Rail Transport and Infrastructure

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Competition in Rail Transport: A New Opportunity for Railways?

Competition in Rail Transport: A New Opportunity for Railways?

As stated above, the proposal is to create a new company called Railtrack, which will own, maintain and operate the infrastructure. It will be responsible for planning the working timetable, and for signalling and real time control. It will essentially sell paths under a variety of contracts of different lengths to open access passenger and freight operators for the highest price it can achieve, subject to their at least covering avoidable cost. It will also enter into a contract with passenger franchisees for the provision of paths. One may assume that something like the existing `prime user' cost conventions will remain, with the passenger franchisee being required to cover any prime user costs which cannot be covered by surpluses on other contracts. The reason for not adopting a simple published tariff as in Sweden (Table 6) is that, whereas in Sweden the infrastructure company is heavily subsidised, so that charges can be based on marginal social cost, in Britain it is intended that Railtrack will be largely unsubsidised and required to make a commercial return on its assets (although the possibility of grants towards the costs of socially desirable but unprofitable projects has already been mentioned, and in some cases freight customers will have their track costs paid by a new government grant, where this offers sufficient environmental advantages by diverting traffic from road). Without the ability to price discriminate, and in the presence of strong economies of scale, a single published tariff would be very inefficient, although in its absence the task of the regulator in making sure that Railtrack behaves fairly to all operators appears a difficult one.
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Katarzyna Zawisza, Legislative Developments in Rail Transport in 2008

Katarzyna Zawisza, Legislative Developments in Rail Transport in 2008

The new Article 33(4c) stipulates, in relation to the second element of the basic charge referred to in paragraph 3a(2), that “[t]he basic charge for access to facilities related to train operation is calculated as a product of the ordered services and of the corresponding unit rates set separately for the types of services defined in Part I paragraph 2 of the Annex to the Act”. Paragraph 5c, added by the Act of 24 October 2008, should stabilize unit rates of the basic charge for public passenger rail transport services, performed under the public service contract, as it guarantees that rate increases within a timetable validity period shall not exceed the expected inflation rate (adopted in the draft budget for a given year). Still, according to Article 6 of the Act of 24 October 2008, all of these changes concerning the charges for infrastructure use are not applicable to the calculation of charges in the period when the rail timetable for 2008/2009 is valid, unless they result in a decrease of the unit rates of the basic charge.
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English Version. Intelligent transport systems - Public transport - Indirect Fulfilment for Rail

English Version. Intelligent transport systems - Public transport - Indirect Fulfilment for Rail

The purpose of the TAP-TSI is to introduce a statutory framework of requirements and obligations for railway operators, infrastructure managers and others that will ensure interoperability in rail transport ticketing and information provision. Within the 2011 version of the TAP-TSI text there are some open points related to indirect fulfilment and Security.

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High Capacity Transport Associated with Pre  and Post Haulage in Intermodal Road Rail Transport

High Capacity Transport Associated with Pre and Post Haulage in Intermodal Road Rail Transport

According to research, based on available data, changing the current trucks in the EU to LHVs will reduce the road transport cost by approximately 15% to 30% on average [22] [23]. Secondly, the LHVs will cause a mode shift from rail to road by about 5% - 18% [23] [24]. With regard to the environment, De Ceuster [23] reported LHVs (60 t) were not only more efficient in fuel consumed per ton-km than the standard ones but also contri- buted to the reduction of CO 2 emissions by 3.58%, NOx emissions by 4.03%, and PM by 8.39%. Moreover, it was recognized that the number of vehicle-kms would be reduced to move the same amount of goods because of the greater loading weights, which suggested a likely increase in traffic safety [25]. With regard to infrastructure, the LHVs significantly increase the stress on bridges, which may increase the cost around €4 - €8 billion in the EU [26]. From the literature review, there is no direct evidence that proves the LHVs would lead to negative consequences in the aspects of safety and environment. However, there is a possibility that plenty of the rail transport would shift to road if LHVs are allowed. In sum, current research has not gained a conclusive answer whether the LHVs are feasible or not. But all of the researches above mention LHVs as highly capable of im- proving the efficiency of road transport, thereby reducing the cost of road transport. In the context of the case of Jula, the term LHV corresponds to the capacity 4 TEU.
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Green Transport Infrastructure of Taiwan

