Raw materials for Fumed Silica production

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MANY APPLICATIONS FOR FUMED and PRECIPITATED SILICA

MANY APPLICATIONS FOR FUMED and PRECIPITATED SILICA

Due to its high specific surface area, PROFUSIL is able to ad- sorb gaseous, liquid or solid materials, the latter must be of course in a dissolved form. PROFUSIL will preferentially adsorb those compounds capable of forming hydrogen bond linkages with the silanol groups on its surface or which can interact on an acid-alkali basis. In addition to forming genuine adsorbates, PROFUSIL is also able to hold substantial quanti- ties of liquid within the micropore structure of its agglomer- ates, thus enabling it to act as a carrier. Liquids and pastes can be converted into powder form by this method, making them considerably easier to dose and handle.
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RAW MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR YOUR PRODUCTION

RAW MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR YOUR PRODUCTION

Resins orthophthalic acid and polyethylene terephtholate for the manufacture of products by moulding. ATTSHIELD TP 412 400-600 20-50 58-62 - 7-12 Due to its good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, as well as its resistance to weathering, it finds its application in automated technologies for the production by winding or by founding.

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Abstract The raw materials for Portland cement production

Abstract The raw materials for Portland cement production

Fig.1 A schematic view of the clinker formation reactions [4] Reactions taking place in rotary kiln system are illustrated in Fig.1. On the left-hand is the feedstock comprising, in this case, calcite (CaCO 3 ), quartz (SiO 2 ), clay minerals (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -H 2 O) and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). Up to a temperature of about 700°C, activation through the removal of water and crystal structure changes take place. Within the temperature range 700-900°C, decarbonation of the calcium carbonate occurs, together with the initial combination of the alumina, ferric oxide and of activated silica with lime. From 900 to 1200°C, Belite forms. Above 1250°C and more particularly above 1300°C, the liquid phase appears and this promotes the reaction between Belite and free lime to form Alite. During the cooling stage on the right-hand side of the diagram, the molten phase goes to a glass or, if cooling is slow, the C 3 A crystallizes out and in extreme cases the Alite dissolves back into the liquid phase and reappears as secondary Belite. Alkali sulfates condense out as a separate phase during the cooling process but these are not shown in Fig.1.
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Biodiesel production processes and sustainable raw materials

Biodiesel production processes and sustainable raw materials

Received: 16 October 2019; Accepted: 12 November 2019; Published: 20 November 2019    Abstract: Energy security and environmental concerns, related to the increasing carbon emissions, have prompted in the last years the search for renewable and sustainable fuels. Biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acids alkyl esters shows properties, which make it a feasible substitute for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced using different processes and different raw materials. The most common, first generation, biodiesel is produced by methanolysis of vegetable oils using basic or acid homogeneous catalysts. The use of vegetable oils for biodiesel production raises serious questions about biodiesel sustainability. Used cooking oils and animal fats can replace the vegetable oils in biodiesel production thus allowing to produce a more sustainable biofuel. Moreover, methanol can be replaced by ethanol being totally renewable since it can be produced by biomass fermentation. The substitution of homogeneous catalyzed processes, nowadays used in the biodiesel industry, by heterogeneous ones can contribute to improve the biodiesel sustainability with simultaneous cost reduction. From the existing literature on biodiesel production, it stands out that several strategies can be adopted to improve the sustainability of biodiesel. A literature review is presented to underline the strategies allowing to improve the biodiesel sustainability.
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Mapping of the Use of Waste as Raw Materials for Biogas Production

Mapping of the Use of Waste as Raw Materials for Biogas Production

3 Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abstract Anthropic methane emissions can largely be prevented or minimized using technologies that are already available. One such technology is anaerobic di- gestion (AD), which is used commercially around the world, especially in Eu- rope and the United States, where some challenging targets have been set to diversify the energy mix with more renewable energy. This foresight study was designed to identify which technological solutions out of the many options available for biogas production are attracting most interest, for which purpose patent documents and scientific publications were analyzed. The aim is to identify which raw materials are most attractive for AD and biogas produc- tion. It was found that the raw materials that have attracted most research and patenting activity are sludge, sewage, and wastewater, livestock waste, and agriculture waste, which together account for 62% of all the patents filed and 74% of all the scientific publications. The countries most engaged in produc- ing biogas from AD plants are China, Germany, and the United States. We also identified a rising trend in the use of biogas around the world, and a steady increase in the number of patents filed on the subject, especially in Ja- pan and South Korea. This growth is driven, amongst other things, by stra- tegic governmental actions, global environmental pacts, and the realization on the part of industry that anaerobic digestion can be used as an efficient me- thod for treating waste and effluents.
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Effects of Industrial Waste Water on Strength Parameters of Silica Fumed Concrete

