Graph 3-1 variation of span to depthratio of box Graph 3-1 demonstrates that all 44 cast-in-situ box-girders have span lengths varies between 35.4m and 138 m and demonstrates span-to-depth ratios that ranges varies from 11.4 to 29.5. The graph shows that 42 out of 44 bridges (95%) investigated have span lengths varies from 35m to 75m which is the typical range for constant- depth cast in situ box-girders as suggested by Hewson . You can see in above the frequency plot on top of the graph are bridge numbers that relate each data point to its corresponding bridge in Table 3-1. The red line shows the border of large concentration of bridges that have span-to- depth ratios varies between 17.7 and 22.6. In fact, 34 out of 44 bridges (75%) have ratios within the range of values
can be considered nearly isotropic. Further investigation reveals that for a range of dimple depthratio values the wavelengths of sinusoidal roughness have an effect on the hydrodynamic pressure, as shown in Figure 10. The aver- age pressure varies almost linearly with the wavelengths on the untextured surface. However, the average pres- sure almost does not change with the wavelengths even as δ = 0.5, particularly for the higher value of δ. In these cases, the dimples play a major role in generating hydro- dynamic pressure. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe the roughness textured surfaces with dimples.
Bedynek A.et al. (2013), presented the paper on “studied a numerical study on the lateral–distortional buckling (LDB) behavior and ultimate strength of hollow tubular flange plate girders (HTFPGs) with slender unstiffened webs. Using shell finite element models, a comparative study between the HTFPGs with unstiffened webs and their equivalent I section plate girders (IPGs, with unstiffened and stiffened webs) was presented. A finite strip model was used to determine the length range in which the LDB mode of HTFPGs is relevant. Then, a simplified model with 4 dof was developed and analytical formulas were proposed. The most relevant parameters influencing the response of the HTFPGs were taken into account in this study:(i) the flange width-to-depthratio (ii) web slenderness and (iii) span length (L). Nonlinear shell finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the ultimate strength of HTFPGs.
The use of structural pultruded fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) sections have gained wide acceptance in civil engineering applications due to their favourable structural characteristics like high strength, light weight and durability in severe environmental conditions. However, due to their relatively low modulus of elasticity and thinned walls, these sections are vulnerable to local buckling which can affect their ultimate strength. This paper investigates experimentally the flexural behaviour of pultruded GFRP beams with shear span-to-depth (a/d) ratios in the range of 1.2 to 6 using full scale pultruded profiles. Failure modes, strength and crack patterns are the main parameters that were examined in this study. The study shows that shear span has a minor effect on the failure modes of the beams while it has a noticeable effect on the ultimate strength. In addition, fibre model analysis was used to validate the experimental results. Comparison between the experimental and the theoretical analysis results shows a good approximation of the moment - deflection behaviour and failure moment of pultruded GFRP beams .
Fatigue is the cause of crack and final fracture in a mechanical component, it is important to assess the performance of composite structures under the basis of S-N data [8, 9]. For composite materials multiple transverse cracks may initiate at free edges and subsequently moves into the laminate which will degrade the stiffness while providing the site for de-lamination . It was found both flexural strength and flexural modulus of composites increased with increase in resin content between 13 % to 19 % and fiber content between 1 % - 1.5 %. The critical stress intensity factor also increased with increase in glass fiber ratio but did not alter for varying notch depth (a/b) ratio. Applicability of S-N data to different lay-ups made of the same composite has provided difficulties, considering the laminate stress as the similitude parameter which does not account for differences in damage mechanics produced by change in lay-up . The behavior of composite made of unidirectional, woven and chopped fiber arrangements on impact, tensile and fracture toughness were studied  and the results showed strength improvement on increase in fiber volume fraction. Subsequent de-lamination is initiated at interface which grows along unidirectional plies aligned with loading direction, propagates until the remaining material is unable to carry the load [13-14].
In case of the higher water depthratio no significant reduction in response amplitude is observed for higher depth ratios .The energy absorbed and dissipated by liquid damper depends mostly on the sloshing and wave breaking. The liquid damper having a higher water depthratio does not slosh as much as that for low water depth ratios.
Submerged hydraulic jump is a form of hydraulic jump to protect a structure and stabilize riverbed as jet flow does not occur at the downstream of a weir. Analysis of upstream/downstream water level impact on submerged hydraulic jump occurrence can be used as important data in bed pitching length and apron length estimation. Therefore, in this study, water depth for submerged hydraulic jump occurrence was defined as a critical depth, and thus the flow characteristics were examined. As for flow characteristics, impact of upstream/downstream water levels in relation to the gradient of weir and particle size in the riverbed was compared.
