As RFIC integration requirements become ever more compact, each RF block will be integrated into a single chip. Therefore, the noise must be reduced or the mutual influences between the circuit blocks become stronger, reducing each element’s performance. If the elements do not function well, then the circuit will also not function properly. Among the building blocks of a RF transceiver, the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is an important block. If the frequency setting and noise control are pre- cisely work, then the system performances of the transceiver will work well marvelously. A fully integrated voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is one of the most challeng- ing parts of a radio transceiver in standard CMOS tech- nologies. VCO has many demanding parameters, and such as large frequency tuning range, low power con- sumption, low cost and low phase noise. A wide tuning range is often important because it can accommodate more process and temperature variations.
TCA. The engineers at Raytheon (with whom we worked on the SHAMRoC project) discovered that the negative transconductance in the input stage load was at least partially responsible for the TCA becoming unstable under certain operating conditions (i.e. undesirable oscillatory behavior), and were able to verify the instability problem for the TCA with circuit simulations . What’s more, out of the three test problem circuits used in this work, the TCA was the only RFIC block that was not easily testable in the lab due to malfunctioning on-chip TCA test structures. While having access to a stable and fully functional TCA design would be ideal, we are still nevertheless interested in including the TCA as a test problem for this work to show the validity of our calibration strategy. Due to potential instabilities in TCA operation, we choose the specifics of our TCA test problem so that the quantities of interest can be obtained from small-signal simulations, such as AC (for “alternating current”) and scattering parameter simulations, thus avoiding the use of time- based transient simulations where unstable circuit behavior would make test problem data collection problematic. Thus, to salvage a TCA test problem, we choose to optimize the TCA voltage gain subject to an input match requirement at a particular operating frequency. For RF amplifiers driving on-chip mixers such as the TCA, the voltage gain is an important quantity of interest  as it is critical to maximize the input to the mixer, which is a voltage in this particular case. The voltage gain A v of the TCA at a particular frequency
GPS location module GS-87 is the third generation of GPS receiver chip designed by the United States SiRF star III company, which consists of a radiofrequencyintegrated circuit, a digital signal processing circuit and standard embedded GPS software composition .Radiofrequencyintegrated circuit is used to detect and process GPS RF signal. Digital signal processing circuit is used to process the IF signal. The standard embedded GPS software is used search and follow up GPS satellite signals, Users to coordinate and speed is available according to the information. It is a high performance, low-power intelligent satellite receiver module or called satellite engine, is a complete GPS receiver.
On-chipradiofrequency (RF) capacitor is one of the key components for RF integrated circuit (RFIC) designs such as filters and oscillators. Several researches on the design of on-chip planar capacitor have been reported. However there is a need to modify the existing synthesizing procedure; model and optimize the on-chip RF capacitor. Quality factor is the essential parameter as it is an index for the efficiency of a capacitor’s performance. This thesis investigates the design of an interdigital capacitor configuration. Geometry design variables include number of fingers, finger length, finger width, finger gap, end gap, terminal width, strip thickness, substrate height, metal types and dielectric constant. The physical model of an interdigital capacitor was
integratedchip . So, it handles all the baseband and RF processing functions together. In addition to mini- mize the hardware size, it prevents from high frequency noise generated from connecting RF transceiver and MCU chips. This integratedchip benefits from the low power consumption, high communication range, high capacity memories, multiple channels, and high sensitiv- ity receiver . Some critical issues in the active RFID should be considered when developing the hardware . The first key point of the development is the lifetime of the active RFID Tag. Because the active RFID Tag is energized by the internal battery, the lifetime of the Tag is mainly depends on the lifetime of the battery. At first, we choose the low-power components and implement a mechanism in which the processor can completely turn off the radio or simply put it in the sleep mode to save the power. The second one is the ability of the anti-colli- sion, which is important especially in the vehicle trans- portation environment. To get to the high identification rate for multiple Tags, the anti-collision is carefully ap- plied. In Table 1, the key parameters of the system achieved by using of CC2530 are listed .
Oscillators are essential building blocks in many electrical systems, such as radio transceivers and digital electronics circuitry. When placed in a frequency-stabilizing feedback loop (such as a PLL), voltage- or current-controlled oscillators are used to generate an accurate frequency or time reference. Therefore, time waveform as well as frequency components of oscillators output are two major characteristic of such systems. In radio transceivers, local oscillators typically generate periodic waveforms that are used for the up- / down-conversion or sampling of the main information signal. As discussed in Chapters 2, in multi-band and multi-mode radio architectures, in order to process the information in various frequency bands, a number of local-oscillator (LO) frequencies are usually needed. More importantly, in concurrent radios described in Chapter 3, numerous LO frequencies are required at the same time. Since oscillators consume a substantial part of the chip area and battery power, methods to generate all these necessary LO waveforms in a compact design are very appealing. In Chapters 2, 3 and 5, we gave examples of radio architectures where elegant frequency planning allowed for the use of one oscillator core in addition to frequency dividers for the whole (concurrent) multi-mode systems. In this chapter we will discuss the simultaneous generation of two frequencies by an oscillator.