Effects of Industrial Waste Water on Strength Parameters of Silica Fumed Concrete

1 Post Graduate Student, 2 Assistant Professor & Project Guide, G.H. Raisoni Academy of Engg. & Technology, Nagpur Abstract: With rapid growth in population and industrial production along with decline in average annual rainfall in many regions, quantity of fresh water available for human needs is falling in a hast. This causes scarcity of fresh water for purposes other than human consumption. Construction industry requires large amount of water for not only in mixing and curing of concrete but also in other phases of erection. Due to scarcity water, construction projects does not get required amount of fresh water which leads to slow pace of work and reduction in quality of construction which later leads to economical losses. To avoid this many alternatives to reduce the need water are being explored worldwide. But die to their high price and unavailability in semi-urban areas these alternatives are used only in large scale construction projects in urban cities. Industrial waste water is one of the alternatives which is stupid in this paper as it is freely available in many regions. Silica fume is used in concrete as a partial replacement of cement to balance the adverse effects of mildly acidic industrial waste water. It is observed that when we use the chemically untreated waste water with fresh water in a ratio of 1, upto 20% replacement of cement by silica fume tensile and compressive strength goes on increasing. While flexural strength goes on increasing as we increase the percentage of silica fume. All the tests results of concrete specimens which were cured for 28 days shows that industrial waste water can be added to silica fumed concrete for high performance.
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Colloidal Gels of Fumed Silica:  Microstructure, Surface Interactions and Temperature Effects

Colloidal Gels of Fumed Silica: Microstructure, Surface Interactions and Temperature Effects

6.2 Recommendations 6.2.1 Biocompatible PEO-silica hybrids Conventional materials employed in the construction of endovascular medical devices are, for the most part, incompatible with blood and plasma proteins as they are not compatible with plasma components 6 . Surface engineering is a tool for modifying and adapting materials to specific biological applications. Among the many applications and properties of fumed silica, the ability to modify the surface of the particles by relatively simple techniques makes fumed silica a very interesting candidate for surface-modified biocompatible applications. Eglin et al. 7 studied bioactive glass (CaO-P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 ) and silica- collagen composites in terms of their apatite forming ability. They conceived these hybrids for materials employed as bone substitutes; these materials should not only present the usual biocompatibility and nonantigenic properties, but also exhibit bioactive and mechanical properties matching those of implanted tissues during all steps of bone regeneration. They concluded that these hybrids exhibit in vitro osteoconductivity properties, whereas their components alone do not. This synergetic effect was attributed to the ability of the protein to bind calcium ions, which can further associate with silicic acid to form a bioactive layer.
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Food industry by-products as raw materials in functional food production

Food industry by-products as raw materials in functional food production

Brewer's spent grain Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the major by-product of the brewing industry. BSG is a lignocellulosic material containing about 17 % cellulose, 28 % non- cellulosic polysaccharides, chiefly arabinoxylans, and 28 % lignin. BSG is available in large quantities throughout the year, but its main application has been limited to animal feeding. Nevertheless, due to its high content of protein and fibre (around 20 and 70 % dry basis, respectively), it can also serve as an attractive adjunct in human nutrition (Mussatto et al., 2006). According to these authors, BSG is good for the manufacture of flakes, whole-wheat bread, biscuits and aperitif snacks, but it must be first converted to flour. Nevertheless, there are some limitations in the use of the flour as a protein additive or as a partial replacement for presently used flours, due to its colour and flavour. However, ß-glucan from BSG has a significant positive impact on health and because of that BSG is excellent raw material for the production of functional products.
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Recycling of plastics with compatibilizer as raw

materials for the production of automobile

bumper

Recycling of plastics with compatibilizer as raw materials for the production of automobile bumper

However, the mixture of PP and PET have numerous advantages because PP has found applications in common textile and technical utilizations due to the high tensile strength it possesses. The low Young’s modulus value of PP is its major shortcoming in engineering application. The utilization of PET is due to its high resistance and high elastic modulus. Therefore, the properties of PP can be improved by blending it with PET. This blending is economical and very effective for the improve- ment of the PP properties (Si et al., 2008). The PP/PET blends have the capacity to withstand high temperature unlike PP alone. Furthermore, the crystallization of PET might be facilitated through polyolefin which will increase the resistance of the blend to high temperature through hetero- geneous nucleation. It is important to state that PET and PP have different nature which makes them thermodynamically not miscible. Hence, blend compatibilization is germane to avoid produ- cing materials with poor mechanical properties (Mantia et al., 2017; Papadopoulou & Kalfoglou, 2000; Pereira et al., 2017). As a result of large amounts of polymers to be recycled, researcher have been attracted to them for development of new materials that meet the needs of advancement in technology (Baştürk et al., 2016; Homkhiew et al., 2014; Ohijeagbon et al., 2020; Turku et al., 2017;
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The Effect of Aging and Silanization on the Mechanical Properties of Fumed Silica-based Dental Composite