Performance in microfinance markets is multidimensional. To allow a comparison of NGOs and SHFs we use Schreiner’s (2002) highly conceptual terms to discuss the performance of MFOs. Schreiner’s framework is also used by USAID when evaluating MFOs’ performance (Woller, 2006). In his framework Schreiner proposes six aspects of social benefits for microfinance clients. The six aspects can all be considered performance dimensions in a MFO. The six dimensions are: cost, depth, breadth, length, scope and worth, where Cost is defined as the sum of monetary costs and transaction costs to clients, Depth is defined as clients’ poverty level or other social preferences like for instance the percentage of women reached, Breadth is defined as the number of clients served, Length is defined as the time frame of the supply of services and Scope is defined as number of types of financial contracts supplied. Worth estimates to what the degree the clients value the services. Worth is omitted from our discussion since it is subjective and according to Schreiner the most difficult to define and measure. Schreiner’s (2002) underlying assumption is that more socially oriented MFOs can trade-off narrow breadth, short length and limited scope with greater depth, while less socially oriented MFOs compensate shallow depth with wide breadth, long length and ample scope. Rock et al. (1998) identify more socially oriented MFOs with NGOs, and the less socially oriented MFOs with SHFs.
Another important resource in the latter stream is semantic taxonomies such as WordNet (Fellbaum, 1998). Despite their high cost of compilation and limited availability across languages, semantic tax- onomies have been widely used in similarity mea- sures, and one of the main reasons behind this is that the often complex notion of lexical semantic simi- larity can be approximated with ease by the distance between words (represented as nodes) in their hier- archical structures, and this approximation appeals much to our intuition. Even methods as simple as “hop counts” between nodes (e.g., that of Rada et al. 1989 on the English WordNet) can take us a long way. Meanwhile, taxonomy-based methods have been constantly refined by incorporating various structural features such as depth (Sussna, 1993; Wu and Palmer, 1994), density (Sussna, 1993), type of connection (Hirst and St-Onge, 1998; Sussna, 1993), word class (sense) frequency estimates (Resnik, 1999), or a combination these features (Jiang and Conrath, 1997). Most of these algorithms are fairly self-contained and easy to implement, with off-the- shelf toolkits such as that of Pedersen et al. (2004).
Methods to predict estimates of upward flow rates from a water table are presented in this section. The soil parameters required for these procedures are quite variable and may require field data for specific sites. Field monitoring should be used to ensure that values for soil properties are appropriate and that crop performance meets expectations. Upward flow from a water table can be used to meet the irrigation require- ments. In the presence of a shallow water table, it can be a significant part of the irrigation requirements. A water table near the crop root zone can supply part of the crop evapotranspiration requirements without reducing production. Generally, the rate of water supply is greatest where the distance between the bottom of the crop root zone and the water table is relatively small. However, if the water table remains too close to the soil surface for long periods of time, a lack of aeration in the root zone may develop and limit crop production. Determining the necessary drained depth has been widely researched and depends on soil, climate, and crop factors. Wesseling (1974) gives a preliminary discussion of the effect of wet soils on crop production. Drainage is beyond the scope of this chapter and is well documented in other sources, such as part 624 (section 16) of the SCS National Engineer- ing Handbook. The purpose of section 623.0208 is to determine the amount of water provided to a crop by capillary rise from a water table.
the Figs.2a and 2b. The curves are for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 The line curve is for = 0.2, the thick dotted curve for = 0.3 and the thin dotted curve for = 0.4. The curves diverge for smaller values of the depthratio, converge near d ˆ 0.4 and again diverge and converge at d ˆ 0.65 and, as the depthratio is further increased the curves diverge. For smaller values of depthratio, increase in the value in the value of the porous parameter increases the thermal Marangoni number, where as for values of the depthratio 0.4 d ˆ 0.65 , the increase in the value of the porous parameter is to decrease the thermal Marangoni number and again for values of d ˆ 0.65 the behavior again reverses. So, the onset of surface tension driven convection can either be made faster or delayed by choosing an appropriate value of the porous parameter depending on the depthratio. In other words increasing the permeability of the porous matrix one can destabilize and also stabilize the fluid layer system, this may be due to the presence of magnetic field.
The changes in the proportions of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions are best defined by the values of the ratio of HIL/HOB (Table 2). With the results obtained, it was demonstrated that the val- ues of the ratio of HIL/HOB obtained with humic acids isolated from soil sampled from subhorizon Ol depended on the tree species. The lowest values of this ratio were found with humic acids of organic horizons on the spruce and thuja stands, while the highest values – humic acids of the elm stand. An increase was observed in the value of the ratio of HIL/HOB with depth, due to which the humic acids of mineral horizons demonstrated higher values of this ratio as compared with the humic acids of subhorizon Ol. Of HAs of mineral horizons, just like HAs of subhorizon Ol, the highest values of HIL/HOB were shown for humic acids on the elm stand, while the lowest values – humic acids of the spruce and thuja stands. The relationships obtained show a strong effect of the plant litter properties on the ‘hydrophobic character’ of the humic acids produced.
