There are several methods for radiologic imaging which offer the promise of improved detection of cancer recurrence but have not yet found widespread application for oropharyngeal carcinoma [28-32]. The use of integrated PET/MRI for the evaluation of head and neck cancer has been described . PET/MRI has theoretical advantages over PET/CT due to the superior soft-tissue delineation of malignancies with MRI compared to contrast-enhanced CT and the absence of radi- ation dose with MRI. Drawbacks with whole-body PET/MRI include motion artifact of solid organ evaluation (lung, liver/ abdomen) associated with respiration, which is greater with MRI than with CT, and the prolonged imaging time (typic- ally, in excess of 1 h) of PET/MRI which may be difficult for some patients to tolerate.
C hronic facial nerve paralysis can result in significant morbid- ity, including brow ptosis, lagophthalmos, ectropion, expo- sure keratopathy, nasal alar collapse, effacement of the nasolabial fold, ptosis of the oral commissure, and drooling. Static and dy- namic facial reanimation surgical techniques are available to pre- vent and treat these complications. Static facial nerve rehabilita- tion procedures include brow lift, eyelid weight implantation, lower eyelid canthoplasty and tightening, fascia lata and alloplas- tic slings, and cheiloplasty. Dynamic facial reanimation proce- dures include nerve transfer and grafting, eyelid springs, free mus- cle transfer, regional muscle transfer, and lengthening myoplasty. The anatomic changes brought about by these procedures can be delineated by using conventional radiologic imaging modalities, including radiographs, CT, sonography, and MR imaging. Fur- thermore, in certain instances, imaging may be requested specif- ically to evaluate the results of facial reanimation surgery, such as interrogating the patency of the vascular pedicle following gracilis muscle transfer. The imaging findings after selected static and dynamic facial reanimation surgeries are described and depicted in the following sections.
In this study, fat component was demonstrated by chemical shift MRI techniques in three patients. Identifi- cation of signal drop on fat-saturated T1-weighted sequences or opposed-phase chemical shift pulse se- quences showed 100% specificity for the intratumoral fat . It is well known that HCC sometimes showed a paradoxically high intensity in the hepatobiliary phase in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI ; conversely, hepatic AML never showed a high intensity. Early enhancement with delayed washout, mimicking HCC, was clearly de- tected in three patients, but the tumor border was irregular without capsular formation. Besides, early ven- ous return in the arterial or portal phase was detected with various diagnostic imaging in three patients. Kassarjian et al.  reported a classification of hepatic hemangiomas with angiographic findings.
Conclusions: Physicians caring for renal transplant recipients should be aware of colorectal malakoplakia as a rare but serious complication. The onset may be within months or as long as a decade or more following transplantation. The clinical presentation is varied, nonspecific, and will likely suggest more common diseases. Although radiologic imaging is also nonspecific, awareness of malakoplakia is of importance to radiologists when formulating the differential diagnosis of mass lesions of the colorectum in this clinical setting. Definitive diagnosis remains dependent on pathologic examination of a biopsy or surgical resection specimen.
ADPKD: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; RTECs: renal tubular epithelial cells; CRIPS: consortium for radiologic imaging studies of polycystic kidney disease; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; AGS3: activator of G protein signaling 3; Br: brain; BW: body weight; CKD: chronic kidney disease; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; GPCRs: G protein-coupled receptors; H&E: hematoxylin & eosin; µL: microliter; Min: minute; mL: milliliter; MVB: multive- sicular bodies; nm: nanometer; PKD: polycystic kidney disease; SD: Sprague– Dawley; TKD: total kidney weight.
We created ACA models that analyzed sound waves according to MFCC. The models were based on machine learning. Each chest sound type was found to have a distinct PPG. Radiologic imaging has limited ability in diagnosing wheezes, therefore physicians are the corner- stone for the diagnosis of conditions such as bronchial asthma as opposed to radiologic imaging. ACA model A based on HMM achieved an overall CCR of 96.7%, sensitivity of 100%, and 100% speci ﬁ city using 13 MFCCs and a frame duration of 40 ms. ACA model B based on wave shape achieved overall CCR of 98.7%, sensitivity of 100%, and 100% speci ﬁ city).