The Effect of Aging and Silanization on the Mechanical Properties of Fumed Silica-based Dental Composite

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of silanization, ageing, cycling and hybridizing on mechanical properties of fumed silica-based resin composite. Materials and Methods: Composites were made of light-cured copolymer based on Bisphenol A glycolmethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and Triethylene glycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) at proportion of 50:50 which reinforced by fumed silica filler. For each composite sample, 5 specimen bars were made using Teflon mould (2 x 2 x 25 mm 3 ). The samples with 12 wt% fumed silica (FS) were considered as a base line group. The samples were exposed to cyclic cold water (FS-CCW) and hot water (FS-CHW). The effect of silanization and adding more filler was studied together with samples containing 12 wt% (FS-S (12), 16 wt% (FS-S (16) and 20 wt% (FS-S (20) fumed silica filler. The filler was silanized with (γ-MPS). The degree of conversion was assessed with Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy. Flexural properties were evaluated with the Three-Point Bending test. Flexural data were analyzed with Excel software.
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Accounting for Raw Materials

Accounting for Raw Materials

During processing 300 units were found to be defective and required the following total additional costs: materials – P 2,000; labor – P 4,000; and overhead – P 2,000. Required: 1. Entries if the additional costs is charged to all production 2. Entries if the additional costs is charged to the specific job

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SUPPLY OF RAW MATERIALS

SUPPLY OF RAW MATERIALS

The supply of raw materials is global, tightly interlinked network and is thus exposed to a wide range of influences that can be controlled only to a limited extent by any one state (with the assistance of national car- tel authorities, for instance), much less by any one company. Market disruptions can have a variety of causes. They usually do not manifest themselves in a complete interruption of raw material supplies but rat- her in delivery delays, concentration processes in the mining sector, with negative consequences for competition, or instability in produ- cing countries, which can lead to the abrupt loss of entire production sites. Market disruptions also, however, occur when – as has been ob- servable in the past – raw material demand unexpectedly soars as a result of rapid growth in developing and emerging countries or revolu- tionary technological advances cause demand to peak or plummet. The potential for disruption is particularly great where no (or no rea- dily available) substitutes exist for scarce and expensive raw materi- als. There is no substitute for chromium in stainless steel, for instance, nor for cobalt in wear-resistant alloys, nor for indium in liquid crystal displays in flat-panel screens, nor for neodymium in powerful perma- nent magnets.
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Contamination of pasta and the raw materials for its production with moulds of the genera Aspergillus

Contamination of pasta and the raw materials for its production with moulds of the genera Aspergillus

The presence of moulds, however, does not neces- sarily mean that the stored material is contaminated with mycotoxins. Certain mould species which are mycotoxin producers can be identified without the presence of mycotoxin. Namely, it is well known that mycotoxin synthesis occurs only when the moulds are found under favourable conditions. The influence of these factors in the toxin production has been investigated in a great number of papers.

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Microbiological quality of mink feed raw materials and feed production area

Microbiological quality of mink feed raw materials and feed production area

When we simulated time/temperature procedures (cor- responding to normal feeding of farm mink) of the ready-to-eat feed by storing sampling containers with lid open at room temperature overnight, TVC increased up to 1.4 × 10 9 cfu/g in ready-to-eat feed II. This result more or less corresponds to the bacterial concentration in a fully outgrown broth culture, and clearly shows the importance of maintaining the correct temperature of the ready-to-eat feed product during storage in the feed production facilities. Furthermore, bacteria can spread to the raw ingredients and ready-to-eat feed product during contact with contaminated feed handling equip- ment and storage containers. This condition applies not only to the feed producer, but also to mink farms, where cleaning and disinfection of feed silos and feeders should be included in daily routines. High bacterial counts of the environmental samples swapped from different sur- faces at the feed production facilities with levels of 10 7 to 10 9 cfu/cm 2 for TVC indicate low hygiene, poor clean- ing and manufacturing practices. Thus, there is a risk of recontamination of raw ingredients and final ready-to- eat product by feed- and processing handling equipment and during storage. Several mink diseases caused by e.g.
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Ligninolytic enzyme production by Lenzites betulinus on selected plant raw materials

Ligninolytic enzyme production by Lenzites betulinus on selected plant raw materials

Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Takovska 43, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia LIGNINOLYTIC ENZYME PRODUCTION BY LENZITES BETULINUS ON SELECTED PLANT RAW MATERIALS ABSTRACT: To get a better insight into the ligninolytic system of Lenzites betulinus, the effect of wheat straw and oak sawdust, as carbon sources, on production of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases and laccase, under solid-state and submerged fermentation, was studied. Obtained results revealed considerable differences related to the both factors affecting enzyme activi- ties. Wheat straw was more favorable carbon source for Mn-oxidizing peroxidases and oak sawdust for laccase activity. Solid-state fermentation of wheat straw was optimal for Mn-de- pendent peroxidase activity (72.1 Ul -1 ). In contrary to this, submerged fermentation of the same residue gave the highest level of versatile peroxidase activity (25.4 Ul -1 ). The peak of laccase activity was noted during solid-state fermentation of oak sawdust (32.3 Ul -1 ), while this enzyme was not detected under submerged fermentation of any plant residues.
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Beneficiation and Processing of some Important Raw Materials, for Iron and Steel Production

Beneficiation and Processing of some Important Raw Materials, for Iron and Steel Production

Of the 13 chrome ores investigated in-the Laboratory, ten fall tinder simple ores, and only one each under categories (ii) and (iii), indicating that Indian chrome ores in general can be[r]

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The Effect of Temperature on Thermal Performance of Fumed Silica Based Vacuum Insulation Panels for Buildings

The Effect of Temperature on Thermal Performance of Fumed Silica Based Vacuum Insulation Panels for Buildings

b Department of Energy, Politecnico di Torino, TEBE Research Group, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Turin 10129, Italy Abstract Vacuum Insulation Panels are characterized by very low thermal conductivity, which makes them alluring for building and civil sectors. However, considering the structure and composition of these materials, their application in buildings may be defined by a number of issues which need to be properly taken into account. The real performance of VIPs can be influenced by the boundary conditions (e.g. temperature) at which they work during their operation. In this paper experimental analyses aimed at characterising the relationship between the centre of panel thermal conductivity and average temperature were carried out. The experiments were performed on two VIP samples with different thickness. Moreover a comparison with non-evacuated panels and a traditional insulating material was performed.
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The Effect of Temperature on Thermal Performance of Fumed Silica Based Vacuum Insulation Panels for Buildings

The Effect of Temperature on Thermal Performance of Fumed Silica Based Vacuum Insulation Panels for Buildings

b Department of Energy, Politecnico di Torino, TEBE Research Group, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Turin 10129, Italy Abstract Vacuum Insulation Panels are characterized by very low thermal conductivity, which makes them alluring for building and civil sectors. However, considering the structure and composition of these materials, their application in buildings may be defined by a number of issues which need to be properly taken into account. The real performance of VIPs can be influenced by the boundary conditions (e.g. temperature) at which they work during their operation. In this paper experimental analyses aimed at characterising the relationship between the centre of panel thermal conductivity and average temperature were carried out. The experiments were performed on two VIP samples with different thickness. Moreover a comparison with non-evacuated panels and a traditional insulating material was performed.
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Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolytes: Modulation of Mechanical Properties Using Surface-Functionalized Fumed Silica

Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolytes: Modulation of Mechanical Properties Using Surface-Functionalized Fumed Silica

Batteries are devices that are capable of converting the chemical energy of two half- cell reactions into electrical energy. As a battery is discharged, the oxidation half-cell reaction at the anode produces electrons that flow to the cathode where another material is reduced in a half-cell reaction. The conversion from chemical to electrical energy occurs when the cathode and anode are physically separated yet connected electronically through an external load. The electric charge flowing externally must be compensated by ionic flow between the electrodes in order to maintain charge neutrality. During discharge, anions flow toward the anode while cations flow towards the cathode. The material that facilitates charge transport between the electrodes is referred to as an electrolyte. If this electrolyte is mechanically stable, it can be used to prevent the anode and cathode from touching and shorting the electrical cell. For liquid electrolytes or soft solid electrolytes, an additional separator, usually a microporous polymer is used to prevent the electrodes from physically touching. The final components used in the construction of a battery are electronically conductive metals, such as copper and/or aluminum, which contact the cathode and anode materials and collect the resulting current. A schematic of a typical battery during discharge is shown in Figure 2.3.
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Biopharmaceutical Raw Materials throughout the Product Lifecycle. Biosimilars and Biobetters Development & Production.

Biopharmaceutical Raw Materials throughout the Product Lifecycle. Biosimilars and Biobetters Development & Production.

As the biopharma industry has become more adept at characterizing and understanding variability in its processes, biopharmaceutical raw materials have emerged as a major source of variability throughout the product lifecycle. Raw materials are one of the process parameters outside the control of many companies, and the supply chain for raw materials is becoming more global and increasingly complex. This conference will discuss strategies to identify, test, control and mitigate the risk of raw material variability in upstream/downstream development and clinical/commercial manufacturing. It will also explore raw material risk assessment techniques and strategies for “relationship excellence” with raw material suppliers to ensure quality in raw material supplies.
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