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Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise

Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise

Thus, the aim of this study is to estimate monetary abate- ment values for road and rail traffic noise that can be used for policy purposes. The main objective is twofold: (i) to estimate monetary values that can be used for BCA in Sweden, and (ii) to examine the magnitude of the difference in estimates between road and railway noise. The former is mainly of policy relevance; both for BCA in which today often the social cost of noise is ignored [19, 47] and for the pricing of the noise externality in transportation based on the social marginal cost principle [2, 3]. The latter objective has both a policy and research relevance. Benefit measures are usually not elicited for all noise sources and by examin- ing to what extent they differ we test to what extent values for one noise source can be used as a measure for the other source, i.e. a test of the use of benefits transfer [58]. More- over, two additional objectives is to address the question whether derived benefit measures need to be augmented by a health component and to examine the sensitivity of the estimates as a result of assumptions on discount rates. The
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A stable speed advice for reliable and safe rail traffic

A stable speed advice for reliable and safe rail traffic

Since the rail is an open system, delays can be caused by many factors. Infrastructure failures cause approximately 17 disruptions daily, which are technical failures and third party accidents. Approximately another 17 disruptions occur daily due to operations. Research allocates these disruptions to passengers who block the doors, rolling stock problems, and drivers who are too late. Delays can spread over the network in space and time called the knock-on effect leading to major disruptions (Goverde, 2010; Jespersen-Groth et al., 2009). NS has to cope with these effects and still achieve the goals set by the ministry without increasing the rail capacity, which is very costly (30 million €/km for the Betuwelijn). Planners add time reserves to the timetable to minimize the knock-on effects (Carey and Kwieciński, 1995). These reserves are recovery time and buffer time that are respectively, adding time-slack to the technically fastest possible travel time and adding time-slack between consecutive trains at the expense of capacity (D’Ariano et al., 2008). The European Commission began a project called COMBINE to involve suppliers and users of Traffic Management Systems, software companies and universities to work together to realize the moving block signalling standard called ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System). ERTMS enables online control of the operations. This is a proactive approach to disruptions to realize a higher utilization of the available tracks (to allow a higher frequency) and to reduce red signals approaches (to increase punctuality and safety as explained earlier). As a result, developers and researchers developed several TMSs (Mascis et al., 2008), which could help TC to solve conflicts by advising drivers on speed.
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Cargovibes : human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

Cargovibes : human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

(below 20 Hz). The latter problem cannot be solved by conventional vibration-control measures such as under-sleeper pads, or ballast mats; nor is constant tamping of the track a feasible response. WP 3 focused on the development of three innovative mitigation measures for vibrations generated by freight rail traffic at three different levels: the wheel– rail contact point, the track infrastructure and the transmission path. Methods for assessing the effectiveness of these measures were developed by WP 4. WP 5 involved the end user board which consisted of industry and stakeholder representatives, WP 6 focused on aggregating and disseminating the information gathered while WP 7 covered management of the overall project. This paper concentrates on the work of WP 1 which investigated human response to vibration, including sleep disturbance, community annoyance and the production of a best practice guide for evaluating response.
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Predictive intelligence for a rail traffic management system

Predictive intelligence for a rail traffic management system

Figure 4 - Maps of a skyview percentage for the location of each image; b number of visible satellites; c detailed scene of skyview percentage; and d detailed view of number of visible s[r]

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MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF WORK OF THE DIRECTORATE OF RAIL TRAFFIC FLOWS

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF WORK OF THE DIRECTORATE OF RAIL TRAFFIC FLOWS

Для решения поставленных задач необходимо на основании статистических данных построить граф локальных взаимосвязей между наблюдаемыми показателями и построить математическую модель работ[r]

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Information and Telecommunications Technology – Factor of Sustainable Rail Development

Information and Telecommunications Technology – Factor of Sustainable Rail Development

