determination of the radiological impact assessment values. The values of the radiological assessment indices obtained were observed to be lower than limits internationally reported and recommended for building materials. It could there- fore be reported that the operations of the oil companies in the coastline, involving use of radioactive materials have not contributed adversely to the radioactivity level of the river sediments and that the use of river sediments as building material in the coastal areas of Nigeria poses no radiological risk.
Abstract: When assessing the radiological impacts of radioactive waste disposal, irrigation using water contaminated with releases from the disposal system is a principal means of crop and soil contamination. In spite of their importance for radiological impact assessments,
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Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) has issued a guideline, which spells out the need of a Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) to be carried out before the sludge or slag can be disposed of by landfill (AELB, 1996). Dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/y was set as a control limit for Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) waste disposal. If the result of the assessment shown that the dose to the public is below 0.3 mSv/y, then the disposal is not under the control of the AELB. AELB has also issued a code of practice relating to radiation protection and management of TENORM in oil and gas industries (AELB, 2009). In this code of practice, TENORM waste can be classified in two groups i.e. Group I, which include sludge, scale and contaminated sand where TAC can be measured whereas for Group II, include contaminated tubular or pump where TAC is not easily measured, instead external gamma dose rate is used for assessment. Control limit of TENORM waste is 3 Bq/g (inclusive background) of TAC. The RIA needs to be carried out for disposal should the TAC of the TENORM waste higher than 3 Bq/g (inclusive background). If the TENORM waste concentration is below this value, the handling or disposal of the waste is not control by the authority. Generally, the operator needs to apply for and obtain a license prior to disposal if RIA shows that the dose to members of the public is higher than the dose constraint.
In recent years, as far as the environment is concerned, there has been a growing awareness of professional and public risk of the radiological impact of non-nuclear in- dustries which use, for various applications, raw materials naturally rich in uranium, thorium, or radium . The industrial processing of these raw materials can generate large amounts of waste whose activity concentration can be higher than that of the original materials. This is called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Ra- dioactive Materials (TENORM).
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The radioactivity concentrations of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th in surface soils samples around high-tension cables, powerline area, Osogbo as investigated using gamma ray spectrometer showed that there are low level activities in the studied locations. The average activity concentrations of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th are 223.59±11.98, 15.39±1.95 and 4.54±0.28 Bq/kg respectively. There was consistency in the pattern observed for the radiological assessment of the soils. The results obtained in the present study showed radiological indices values below the recommended limit proposed by UNSCEAR and other relevant organizations worldwide.
It is well known that NORM is hazardous to health and it has long been recognized that work with NORM can raise significant radiation exposure. Therefore, based on Malaysian regulations, Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) should be carried out on all proposed disposals of NORM wastes and demonstrate that no member of the public will be exposed to more than annual permissible dose limit set by the AELB. RIA study on disposal of mineral waste has also been conducted (Azlina et al., 2003; Khairuddin et al., 2007). This paper described the RIA study on disposal of treated sludge conducted in Malaysia before the code of practice LEM/TEK/58 was issued.
For about 20 years, between the 60’s and the 80’s of the last century, debris, hazardous waste and phosphogypsum were deposited without any environ- mental control and without considering the impact in the subsoil and lagoon waters . The area concerned can be divided into two distinct areas: the West sector, about 150,000 m 2 , which contains various types of waste and the East sector, about 70,000 m 2 , which contains phosphogypsum, a by- product of the Porto Marghera phosphate fertiliser industries (volume of about 400,000 m 3 ) and which is characterized by deep and marked erosion towards the lagoon.
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A lesion affecting the left thalamus and midbrain was diagnosed radiologically in a 53-year-old male admit- ted to our hospital. He reported having headache for the past year and hypomnesia for the past 6 months. Neurological examination revealed no obvious abnor- mal findings. Radiological examination revealed a le- sion located in the left thalamus and affecting the midbrain with hypointense T1 and hyperintense T2 signals as well as partial heterogeneous enhancement (Fig. 3). Thalamic glioma was diagnosed, and the pa- tient underwent a subtotal resection of the tumor using a parieto-occipital transventricular approach. During surgery, the tumor appeared as a pinkish-gray soft mass with a poorly defined border and a cystic component of dark-yellow fluid in the posterior part of the mass. The postoperative pathology diagnosis was astrocytoma (WHO grade II). No immunohisto- chemical staining was performed. The patient suffered from a transient deterioration of the right limb motor function and language nonfluency after surgery. After 2 weeks, his limb movements returned to normal and his language fluency recovered. The patient was discharged 23 days after operation. Postoperative cranial radiotherapy was performed. However, the tumor progressed after 19 months. The patient refused to undergo another sur- gery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy and died 25.5 months after the operation.
