The scale of the potential for DR that could be enabled by smart grids is large (61,62) and there is potential for such developments to enable capacity and flexibility goals to be met by distributed resources. However, significant uncertainty remains about the extent to which this potential can be realised, given the many geographical, social, physical and regulatory variables involved. Smart data and ICT solutions by themselves do not deliver increased flexibility, but merely enable access to flexibility that may or may not be forthcoming from energy service users. A smart washing machine is still subject to social schedules, conventions and preferences that dictate its operation, sometimes within highly constrained boundaries. The desired flexibility might therefore be less constrained by technology than by social norms and conventions, such as working hours and dress codes (63). Issues like this cannot be addressed when energy users are thought of purely as consumers; as citizens and actors, though, they take their place as agents in transition.
The range of entropy values for epileptic segments was from -1.3568e+010 to -6.2167e+011. The mean entropy value of normal segments is -4.89E+09 and that of epileptic segments is -9.93E+10. The mean epileptic value varies considerably from the normal value agreeing with the fact that the moment a seizure begins there is a rapidtransition within the epileptic brain from chaos to order which begins even before the onset of a seizure.
Figure 5. Linkage disequilibrium and decay in the rapid and protracted transitions. A mutant at a domestication syndrome trait locus (blue line) is initially associated with a linkage block (pink) on a chromosome region (green). Over time the linkage block decays as recombination occurs with other genotypes in the population in that region. In the protracted transition the increase in frequency of the trait is slowed by gene flow between the artificial and natural environments resulting in a longer period of linkage decay. After fixation no further decay is visible. A second trait locus (red line) is also selected. Selection strength is additive when the loci are on the same linkage block. In the extended decay of the protracted transition the second locus is broken away for the first losing the additive effect, suggesting that the two loci need to be closer than under the rapidtransition.
As IT organizations evaluate the changes being brought on by the explosion of mobile devices, the rapid adoption of bring your own device (BYOD), the transition from Windows XP to Windows 7, many of them are taking a renewed look at their client devices and at the manner in which computing is delivered.
Some studies promote the view that value systems are “physical realities” and “subjective interpretations of so- ciety by different social layers”; they are “accepted in different shades of intensity among definite segments of society” . Although one can discern a dominant set of values of a society, supported and espoused by those in power, there is always an undercurrent of protest and a different, deviating, and competing set of values, which can be conceptualized as conflicting values . During periods of transition conflicting values often become more prevalent and explicit and they are accepted to dif- ferent degrees by different social layers. In China the conflicting or new values characterise first and foremost the young, educated generation in urban settings. Values that were perceived as conflicting by individuals in this study seemed associated with perceived subjective ten- sions related to MPP.
The performance of the Philippine economy has been hindered by the country’s bourgeoning population due to its rapid population growth. For the last decade, the Philippines had the highest annual population growth rates in the Southeast Asian region. In 2009, it has become the second most populous country in the region with a population of more than 92 million, next only to Indonesia. Unfortunately, these have resulted to forgone economic growth, losing the chance to improve the poverty situation in the country. Thus, it is imperative to speed up the demographic transition in the country through proactive government population management policies aimed at harvesting the demographic dividends quickly. By performing simulation analyses on total fertility rate (TFR) under two scenarios, it was shown that the Philippines can hardly experience in the near future the Goldilock period, or the generation when fertility rate is neither too high nor too low, especially when the government does nothing to address the problem. Under the business-as-usual scenario, the Goldilock period will be reached by year 2030, or twenty years from now. In the second scenario where the government intervention targets only the households with unwanted fertility, the Goldilock period will be achieved ten years earlier, or in about 2020.
Demography or the scientific study of human population encompasses the study of the readily observable human phenomena such as the change in population size, its composition and distribution in space. India has a distinct comparative factor advantage as a vast reservoir of skilled manpower. Demographic transition in India is opening up new avenues especially in the economic sector .The rapid advancements in the field of science and technology have elevated the status of India to a new global buzzword. The economic growth and the betterment of the living standard of the people go hand in hand when we ponder over the relevance of demographic profile. For India, growth is an oft repeated query. Demographic change may provide a boost to economic growth, but appropriate policies are needed to allow this to happen. Policy choices can potentiate India’s realization of economic benefits stemming from demographic change. A country may instead find itself with large numbers of unemployed or underemployed working-age individuals devoid of these policies. This scenario would rather become a “demographic disaster” than demographic dividend, in some instances promoting state fragility and failure, potentially with adverse political, social, economic, and ecological spillovers to other countries. The paper attempts to analyse the policies that would enable India to optimize these emerging opportunities and how as a nation we can turn out to be winners and not losers.