RFID Tags are the building block of RFID technology. Tag component emits radio signals and is a combination of microchip and antenna. Each RFID tag contains a unique identification number which is stored in the microchip of tag. This microchip is built with the integrated circuit, sensors, I/O ports and embedded logic on a silicon chip. Tags antenna is used to transmission of radio waves. Sometimes RFID tags is also known as transponder. RFID tags are available in different shapes and sizes according to the environment and application, they will be used in.
The “clustering” effect discussed in Section 3.1 was observed in the UWB indoor envi- ronments measured according to [7, 8, 9]. The dual Poison processes that model the cluster and ray arrival times are used unaltered from the original S-V model with the cluster and ray arrival time PDFs given in Equations 3.1 and 3.2 respectively [7, 8, 9]. The precision of the UWB measuring equipment as well as the measuring method is different in this case. The results are based on a frequency sweep of 2-6 GHz which yields a minimum path res- olution of 0.167 ns . In many cases the received signal was sampled directly without loss of information as in the original S-V model experiment where the phase information was lost and necessarily modeled as a uniformly distributed random variable θ k,l . The
The aim of this work was to design and implement a prototype of a microcontroller-radiofrequency based water level indicator / controller system which automatically sense accurately the water level of an overhead tank and automatically activate or deactivate a single phase water pump for industrial and domestic applications. The control unit can power conveniently up to 2hp pump. Using this system, one can remotely monitor and control the water level of an overhead tank that is placed up to 100 meters away. The level of water in the overhead tank is being monitored and at certain level of water 25% empty, the system automatically switches the pumping machine on to pump water in to the overhead tank and then switches off when the water is 100% full. The intention of this research work is to establish a flexible, economical and easy configurable system which can solve the problem of water wastage.
While there have been previous studies done on RFI monitoring for solar monitoring purposes in Malaysia, such an approach have not been made in east coast area of Peninsular Malaysia using CALLISTO (Compound Low- Cost Low-Frequency Transportable Observatories) spectrometer due to the technical limitations , . Therefore, a different instrument yet similar analysis method are used to monitor RFI for east coast database and future development of CALLISTO spectrometer in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. There is some interference originated from military satellite and local electronics devices due to human generated RFI in the range of 1-900 MHz. However, all reserved frequencies are still available and not interfered by local RFI . It is important to know the population density of the local site as it was one of the main contributors in human generated RFI . Comparison of several sites to determine the site with low RFI for future radio astronomical observation. By focusing on the L-band (1-2 GHz), they divided L-band window into four windows namely as window A, B, C and D for all sites. It is suggested to protect L-band window since the important spectral line; HI exists in this window with the frequency of 1420 MHz. The RFI detected in this study are compared with International Telecommunication Union (ITU) ITU-R RA. 769-2. The recommended RFI by ITU depend on the spectral line itself, differs for each spectral lines. Although previous research has yet implemented the mitigation techniques, the RFI detected at several sites could be the database for reference to other astronomers .
Although the prototype can achieve versatile amplifier characteristics owning to its flexible IV TCs, the two most important properties to be demonstrated with this pro- totype are its flexible IV TCs and its high linearity when configured as a Class A amplifier with the IRTC. The first requires us to be able to measure the IV TC of the amplifier. To do so we take advantages of the XY mode of an oscilloscope to display the input and out- put voltages of the amplifier and plot them on Cartesian co-ordinates. The above setup is depicted in Figure 5.15. Since the output voltage is proportional to the prototype current, this plot therefore displays the shape of the IV TC and the exact IV TC can be computed simply by dividing the output by the total output resistor. For this prototype, a sinusoidal of ~1 MHz is used to perform the above measurement task. Tuning of this single-tone sig- nal frequency may be necessary to ensure a perfect 180 o out phasing between the input
Wireless local area network technology are widely deployed & used in organisations today. Using radiofrequency (RF) technology, wireless LANs transmit & receive data over air, minimising need for wired connections. Thus, wireless LANs combine data connectivity with user mobility. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks & enterprise installations avoid costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented & administered using radio communication. This implementation takes place at physical level of OSI model network structure.
Design in high frequency meaning that working in longer read ranges (1m to 9 m) and has benefit of compared to LF/HF tags, Propagating waves are more strictly limited by regulatory agencies, Read performance affected by signal reflections off and blockage by objects along reader-to-tag propagation path (multipath), Frequency bands shared by other active services, Strongly effected by presence of nearby non-metallic objects, Tags available to work on metal are usually larger and thicker. Assessing Tag Bandwidth can be done using CST Design Studio as shown in figure .2 the frequency range of S parameter magnitude of designed antenna Figure 3 illustrate Field energy of the antenna
The data is written during the fabrication process, using ROM, and is therefore non-rewritable, providing a high level of authenticity. “By taking advantage of the merits of compactness, high authenticity and wireless communication, and combining it with Internet technology, the µ-Chip may be utilized in a broad range of applications such as security, transportation, amusement, traceability and logistics” – said Hitachi engineers who worked on the project. Hitachi is continuing to develop technologies that increase communication’s distance range and decrease antenna size, whilst preserving high reliability and aiming for improved productivity. The company said that the enhanced compactness and thinness of the new chip has further broadened the range of possible applications, including gift certificates that can be authenticated. The new RFID “powder” can also be incorporated into thin paper, such as currency, creating so-called “bugged” money.