Green Transport Infrastructure of Taiwan

Please refer to Table 3. As for freight sector, the main energy users are large trucks with transport volume share of 83%. However, in the unit of liters of oil equivalent per ton per kilometer (LOE/t-km), the energy intensity of large truck is twice that of rail transport (e.g., Taiwan Railway). On the other hand, the energy intensity of small truck is remarkably high, about four times that of large truck and seven times that of Taiwan Railway. Obviously, railway transport has significant energy-sav- ing advantage over the traditional trucks. However, rail- way has very low transport share (1.4%) in Taiwan’s freight sector. Therefore, the proposed energy-saving measure for freight is to shift the majority of large trucks to railway. In addition, in small trucks, the internal com- bustion engines should be converted to electric motors, because the energy consumption could be lowered by 20%.
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Katarzyna Zawisza, Legislative Developments in Rail Transport in 2009

Katarzyna Zawisza, Legislative Developments in Rail Transport in 2009

UTK President issues, prolongs, suspends and withdraws such licences. The regulatory authority updates also the related data and issues duplicates. The Directive specifies the minimum conditions to be fulfilled by a candidate as regards medical requirements, basic education and general professional skills. A driver who acquired a licence may apply for a certificate. Certificates are issued by railway operators and infrastructure managers. The procedures of issuing certificates are regulated by railway operators and railway managers (Article 22b PK). One driver may hold one or more certificates. Each of them shall indicate both the rolling stock which the holder is authorised to drive and the infrastructures on which he/she is authorised to drive. The UTK President runs a license record, a list of entities entitled to train and examine the applicants for licenses and certificates and a list of entities authorized to conduct medical examinations required for obtaining and ensuring the validity of licenses or certificates. Article 22c PK includes now special rules on training costs incurred by an operator or infrastructure manager in cases where the employment contract, or of any other form of cooperation, is dissolved pre-term on the account of the driver. This provision implements Article 24 of the Directive, which obliges Member States to ‘ensure that the necessary measures are taken in order to ensure that investments made by a railway undertaking or an infrastructure manager for the training of a driver do not unduly benefit another railway undertaking or infrastructure manager in the case where that driver voluntarily leaves the former for the latter railway undertaking or infrastructure manager’. Taking into account how high the training costs for train and locomotive drivers are, this rule may be of a significant importance.
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Rail infrastructure costing based on multi-level full cost allocation

Rail infrastructure costing based on multi-level full cost allocation

Summarising the experiences of the literature review it can be concluded that there are several attempts to calculate and anal- yse transport or logistics costs, even in the rail transport sec- tor. Transport or logistics related MFCA applications, however, have not been developed and realised so far. It shall be noted that well documented MFCA models of other sectors have not been reported either. Thus the elaboration of the general MFCA model and its adaptation to rail infrastructure management may be a useful contribution to the theoretical and practical method- ology of transportation economics utilising management as well as technology knowledge. Of course the relevant published re- search results, for example the proposed cost drivers or the prin- ciples of cause-e ff ect based allocation procedure, are also taken into account during the modelling process.
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Demand Elasticity of Capacity Offered  for Urban Rail Transport

Demand Elasticity of Capacity Offered for Urban Rail Transport

The supply side solutions can be adopted only to the extent of capacity of the infrastructure. For example, the length of the platforms of the BG lines of Delhi Metro, India can accommodate 8 cars only as the maximum length of the train. Further, any addition beyond capacity needs improvement in track, signalling, rolling stock, manpower which involves huge capital investment. The supply side solutions always results into suboptimal uti- lisation of the assets as demand during non-peak hours remain below the capacity of the system.

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Transport infrastructure and regional development in Brazil

Transport infrastructure and regional development in Brazil

The force of each region in picking up the benefits of the road infrastructure improvement, translated here in an accessibility index improvement, will depend on effect direct and indirect price substitution, as well as of the income-effect. It considers two regions qm and qx that commercialize between itself, being the first importer and the second exporter. If the transport costs between them fall, the region qx will produce more for the region qm, therefore it will become more advantageous to import from qx; this is the direct substitution- effect. There is an indirect effect due to the reason that to produce more for qm, qx will have to demand more inputs. Considering the accessibility improvement, the export regions of these inputs will become more competitive. However, the import regions can become competitive and also begin to export. The analysis of this trade flow also contributes for understanding of a contrary force to substitution effect, which is the income-effect. The accessibility improvement, as seen previously, provides a positive effect in the demand for goods produced in the exporting region qx, due to direct and indirect substitution-effect, because the goods produced in this region are cheaper. The demand the goods of this region also is raised due to the income-effect, because the real income increases. As consequence of a warm demand is rise of the prices.
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The Italian expenditure in transport infrastructure: a survey