phase increases sluggishly with the undercooling. Subsequently, the dendritic growth velocity accelerates between the undercooling 62 K and 98 K. Once the undercooling exceeds 98 K, it presents the rapid dendritic growth velocity. The reason is described by the relationship between the four partial undercoolings and the total bulk undercooling. Apparently, the solutal undercooling ∆ T c
Ace1 and Mac1 undergo reciprocal copper metalloregulation in yeast cells. Mac1 is functional as a tran- scriptional activator in copper-deficient cells, whereas Ace1 is a transcriptional activator in copper-replete cells. Cells undergoing a transition from copper-deficient to copper-sufficient conditions through a switch in the growth medium show a rapid inactivation of Mac1 and a corresponding rise in Ace1 activation. Cells analyzed after the transition show a massive accumulation of cellular copper. Under these copper shock conditions we show, using two epitope-tagged variants of Mac1, that copper-mediated inhibition of Mac function is independent of induced protein turnover. The transcription activity of Mac1 is rapidly inhibited in the copper-replete cells, whereas chromatin immunoprecipitation studies showed only partial copper-induced loss of DNA binding. Thus, the initial event in copper inhibition of Mac1 function is likely copper inhibition of the transactivation activity. Copper inhibition of Mac1 in transition experiments is largely unaffected in cells overexpressing copper-binding proteins within the nucleus. Likewise, high expression of a copper-binding, non-DNA-binding Mac1 mutant is without effect on the copper activation of Ace1. Thus, metalloregulation of Ace1 and Mac1 occurs independently.
either the solution temperature or pH. The absence of sec- ondary components at intermediate temperatures or pH values suggests that this order–order transition is relatively fast, as the two phases do not coexist on the time scale of a single FCS measurement. It is emphasized that FCS pro- vides additional information compared to DLS, since the former technique enables such phase transitions to be monitored over the same semidilute concentration range as that employed for rheology studies, rather than merely in highly dilute solution. This is important, because the worm-to-sphere transition is reversible when conducted at copolymer concentrations of 5%–10% solids, but becomes irreversible at 0.1%–1.0% solids (i.e., in the DLS regime).
As was shown in Fig.1.1, a salient feature of the Arctic seasonal cycle is that the onset of spring is abrupt. In the climatology, mid-to-late winter (Jan∼Feb) exhibits a quasi- steady thermodynamic state, then SAT abruptly increases and spring onset occurs. Based on the behavior of the Arctic SAT, a modified version of a two phase linear regression model (LRM)(Cook and Buckley, 2009) is used to define the spring onset date. The model is applied to the Arctic SAT series spanning the period from January 1st to May 31st. The first segment is constrained to be a flat line, which represents the wintertime quasi-steady state, and the second segment starts from the end point of first segment. The model minimizes the root mean square error. The intersection point thus captures the spring onset, the time of the start of spring season. The LRM is used instead of the ROC (radius of curvature) metric in He and Black (2015) because the LRM is more suitable for capturing the climate transition from a quasi-steady winter to the rapid warming of spring, while the ROC method emphasizes more the local temperature variations. An example of the application of the model is shown in Fig.2.1. It can be seen from the example that the two phase linear regression model can capture the abrupt spring transition from a quasi-steady winter to a rapid warming spring very well.
provides the strongest constraint. The abrupt transition from extreme aridity (characteristic of global glacial maxima) to the maximum lakelevel in the record about 130 ka is most consistent with the MIS6/5 transition. It is similar to the well-dated MIS2/1 transition about 12 ka from an interval of desiccation and eolian deflation to a low but permanent wa- terlevel in Lake Eyre. Permanent lakes during MIS 5e and the first half in MIS 1 occurred during Southern Hemisphere summer insolation minima, opposite to what would be ex- pected in a classic monsoon setting. These intervals are also Northern Hemisphere winter insolation minima, a condition that results in intensification of the Siberian high-pressure cell, stronger outflow of air from Asia, and consequently a greater chance of displacement of the monsoon trough on to the Australian continent (Magee et al., 2004). During the second half of the Holocene, the permanent water body in Lake Eyre dried, coincident with increasing summer insola- tion over Australia. This relation is inconsistent with dom- inant forcing by summer insolation over Australia. Rather, it suggests that Northern Hemisphere insolation provides the dominant first-order forcing of the Australian Monsoon on orbital timescales.
As reported in previous literature, time-resolved spec- troscopy reveals the lifetime of excited states before radiative recombination, and this provides insights into the recombination pathways in the material . As shown in Fig. 3, the PL average decay of 1-heptene- capped Si QDs in hexane and 1-vinylimidazole-capped Si QDs in water are estimated to be 3.84 and 1.93 ns by two-exponential fit of both PL decay, respectively. The rapid rates of recombination measured also indicate that the observed emission results from dipole-allowed re- combination across the direct band gap transition in sili- con quantum dots with a carbon surface termination  Meanwhile, the PL lifetimes agree well with others’ previous reports of PL decay measurements and with
harm reduction services for PWID as part of the efforts to control the HIV epidemic [16, 30, 31]. However, there are limited strategies available to support the people who use but do not inject drugs. Support for this sub-population, and in particular supporting the prevention of transitions to injecting drug use is, therefore, a potentially key priority for HIV prevention. In this paper, we provide insights from a rapid situation assessment to address key gaps in available knowledge on injection initiation processes, how regular drug users transition into injecting drug users in Uganda, and how these can be used to integrate harm re- duction services targeting non-injecting drug users before they transition into injecting as a key component in HIV and HCV epidemic control efforts.