Since the gas bubble comes from the photoresist solvent, one solution is to more effectively bake out the solvent. An experiment is carried out to investigate this option in more detail. All the chip samples are fabricated on a silicon wafer with a 1.4 µm thermal oxide layer. The photoresist is patterned to have two thicknesses, 25 µm and 3 µm, using the same set of masks for the real device. The patterned photoresist is postbaked for 15 minutes at 100 °C, followed by standard descum process. Then the samples are divided into three groups and treated differently. Group 1 is kept the same, no parylene coating is performed. Group 2 is coated with 15 µm thick parylene. And group 3 is baked for five hours at 100 °C prior to a 15 µm thick parylene coating. All baking processes are performed in a convection oven. For testing, the sample chips are directly placed on hotplate for uniform heating across the chips at various temperatures.
With the development of electronic technology, IC chip is more widely used in electronic equipment so that trouble shooting of the electronic equipment becomes an important mission. Early artificial testing and full inspection based on exhaustive testing have been difficult to meet the actual needs, so they have been gradually replaced by automated testing. However, the time complexity of automatic testing is completely uncertain polynomial problem. In recent years, the increase of test generation speed cannot keep up with the needs of integrated circuit size increases obviously, and the proportion of test cost has been growing in the total cost of product in its survival period. Faced with this situation, the computer industry has taken the methods to improve the efficiency and processing power or to consider the test problem in the design stage, and take the testability test by putting the
Current trends in analytical science are directed towards miniaturization and integration, with many analytical processes carried out on a single microchip [1–3]. Such devices require integration of a number of sub-components into a single device, including sample delivery system, bio/chemical reactor and on-line detection. Optical methods are often employed for detection and these are often fabricated from integrated waveguides and/or optical fibres [4–6]. The main challenges in developing a ‘lab-on-a-chip’ are the integration of functional sub-units into a single practical system that can be made using realizable fabrication methods. In this work we describe the integration of a number of separate systems to produce a particle fractionation system. The device uses microelectrode arrays for particle and/or fluid movement and embedded fibreoptics for particle detection and counting. The device is based on the use of travelling wave dielectrophoresis (twDEP) to induce particle movement and/or fractionation . An array of interdigitated electrodes generates a non-uniform electric field which causes polarizable particles to move either by dielectrophoresis (DEP) and/or twDEP. Particles move under twDEP at a rate that depends on the ratio of the imaginary to real part of the effective polarizability of the particle together with their size . These devices have shown potential for characterizing and sorting cells and micro-organisms [9–12] as well as for solid-state electrohydrodynamic pumping of liquid . The fabrication of large-area twDEP devices has been presented previously  and many of the relevant fabrication technologies are available
The main purpose of the selective band topology is to reduce the instantaneous bandwidth. The topology consists of a mixer with a tunable local oscillator so that the frequency band can be translated to a intermediate frequency. On a standardised intermediate frequency it is easy to get a sharp Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filter. After this filter, the selected band is then translated back to baseband. This bandwidth reduction also means that the ADC is allowed to be 30 times slower, dissipating less power than the high sample rate ADC . Another advantage is that it feeds less data to the Digital Signal Processor (DSP).
We analyzed such a fully guided scheme theoretically for simplified trapping potentials in one-dimensional (infinite radial and axial confinement) and two-dimensionally spherical harmonic traps 10 . This allowed us to investigate some dynamical effects that affect the interferometer performance with non-interacting ground-state and thermal atoms. In the one-dimensional case, the interferometer will always measure the Sagnac phase, but with potentially reduced contrast. The operation is essentially that of a white-light interferometer where the final overlap of the two wavepackets must be on the order of the coherence length of the thermal gas. Any spatial separation as well as non-zero relative momentum between the two counter-propagating ensembles during the final -pulse will lead to contrast reduction. Acceleration and deceleration of the traps during the transport must not result in motional excitation at the end of the sequence. The quantity that determines the contrast is the coherent displacement between the two harmonic oscillators of frequency at the end of the sequence. The contrast at temperature is given by . For symmetrically transported traps, the final displacement is a function of the temporal angular speed profile of the two traps as seen in the laboratory frame and given by . If the speed profile does not contain Fourier components at the trapping frequency, full contrast will be achieved.
In this thesis, it will be demonstrated that by implementing Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling on interconnection networks for Wireless NoCs with efficient DVFS controller, significant power savings can be achieved when compared to existing power management techniques in Wireless NoCs. The history based DVFS technique will be implemented on wireline links and buffers by taking advantage of the utilization characteristics over a time window to predict the future utilization and vary the voltage and frequency accordingly for significant energy savings. This proposed system will prove to be more energy efficient than previous NoC paradigms. The proposed system is implemented with other existing topologies and will be evaluated for performance characteristics and energy savings. Furthermore, the trade-off between performance and energy will be established for different traffic conditions. The following points will summarize the contributions made during this work.