so. Framing the analysis of students’ stories with Lugones’ concept of world travelling gave us a more nuanced understanding of students’ diverse roles in this endeavour.
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ICT Integration in Teaching and Learning Activities in Higher Education: A Case Study of Nepal’s Teacher Education

ICT Integration in Teaching and Learning Activities in Higher Education: A Case Study of Nepal’s Teacher Education

The interview with the head of the Faculty of Education explored that the SHEP and NORHED projects initially provided 66 laptops and some multimedia projectors to establish a computer lab. In addition, the NORHED project further aimed at providing continuous technological and training support for the capacity building of the faculty. There was no allocated budget from the government for the project. The head stated that the Faculty of Education had a plan to digitise accounting and examination systems, to establish a digital library and to equip the college and staff with ICT tools and skills. He shared his plan to transform a traditional system of teacher education with the integration of digital technology. He reported that, although the laptops, projectors and internet (Wi-Fi) were available for the tutors and students in the lab, the practice of digital technology in teaching and learning was at the early stage. In the continuous interview, he expressed his dissatisfaction: “We have some level of educational technologies, but I have observed some classes without using them.” His expression indicated teachers’ limited use of available technology in their planning and teaching activities. Although he did not like to say much about teachers’ attitude and technology skills, his dissatisfaction against teachers’ limited use of ICT facilities indicated that perhaps the teachers had a low level of ICT skills and a lack of motivation to use available ICT facilities in their teaching plans and delivery.
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