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spleens were noted in one third of the cases. In summary, splenic hamartoma should be in- cluded in the differential diagnoses of symptomatic splenomegaly and of splenic nodules discovered in- cidentally in pediatric patients. In cases of a single discrete splenic hamartoma, the use of multimodal radiologic imaging may help to pinpoint the diagno- sis preoperatively. In addition, single and discrete hamartoma may be treated by conservative partial splenectomy.
predictive of radiologic success with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 66%, respectively, using a height cut off of 9.8 mm. 27 Park et al. graded the PUM (1-3) and found more pronounced and protruding PUMs to be more predictive of radiologic success. 28 More recently, the use of an intraoperative US-assisted approach for endoscopic VUR correction was investigated. The authors found that this approach led to increased intraoperative accuracy in positioning the bulking agent, as well as improved a surgeon’s ability to achieve an ideal IMM. 29 However, all these variations on the use of an US mound to predict endoscopic success requires dedicated US protocols, global acceptance by radiologists and/or specialized equipment.
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Both PCNSL and tumefactive MS share some common radiologic features, such as peripheral con- trast enhancement, mass effect, and edema. However, even within these broad categories, differences between the MRI features of these 2 entities are evi- dent. PCNSL produces hypointense or isointense le- sions on unenhanced T1-weighted imaging and isointense to hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted imaging with linear enhancement along perivascular spaces and perifocal edema. Lesions are typically found in central hemispheric or periventricular white matter. 3 Tumefactive MS, on the other hand,
Patient underwent computed tomography of the chest without contrast in June 2017. Final impression of the radiologic report was as follows: “Stable benign 7 mm left lower lobe nodule. A 5 mm lingular nodule was not included on the prior study. Would consider follow-up exam in 6-12 months.”
Abstract: Female infertility is a commonly encountered problem that presently accounts for a significant percentage of women seeking gynecologic services. While primary infertility is defined as the inability to conceive or carry a pregnancy successfully to full term, secondary infertility is defined as difficulty in conceiving after already having previously conceived (either carrying a pregnancy to term or a miscarriage). The causes of both primary and secondary female infertility are varied, and include various disorders involving the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, cervix, and peritoneum. Imaging has become an essential tool in the workup of female infertility. Various imaging modalities are commonly employed to evaluate the female reproductive tract. Hysterosalpingography is typically performed as a baseline imaging study in the workup of female infertility. Ultrasound and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging studies are likewise routinely utilized to aid in the diagnosis of female infertility. The appropriate selection of imaging modalities is essential in establishing the etiology of female infertility in a timely, efficient, and cost-effective manner.
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All imaging findings of the 240 patients who underwent MDCT with 16-MDCT Toshiba Aquilion (Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation) and 64-MDCT scanner (Brilliance CT scanner; Philips Healthcare) were analyzed with respect to the presence of fractures of bony structures (rib, scapula, clavicle, sternum, and thoracic vertebra), hemothorax, pneu- mothorax, mediastinal organ injury, and pulmonary, tracheal, abdominal, aortic, and vascular lacerations.
echo images (2, 4). One advantage of the latter technique is that multiplanar reforma- tion is readily achieved and aids in the con- firmation of dysplastic cortex. In polymicro- gyria, the superficial cortex may have a “bumpy” appearance and its inner surface (at the gray–white matter interface) a corrugated appearance. On MR imaging, the dysplastic cortex is typically isointense to normal cor- tex. Although polymicrogyria can involve any part of the brain, the region of the sylvian fissure is most commonly affected (Fig 2). This observation and the fact that the lips of schizencephalies are lined by dysplastic cor- tex have erroneously led some authors to la- bel some polymicrogyrias as “schizen- cephaly type I” (9).
Usually, CCs are completely asymptomatic  and most of these defects are discovered as inciden- tal findings during imaging procedures performed for other reasons. However, in a minority of cases they cause symptoms that may mimic other disease processes that may confound interpretation of im- aging data [8, 40, 43]. Pain may occasionally occur, in particular as a result of sport activities requiring intense wrist movements [27, 36, 42, 45]. A com- pensatory increase of motion in surrounding bones, followed by consequent degenerative arthritis, has been postulated to explain this symptom [22, 27]. Incomplete CCs are more likely to cause symptoms [11, 33]. Overcoming the widely held belief that CTS is almost always asymptomatic, our careful scru- tiny of literature data reveals that this defect may be associated with wrist pain in nearly one-third of the cases (Table 2) [20, 21, 28, 30, 36–38, 43, 45]. Remarkably, pain seems to be associated with incom- plete or fibrocartilaginous forms [21, 20, 28, 30, 36, 38]. Therefore, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are required to better define the nature of coalition in symptomatic cases in order to choose the most appropriate treatment for each patient [11, 14, 36].