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Limp, pain, and pathologic fracture are the usual pre- sentations of FD . Lesions can expand and deform bone, thereby threatening structural stability . In a study of 172 fractures in patients with FD, peak fracture rate was observed between ages 5 and 10, commonly in lesions involving the femur, tibia, humerus, and forearm . Fracture rate in these locations decreased in adoles- cence, with even further decreases seen into adulthood . Knowledge of this natural history makes it clear that if orthopedic procedures to stabilize long bones are to have an effect on outcome, they must be introduced very early in childhood to have an impact on the peak frac- ture rate [8, 9]. Similarly, once patients have reached adulthood, the chance of fractures becomes much lower, so less aggressive management to prevent a fracture may be indicated.
In Table 2, fallers with either radiological or clinical OA had significantly greater FoF and reported significantly more severe depressive symptoms than non-fallers. Due to the non-normally distributed data, the individual domain scores were then dichotomized using median cutoffs to allow for adjustment for potential confounders using logistic regres- sion analyses. After adjustment for the potential confounders of age, gender, ethnicity, and comorbidities, the association between greater FoF and falls remained significant in both the types of OA. However, the association between depression and falls in radiological OA group was no longer statistically significant after the same adjustment (Table 2).
This is to certify that the dissertation titled “A PROSPECTIVE DESCRIPTIVE COHORT STUDY ANALYSING THE CLINICAL, RADIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF ALL PATIENTS WITH TUBERCULOSIS OF THE THORACOLUMBAR SPINE TREATED BOTH CONSERVATIVELY AND SURGICALLY” is a bonafide work of Dr. Rahul George, in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore in partial fulfillment of the rules and regulations Of the Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R Medical University for the award of M.S Degree Branch II (Orthopaedic Surgery), under the supervision and guidance of Prof. Dr. K. Venkatesh during the period of his post-graduate study from April 2016 to May 2019.
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Traditionally, a biomarker is viewed as a characteristic that is objectively measured (e.g., a biological substance) and may affect interpretation or prediction of the incidence or outcome of disease [1,2]. In contrast, the molecular events in e.g., neurological diseases, are often complex, emphasizing that no single marker or source of information alone can reflect the full pathology. Recent advances in modern technologies have enabled comprehensive measurements at molecular and cellular levels, utilizing different biological specimens, tissues and radiological assessments. Considering the complexity of pathological events, integrating information from multiple sources can therefore result in a more refined tool for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. This concept is known as multianalyte assays with algorithmic analyses (MAAAs). Yet, the use of algorithm-based analyses in the clinic is very limited. A recent successful example of an MAAA is the improved test for prostate cancer .
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 NRC -National Research Council, (1980): Health risks of radon and other internally deposited alpha-emitters. BEIR IV. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1980. 602 pp.  Senthilkumar B, Dhavamani V, Ramkumar S and Philominathan P (2010). Measurement of gamma radiation levels in soil samples from Thanjavur using ϒ-ray spectrometry and estimated of population exposure. J. Med. Phys. 2010.  Ademola J.A., and Atare E.E. Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression station in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Radioprotection, 2010;45(2): 219-227.
Nevertheless, there are some limitations to our clinical study. Firstly the anti-TNF + MTX treated group re- ceived preliminary DMARDs that decreases compara- bility with the DMARD naїve MTX treated patients. Secondly the X-ray examinations for calculating radio- logical progression were made not exactly at the 12th month of treatment which could have minimally dis- torted the value of radiological progression at 12 months assumed as linear in the analysis. Thirdly the relatively low number of early RA cases with available X-rays, es- pecially in a subanalysis may have reduced the statistical power of our calculations. All of these limitations stem from the fact that our analysed patients were treated in routine clinical care and according to the local guide- lines, DMARD treatment is mandatory before starting anti-TNFs. Additionally the use of hands and feet X-rays for following radiological disease progression is not regular in routine care, especially not at exactly a time interval of 12 month: the fact that the availability of X-rays at two timepoints was an inclusion criteria may have indeed introduced a selection bias into our study.