Through the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T), the development and implementation of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) and technical specification related to telematics applications for freight contributes to the development of interoperability and to a better integrated management railway infrastructure in Europe. While implementing ERTMS, for example, were defined corridors oriented to international freight. Creating these corridors allows the development of an active collaboration between infrastructure managers. In this context, they took the initiative to group within an organism called RailNetEurope, which provides services to international freight operators and fosters the collaboration, in terms of capacity management, between infrastructure managers.
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COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION A sustainable future for transport: Towards an integrated, technology led and user friendly system  COM(2009) 279 final, 17 6 2009

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION A sustainable future for transport: Towards an integrated, technology led and user friendly system COM(2009) 279 final, 17 6 2009

92. On a global scale, the EU is already now a major standard setter. To name but a few examples, EURO emission standards for road vehicles and the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) are increasingly being adopted also outside Europe. These developments need to be supported in international forums. The international role of the EU is particularly important for maritime and air transport, which are intrinsically global industries. To maintain a prominent position in these markets in the next 40 years, Europe needs to speak with one voice in those instances that bring together governments, industry representatives and regulators at a global level.
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Different look into alternatives in railway projects : development of a decision support system to facilitate selection of alternatives by evaluating railway timetables using performance indicators

Different look into alternatives in railway projects : development of a decision support system to facilitate selection of alternatives by evaluating railway timetables using performance indicators

The Dutch railway network is in the top three of highest utilized networks within Europe. In the most positive scenarios, demand forecasts for railway transport in the Netherlands show further growth between 2011 and 2020 for both passenger and freight transport of 27% and 107% respectively. Budgets for extending the infrastructure are limited. For many years the railway infrastructure and operating timetable have been optimized to deal with an increasing number of trains running on the same rail infrastructure. It has proven difficult to determine the impact of new infrastructure or a new timetable on the feasibility and robustness of operating trains.
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Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation Of India Limited By Mechanised Track Construction

Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation Of India Limited By Mechanised Track Construction

To minimize the manual track laying time in a project, NTC is used to automate the laying process. The NTC is designed to lay sleepers and rails on a newly constructed track bed. A self-contained gantry, travelling at top these wagons, transports new sleepers from trailing supply wagons to conveyor belt and help put sleepers on conveyor of NTC. Supply wagons carry 260m rail panels and sleepers from the depots and deploy them on to the track.

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Rail Defect Detection and Classification with Real Time Image Processing Technique

Rail Defect Detection and Classification with Real Time Image Processing Technique

In this work, rail defect detection method is improved according to the previous work [26]. Accuracy rate of the defect detection is increased with adaptive block. Value of the area parameter is greater than previous work [26]. Thus both accuracy rate of the algorithm is enhanced and noisy areas of the image aren‟t labeled as defect areas. When the proposed detection method is compared with algorithm existed in literature, this algorithm is superior. Because this algorithm can detect with a single algorithm multiple faults. Moreover this algorithm is not affected from foreign objects which are existed around the rail track and from the reflection of sunlight. After detection of rail defects, these defect regions are subjected to the classification process. The classification process is performed in the OpenCV platform. The AdaBoost classifier algorithm is used to classify defect regions. The relationship between the classification rate and number of weak classifiers is shown in Figure 11. Experimental results of the rail track detection, the rail defect detection are respectively shown in Table 2 and Table 3.
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New Inter-Modal Freight Technology and Cost Comparisons

New Inter-Modal Freight Technology and Cost Comparisons

In calculating the distance over which inter-modal traffic becomes cheaper than road operation, there is a trade-off between the low trunk haulage costs rail can offer between terminals,[r]

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Transport and the Environment: Research and Policy Issues