The main effect of cutting parameters on MRR are shown in the graph shown in Fig.4 (a-c), it was concluded that with an increase in cutting speed (V), surface roughness (SR) decreases slowly and with further increase, it starts decreasing sharply. The slope of the cutting speed is neutral, which shows that by increasing speed surface roughness decreases. In the case of feed rate (F), slope is very steep which shows that with increase in feed rate, surface roughness increases gradually and feed rate has the most significant effect on the surface roughness. As far as depth of cut is concerned, surface roughness increases gradually with the decrease in the depth of cut up to a certain extent and with further increase the depth of cut
Various primary (ocean derived organic compounds) and secondary (oxidation products of dimethylsulfide and other ocean-derived volatile organic compounds) sources can further affect chemical composition of clean marine aerosol , influencing SSA lidar ratios. Such variability in the lidar ratio, if not corrected for, can yield discrepancies in retrieved marine aerosol optical properties between passive and active satellite sensors. Figure 3.11 shows the difference between SODA and CALIOP single layer AOD values for clean marine aerosols . On average, SODA seasonal AOD retrievals exhibit an approximate 33% overestimation as can be calculated from Table 3.3. The differences between SODA and CALIOP AOD are mainly attributed to the lidar ratio being prescribed low. We assume that SODA is closest to “real” since it is independent of prescribed aerosol microphysical properties. The main uncertainties in SODA come from wind speeds < 3 ms -1 (from saturation of the surface scattering cross section) and > 10 ms -1 (modification of the surface scattering cross section by foam). However, wind speeds in the range of 4 − 10 ms -1 make up over 72% of the total observations. This indicates that seasonally, there is not a large fraction of data outside the range with the most applicability and that the differences in the retrieved AODs by the two methods are not expected to be largely influenced by the known error regions of the SODA method. Other possible sources for the discrepancy between the aforementioned methods needs further study, but for now, a look into the “real” value of the CALIOP clean marine lidar ratio may need closer attention.
Sustained efforts have been undertaken to map struc- tural variation across human genomes in the general population or in association with diseases. But relatively sparse attention has been given to the identification of structural variants associated with HERVs, and particu- larly the type of dimorphism investigated in this study in which the ancestral allele is a provirus and the derived allele is a solo LTR. Such dimorphisms are challenging to identify because the two variants share the exact same junctions with flanking host DNA, which prevents their identification using ‘standard’ approaches based on split and discordant read mapping (e.g. [17, 55–57]). Here we have developed two pipelines that circumvent these challenges and efficiently identify dimorphic HERVs (Figs. 1d, e, 2 and 4). Both pipelines rely on a priori knowledge of insertion sites in the reference genome and make use of paired-end and read depth information to infer whether a locus annotated as a provirus in the reference genome exist as a solo LTR in a sequenced individual and vice versa (Figs. 2 and 4). Hence our approach differs from but complements previous efforts to identify HERV insertional polymorphisms (presence/ absence), which by design cannot typically differentiate proviruses from solo LTRs [17, 55–57].
In diagonal compression failure the specimen is able to carry additional load after formation of the first fully developed inclined tension crack . This type of failure occur for shear span (a) to depth (d) ratio 1 to 2.5(d < a < 2.5d) . When reaction and load are closely spaced then vertical compressive stresses under the load reduces the possibility of further tension cracking. Similarly vertical compressive stresses over the reaction also limit the bond splitting and diagonal cracking along the steel. Hence a large shear in a short length may initiate 45 o crack (web shear crack) across the neutral axis before a flexural crack appears. Such cracks restrict the shear resistance into a smaller un-cracked depth, thus increasing the shear stress. Hence the beam acts as a tied arch. Propagation of inclined crack reduces the compression zone. In the vicinity of load point it becomes too small to resist the compression force, and it crushes (shaded area in Figure 2). Such failure of compression zone above diagonal cracking is also called arch action .
Perturbation graphs of cutting forces show the dependency of cutting forces of feed rate, cutting speed, depth of cut and type of cutting fluid. The parameter which has more slopes on graph affects most to the cutting forces. In these graph speed has more slope so it affects cutting forces most. Curve B which shows feed rate line is second most slope in the graph so it affects the cutting forces most after cutting speed. Depth of cut has less effect on the cutting forces
Output factor (Scp) comprises of both collimator (Sc) & phantom scatter factor (Sp). Collimator scatter consists of photons scattered mainly from the collimator, but also possibly from the air and the flattening filter of a Linac. Collimator scatter factor is a function of beam quality and field size, which increases with increasing field size. It is defined as the ratio of output in air for given field to the reference field size. Usually the reference field size is taken as 10 × 10 cm 2 . Measurements were performed in the air at SAD 100 cm with sufficient buildup cap to provide charge particle equilibrium. Whereas phantom scatter factor, is defined as the ratio of output for the given field to reference field size at reference depth in water phantom under maximum scatter condition . We measure total phantom scatter factor as a part of commissioning the Treatment planning system (TPS). Measure- ments were performed in water phantom with SAD 100 cm at a depth of 10 cm . Phantom scatter factor was measured for various symmetric and asymmetric field sizes ranging from 3 × 3 cm 2 to 40 × 40 cm 2 for both FF 6 MV, 10 MV and FFF 6 MVFFF, 10 MVFFF beam. Total phantom scatter factor was normalized at 10 × 10 cm 2 for all measured field sizes.