The Italian expenditure in transport infrastructure: a survey

A second and possible approach to analyse the planned infrastructures is to evaluate, through a cost – benefit analysis, the economic and financial performance of those projects that seem more important, and to evaluate the priorities inside the transportation planning set by the Law 443/01. By analyzing the new infrastructure list, it can be seen how, on the one hand, the railway projects are predicting the construction of new lines to satisfy the increasing long distance passenger and freight traffic, while on the other hand, the road projects are predicting improvements of the short and medium distance links.
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Simulation and  Optimization for the Urban Transport Infrastructure

Simulation and Optimization for the Urban Transport Infrastructure

Nowadays one of the bigger problems in cities is the transportation system and its infrastructure. There have been lots of studies and research in recent decades trying to find solutions. In general, there is an economic impact when countries make an investment in this sector. Most of the studies on transport infrastructure, in particular, focuson its impact on growth. In the past two decades, the analytical literature has grown enormously, with studies carried out using different approaches, such as a production function (or cost) and growth regressions, as well as different variants of these models (using different data, methods and methodologies), the majority of these studies found that transportation infrastructure has a positive effect on output, productivity or growth rate Calderon & Serven (2008). One of the pioneers was Aschauer (1991) who, in his empirical study, provided substantial evidence that transport is an important determinant of economic performance. Another example is the study of Alminas, Vasiliauskas and Jakubauskas (2009), who found that transport has contributed to growth in the Baltic region. Another study on the Spanish plan to extend roads and railways that connect Spain with other countries concludes that these have a positive impact in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Alvarez-Herranz & Martí nez-Ruiz (2012). In a study of the railroad in the United States, it is mentioned that many economists believe that the project costs exceed the benefits Balaker (2006). However, the traditional model of cost-benefit assessment does not include the impact of development projects De Rus (2008). In these studies, focused on growth, we see there is a bias towards economic rather than social goals. That is why it is important to emphasize the impact of transport infrastructure on development and not just growth.
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Capitalization as a Tool for Managing the Development of Industry and Rail Transport

Capitalization as a Tool for Managing the Development of Industry and Rail Transport

Taking into account the urgency of the problem, the main purpose of this study is to characterize the state of capital investments in the industrial enterprises fixed assets (for example, coking plants) and rail transport and to develop a tool for managing the enterprises development in capitalization conditions. To achieve these objectives, we have specified the following tasks:

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THE INVESTMENT NEEDS OF THE TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE OF UKRAINE

THE INVESTMENT NEEDS OF THE TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE OF UKRAINE

На 2002 рік у транспортну галузь України було заплановано залучити інвестиції в сумі понад 1,1 млрд дол ., що більше ніж на 40 млн дол. перевищує сумарний обсяг інвестицій за два [r]

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Directions of development of transport infrastructure of Ukraine

Directions of development of transport infrastructure of Ukraine

The trends of the transport infrastructure development as a basic factor of national security, the stable and dy- namic economic growth, its integration into the European and world economic space are considered. The most im- portant element of the transport infrastructure in the modern economy is a network of logistic providers, which re- duce transaction costs and improve the quality of transport service. And the main direction of government policy according to infrastructure should be a gradual transition of activities for establishing and operating the infrastruc- ture objects, that is a burden for the State, from a cost sphere to an efficient business based on the state-private part- nership.
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Transferred Demand Forecast for Regional Passenger Rail Transport

Transferred Demand Forecast for Regional Passenger Rail Transport

These studies aim railways repair for regional connections, with integration, expansion, modernization and re-use of rail transport modal matrix projects, in order to improve population's quality of life in urban centers. Also, these studies would generate employment and income, tourism development and railway heritage preservation for tourist purposes; promoting regional integration, projects and services development along the railway and railway idle reduction; promoting connection by high-speed trains between Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Campinas cities and between Brasilia and Goiania city. [13]
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Rail infrastructure charges in Europe