Transport and the Environment: Research and Policy Issues

The recent trend towards deregulation of the coach and bus industry, the proposed privatisation of BR and heavily prescribed funding mechanisms within the Transport Supplementation Grant (TSG) system are some of the key factors influencing the co- ordination and integration of transport policy. In a recent report Nash et al (1991) compared the organisational structure and philosophy towards transport planning in the UK with other European countries. It was argued that in France and Germany there has been a longstanding recognition and commitment to co-ordinate and provide public transport for environmental, congestion and regional development reasons. In the UK prior to bus deregulation, the Passenger Transport Executives (PTEs) had a similar role. Since 1986 the PTEs however have had no control over the bulk of bus services, which are operated commercially. The lack of a single organisation to plan routes, timetables and fares between bus and rail and to integrate public and private transport, particularly in city areas has been in stark contrast to our European counterparts. Since deregulation bus traffic has fallen substantially.
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How about building a transport model of the world?

How about building a transport model of the world?

The paper provides a specification, created by the recently completed BLUEPRINT project, for a world transport network model. The model should be able to make predictions (up to 100 years into the future) of transport flows throughout the world and hence make predictions of global climate-changing emissions arising from transport. Furthermore, the model should: cover both passenger and freight traffic; feature all modes of transport (road, rail, non-motorised, water, air and pipeline); and represent both local traffic and long- distance traffic. The paper describes how the model will be structured as the combination of a global model (distinguishing between approximately 30 different geographic regions of the world) and a number of regional and sub-regional models. Wherever feasible, existing regional models will be used in this system, or at least simplified versions of such models. The overall modelling system should be owned jointly by an international network of world transport modellers, welcoming easy entry to other modellers who subscribe to the underlying spirit of the network. The paper recognises the scientific complexities associated with the uncertainties of predicting 100 years into the future and with difficulties arising from the likely differences in modelling philosophy between the (already existing) regional models that might be used in the modelling system. In order to tackle these complexities, the paper defines a number of philosophy of science reference points. At the core of these reference points is the distinction between objectivity and subjectivity. The paper finishes with a number of suggestions for next steps in building the model.
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Peak Car Use and the Rise of Global Rail: Why This Is Happening and What It Means for Large and Small Cities

Peak Car Use and the Rise of Global Rail: Why This Is Happening and What It Means for Large and Small Cities

The biggest change in the economy during the leading up to and including the period of car use d and rail growth has been the digital transformation and the consequent knowledge/service economy. Despite this being global and enabling long distance communication, it has in fact been a concentrating force in terms of city structure and fabric. We provided new data on global cities [5] that showed a universal increase in density in the past decade or so after over one hundred years of decline. The knowledge economy and digital jobs are focused in city centers, as these are where the creative synergies between people occur [28]. Old CBD’s have been transformed back into functional Walking Cities and, those which have done this best, have attracted the most capital and young talent to work there [13,29]. Other centers have also done similar transformations and the linkages between them have become the basis for the revival of the Transit City. Universities, health campuses and IT job clusters have created their own centers for jobs and have attracted housing and transit to link them together.
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Assessment of the Influence of at Grade Road-Rail Crossing on Traffic Performance in Addis Ababa,          Case of Sebategna and Adey Ababa Road-Rail                at Grade Intersection

Assessment of the Influence of at Grade Road-Rail Crossing on Traffic Performance in Addis Ababa, Case of Sebategna and Adey Ababa Road-Rail at Grade Intersection

Once a train enters an at-grade crossing area, the right-of-way of the crossing is given to the train, and then vehicle traffic must stop until the train leaves the crossing. Depending on train speed, train length, and traffic control type, this process may take a few minutes or much longer. During this period, both through movements at adjacent intersections are blocked, as are turning movements heading to the crossing. When the traffic volume is high at nearby intersections during peak periods, long queues will form at adjacent intersections, and vehicles do not have sufficient time to get through the crossing and must wait in the queue until the train leaves. In that case, an elongated queue will not only block the traffic at nearby intersections, but also will result in the slowdown or full termination of the mobility of the intersection, or even the entire roadway network in proximity to the railroad [7].
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Appraisal Framework for Integrated Transport