Abstract. In principle, CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) materials or agents could potentially be used by terrorists to construct a weapon of mass destruction in the future. This is why the European Union (EU), IAEA, NATO and other international groupings or organizations have taken relevant measures in fighting this threat. At present, it seems that especially the high-activity radioactive sources used in industry and medicine present a potential danger which has to be addressed. At the international and national levels various measures have been introduced aimed at the reduction of the risk due to radiological terrorism, including prevention – ensuring that unauthorized access to such sources is as difficult as possible, detection – having the capability to detect radioactive materials if control over them is lost, and preparedness and response – being able to efficiently respond to incidents involving high-activity radioactive materials and recover from them as quickly as possible. Nevertheless, we have to be prepared for the use of radiological weapons and be able to realistically assess the danger they present and to mitigate their impact on the population and the environment. The paper discusses the real consequences of an attack based on a typical powerful radioactive source. It has been found that the impact would be much lower than usually predicted. However, one cannot estimate the chaos and psychological effects, which may be more dangerous than the exposure of persons affected and the radioactive contamination of the areas surrounding the site.
After analyzing the legislation regarding the Radiological Protection Plan and radiological protection, comparing the Radiological Protection Plan of the service with that recommended in the legislation and non-participating observation of the service, site of the present investigation, two categories emerged, named 'Between prescribed in current legislation and the one described in the Radiological Protection Plan of a radiology hospital 'and' Evaluation instrument with elements that need to be considered in the Radiation Protection Plan and in the daily life of a multiprofessional health team working in a hospital radiology service'. In the category entitled 'Between what is prescribed in the current legislation and the one described in the Radiation Protection Plan of a radiology hospital service', the data were extracted from the documentary analysis. Portaria 453/98 was analyzed and the reason for deepening the understanding of the content was due to the fact that this refers more specifically to the services that use equipment emitting ionizing radiation, which is the case of the hospital under investigation. At the same time, all documents leased in the radiological protection sector were analyzed, which were related to the Radiological Protection Plan of the radiology service, such as memoranda referring to the quality control of ionizing radiation emitting equipment, equipment manuals and dosimetry annexes of the workers. Afterwards, this data was crossed with the understanding of Portaria 453/98. In ordinance rule 453/98 it is explicit, among other aspects, that the Radiation Protection Plan must be within the validity period, ie, the operating license of the service is valid for a maximum of two years and its renewal must be requested by the holder of the service, instructed of: application and terms of responsibility (according to own models of the sanitary authority); (or equivalent certification, recognized by the Ministry of Health) and document of update of the Descriptive Memorial of Radiological Protection, if there have been changes not notified in the period (Brazil, 1998 ). On the operating license, the service was in accordance with the legislation, ie the documents relating to the charter were within the validity period. The service did not have quality program reports of all the equipment emitting ionizing radiation and the Radiological Protection Plan was incomplete, lacking the description of some radiological procedures
underappreciated variability in this practice and its purported associations with status in its sole ancient testimony by the Greek historian Herodotus. The Herodotean stereotype forms a hypothesis that is tested through a large-scale synthetic study, integrating both literature and computed tomography (CT) data, and using new primary radiological data from the IMPACT database. Chapter four turns the same attention to evisceration and treatment of the body cavity and organs by demonstrating variability and by testing the foundations for modern evisceration stereotypes, the classical accounts of Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus. As in the excerebration studies, the findings of the synthetic study are tested using new primary data from the IMPACT database. Testing using primary radiological data from the IMPACT database is, in both chapters three and four, presented in each chapter as an addendum to the main article, which must be published in extenso owing to its acceptance or pending acceptance for journal publication. The radiological markers of the varied mummification features are also demonstrated in primary data in these chapters. The fifth chapter discusses the IMPACT Radiological Mummy Database in detail, both in terms of its
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Prediction of outcome following decompressive craniectomy has a huge impact on the productivity of the patient after surgery. The prediction tool should be easily accessible even in rural areas. In this study we analyze the impact of radiological indicators like post operative reduction in t operative opening of basal cisterns in CT brain on the final outcome of the It is a prospective analytical study conducted at Institute of Neurosurgery, Madras Medical College. A total of 136 patients who under went decompression craniectomy for All patients had CT scan with evidence of Acute SDH, unilobar or multilobar contusions with diffuse cerebral edema, midline shift >5mm, and effacement of basal cisterns.CT brain was used to study the postoperative mid line shift and terns.The GCS and GOCS (Glasgow outcome score) at discharge were noted and outcomes were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed by using MANOVA test.A
Brodie’s abscess radiologically is a distinct form of subacute osteomyelitis. Infection of bone i.e., osteomyelitis can be radiologically divided into three stages i.e., 1) acute, 2) subacute and 3) chronic. However, in transitional periods, different stages cannot be seperated as there is overlap of radiological findings. In the subacute form, two radiological stages have been described. One of the major forms is bone abscess which is a collection of purulent material surrounded by granulation tissue and reparative sclerotic bone which is a classical finding of Brodie’s abscess.