cantly better 5-year survival rate than patients whose tumors showed calcification. Other re- ports have stated that the absence of tumor calcification is associated with a better survival rate and is characteristic of craniopharyngio- mas in adults (2, 13). It has been suggested that the biological behavior of craniopharyngiomas in children differs from that in adults (15). In the present study, we found that, on average, the tumors were somewhat larger and more calci- fied in children; however, large calcified tumors were seen in adults, and small tumors without calcifications were found in children. We could not establish any clear and significant difference in CT or MR imaging characteristics related to children versus adults. The discrepancy be- tween this study and prior studies may be due in part to the higher sensitivity of CT over plain radiography for the detection of calcium and in part to the fact that we estimated the volume of calcification that was present instead of merely noting its presence or absence. If we assume that at least 0.5 cm 3 of calcium is necessary for its detection on plain skull films, 12 of 16 chil- dren and nine of 19 adults would have had pos- itive plain film findings for calcium in our series, which is comparable to earlier reports of 80% calcified craniopharyngiomas in children and 40% in adults (13). Calcification deposits are difficult to assess reliably by MR imaging alone, since the signal on T1-weighted and T2- weighted images is variable (9, 10).
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The initial diagnostic MR imaging of the brain in each patient was reviewed in detail, and the location and size of the CM on T2 sequences were recorded. The number of CMs recorded was based on hemosiderin-sensitive sequences (gradient recalled- echo or SWI) when available. If a hemosiderin sequence was not available, the total number of CMs was counted from a standard T2 sequence. We only included patients with multiple CMs if the CMs were clustered around a developmental venous anomaly (DVA). Cavernous malformations were based on Zabramski typing. 14 We recorded the presence of high T1 signal, perile-
I would like to thank (Dr. AlsafiBalla, Dr. Caroline Ayad and Mr. Salah Fadlalla—Staff members , College of Medical Radiologic Sciences-Sudan University of Science and Technology), Dr. Abdelmoneim Saeed, Faculty of Radiography and Diagnostic Medical Imaging-National University-Sudan and Dr. Mohamed Siddig Abdalla, King Abdulaziz University for their strongly supporting to help me during preparation of this manuscript, al- though any errors are my own and should not tarnish the reputations of these esteemed professionals.
A total of 24 cases were identified. Twen- ty-three cases (19 male, 4 female; mean age, 26.3 ⫾ 7.4 years) had both clinical data and MR imaging data available for review. Race/ethnicity was equally dis- tributed between Asian (11) and white (11), with 1 case reporting mixed race. All subjects were healthy individuals without a preceding systemic illness. Twenty-two subjects (22/23) presented with the acute low back pain associated with varying de- grees of paraparesis while surfing. Fifteen subjects (15/23) presented with an ASIA score of C or better. On admission, 5 sub- jects had an ASIA score of A, 3 subjects had an ASIA score of B, 5 subjects had an ASIA score of C, 9 subjects had an ASIA score of D, and 1 subject presented with an ASIA score of E. Sixteen subjects had a sensory level ranging from T8 –L3, whereas 6 subjects had a normal sensory examination. Sensory examination was not performed for 1 subject. Twenty-two subjects (22/23) had urinary retention on postvoid residual on admission. No sub- ject reported a history of trauma. Seven sub- jects were treated with a full course of intra- venous methylprednisolone on the basis of the Third National Acute Spinal Cord In- jury Study protocol for acute spinal cord in- jury (ie, an intravenous bolus dose of meth- ylprednisolone 30 mg/kg over 15 minutes, followed by a 45-minute pause, and then a 23-hour continuous intravenous infusion of 5.4 mg/kg per hour). 12
A 6-year-old Rhodesian Ridgeback was presented with a 1.5 year history of right forelimb lameness. Clinical, radiologi- cal and computed tomographic findings suggested the presence of fragmented medial coronoid process. A subtotal coronoidectomy was performed and, due to the atypical appearance of the medial coronoid process on imaging and at surgery, histopathology of the fragments was performed which revealed chondroblastic OS. Ten months after surgery, the dog was re-presented with the same clinical signs and the radiographic changes were suggestive of a recurrence of the OS. Palliative therapy was instigated at the owner’s request. Thirty months after surgery of the neo- plasm, the dog was presented with dyspnea. Thoracic radiographs showed lesions consistent with lung metastases. Euthanasia was requested by the owner, who declined post-mortem examination.
Case Presentation: A 67-year old gentleman with well controlled hypertension presents with a painless right frontal swelling of three year’s duration. He recalls prior blunt injury to the right frontal area 6 years ago. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging scan of the head was performed and demonstrated a well-circumscribed subperiosteal lesion in an otherwise asymptomatic patient. With a diagnosis of a benign lesion that was asymptomatic, the patient was not offered surgery and the lesion has since remained stable.