Appraisal Framework for Integrated Transport

This working paper outlines an appraisal framework for the Integrated Transport project. The project examined the demand implications from the introduction of a Taktfahrplan timetable onto the east coast mainline rail route. The Taktfahrplan concept is frequently referred to as an interval timetable and is based on trains leaving stations at the same time past the hour throughout the operational day. A stated preference exercise was conducted to estimated what values people placed on such a timetable and these values were added to the more conventional elements of generalised cost to obtain the changes in demand that would result from the introduction of a Taktfahrplan.
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A New Multi Objective Model to Optimise Rail Transport Scheduler

A New Multi Objective Model to Optimise Rail Transport Scheduler

The sugarcane transport system is very complicated as the mathematical formulation model has a large set of constraints and variables even when the problem size is small. In the proposed MIP model, the system con- straints are classified into two main categories: 1) constraints related to the rail operations’ feasibility due to passing of trains without accidents; 2) constraints related to the capacities of sidings and empty/full bins. To ef- ficiently find the near-optimal schedule, Siding Neighbourhood Search (SNS) and Sidings Satisfaction Priorities (SSP) algorithms are developed and integrated in the solution procedure. A Rail Conflict Elimination (RCE) Algorithm is also adapted to resolve the train conflicts through the single rail track with the consideration of train passing constraints. Computational experiments show that the outputs are satisfactory to optimise the per- formance of the sugarcane transport systems system. Regarding the future research directions, more dynamic and stochastic elements will be considered and incorporated in a reactive sugarcane railway scheduling problem. Moreover, the proposed model in this paper will be extended to investigate an integrated train-track transporta- tion dynamics [21]-[23] in a supply chain and applied to Australian sugarcane industry.
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An assessment of skill needs in transport

An assessment of skill needs in transport

opportunities - including opportunities for cross-industry groupings (Virgin in rail and air, Stagecoach in bus, coach and airports, EasyJet in air and car hire, and so on). Technological advances mean that distribution and haulage firms can now track their lorries every inch of their journey - and share that information with their customers as part of a seamless integration of the transport stage into a complete logistics package. Business relationships are thereby transformed: a customer becomes a close business partner, not a distant body from whom one collects or to whom one delivers. A modern logistics business is more reminiscent of Mission Control in Houston than the common image of a trucker in a motorway café might suggest. Technological advances have greatly reduced the need for mechanics simply to “keep the show on the road” - and brought a demand for much greater skill in fault-finding in the workshop, particularly in the electronics which are integral to all modern engines. Yet workshops have also seen a good deal of de-skilling, through changes in organisation and job design. Tasks which once employed an apprentice-trained mechanic can now be done by someone with detailed, but much narrower, knowledge. Think Kwik Fit fitters.
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Appraisal on Malaysian rural rail transit operation & management system: issues & solution in integration

Appraisal on Malaysian rural rail transit operation & management system: issues & solution in integration

In any context, the management of transportation systems is a key issue which can affect both life quality and economic development. In large urban agglomerations, an efficient public transport system can help abate the negative externalities of private car use ( such as congestion, air and noise population, accident, fuel consumption) without excessively penalising user travel times or zone accessibility [8]. Furthermore, because of traffic problems in cities such as Kuala Lumpur, the possibility of rail transport as an alternative urban transport is a really important matter for the government and population, and raises a great debate on sustainable urban mobility in which the benefits that motorized travel would bring to the community (as described in M.S.G.Tobias¹, M.L.A.Maia² & I.M.D. Pinto³)
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Prioritisation of guard rail remediation works

Prioritisation of guard rail remediation works

Several locations had experienced damage through minor vehicle collisions and these defects had also not been recorded. In one instance a section of rail had been demolished as a result of a vehicle collision and the department’s records had not been updated. It is predicted that in situations where sections of rail have suffered damage, Main Roads contractors would record such defects whilst undertaking road audits for RMPC activities, however these recordings are not being recorded on the main guardrail data base within Department of Main Roads.

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