Rail infrastructure charges in Europe

Where mark-ups are needed to boost cost recovery, there is a consider- able problem. Fixed charges, as long as they reflect the ability to pay of the operator, are least distorting in terms of their incentives regarding train- kilometres run, but are likely to distort competition between large and small operators and this is the typical form of competition in Europe. They are therefore only likely to be acceptable in the case of monopoly franchises (which support competition for, rather than in the market). Else- where, the best solution is likely to be a mark-up per train-km and/or gross tonne-km based on market segment, although it is questionable whether these should be permitted on international freight trains (or whether there should be some kind of cap). Surcharges may make sense where high quality service or market position make this feasible without signifi- cant loss of traffic, but it should not be considered that simply because expensive new infrastructure is in place, that alone justifies a surcharge regardless of the effect on the market.
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Regulatory Accounting Guidelines for Network Rail Infrastructure Limited. March 2013

Regulatory Accounting Guidelines for Network Rail Infrastructure Limited. March 2013

3.6 Our PR08 determination remunerated capital expenditure through an allowance for amortisation, based on average annual long-run steady state capital expenditure, 17 except for CP3 non-capital expenditure additions, which are amortised over 30 years. 18 Under this approach renewals and enhancement expenditure (less Ring-fenced fund (RFF) funded expenditure) are added to the RAB and there is a reduction in the value of the RAB to reflect amortisation (or depreciation) of the assets over time. A corresponding amortisation payment is received by Network Rail as part of its revenue requirement to remunerate it for the expenditure. A more detailed discussion of our PR08 amortisation rules is contained within our PR08 determination document (see paragraphs 15.78 to 15.82 of chapter 15). 19
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A Study of Infrastructure Development and Management of Komet (Kochi Metro Rail Limited)

A Study of Infrastructure Development and Management of Komet (Kochi Metro Rail Limited)

Public Transport System is an efficient user of space and with reduced level of air and noise pollution. As the population of a city grows, share of public transport, whether road or rail-based, should increase. Experience has shown that, in cities like Kochi where roads do not have adequate width and which cater to mixed traffic conditions comprising slow and fast moving vehicles, road transport can optimally carry 8,000 persons per hour per direction (phpdt). When traffic density increases beyond this level average speed of vehicles comes down, journey time increases, air population goes up and commuters are put to increased level, of inconvenience. In any case, it is not feasible to operate bus transport beyond 10,000 phpdt in mixed transport scenario, obtaining on Kochi city roads. With growing population and mega development plans coming up for this port city, the travel demand is expected to grow steeply. With inadequate public transport services, passengers will shift to private modes, which is already evident from the high ownership trends in the region. This will not only aggravate the congestion on the city roads but will also increase the pollution level.
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Studied Rail Infrastructure Improvements in the Port of Morehead City Area. Prepared by:

Studied Rail Infrastructure Improvements in the Port of Morehead City Area. Prepared by:

After evaluating the needs associated with each individual market, the report discusses two options for the Port if the Port were to support multiple markets in the future. As a result of supporting multiple markets, certain project costs and associated investment impacts related to construction and operations of the aggregated market scenarios would be shared. The first option proposes to develop Radio Island to meet forecasted 2040 needs for Roll on/roll off and oversize cargo, grain, and wood pellets cargo, and to support the growth of the port’s existing commodities. A rail loop on Radio Island would service both the grain and wood pellet operation and storage buildings. The second option would use most of Radio Island for a container terminal. Existing chemical facilities on Radio Island would have enough land for their anticipated growth. A steel pellet operation could also be accommodated. A master plan for each option is presented in Figure 113 (page 242) and Figure 115 (page 246), respectively.
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Rail Transport and Economic Growth in Nigeria (1970 – 2011).

Rail Transport and Economic Growth in Nigeria (1970 – 2011).

Railway system plays a significant role in the development and overall growth of any economy. It is often regarded as the wheels of economic activity because of the crucial role it play in providing the bulwark upon which production and distribution stand. It opens up regions, hinterlands and rural areas by facilitating agricultural development as well as the growth of cottage and large scale industries. It also attracts residential, commercial, educational and recreational settlements and developments around its corridor. Due to the role it performs in growth and development process, rail transport is seen as the mainframe around which an integrated national transport system is built. Its capacity, which is further accentuated by its safety and security factors, coupled with its ability to travel longer distance with ease and lower unit costs, places it in good stead to serve as the hub of a transport system of a nation (Nwanze, 2002).
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