against x/B, where x is horizontal distance from the trapdoor centre, for a trapdoor displacement of /B = 0.2. This plot compares the shape of the sub- sidence curve between tests. The results show a very general pattern at the surface and at shallow depths, where the effect of fibre inclusion is shown to ex- tend the width of the settlement trough. This result indicates that the high fibre content tests do indeed mobilise a larger volume of soil compared to the baseline test with no fibre. At higher depth ratios, the curves exhibit very similar characteristics to the baseline case.
ABSTRACT: The level control of non-linear tanks (conical, spherical, etc) is the immense challenge in process control and it cannot be effectively controlled by means of conventional linear P+I+D controller. Hence an attempt is made in this paper as auto tuning PID controller design for spherical tank level control. For each stable operating point, a first order process model was identified using process reactioncurve method. The real time implementation is done in Allen Bradley PLC The experimental results shows that proposed control scheme have good set point tracking, disturbance rejection capability, nominal time domain specifications and lower integral square error.
Open-loop identification is widely used in the industry. In open loop step testing, a step change in input is applied to the process which will produce a corresponding response. It is called process reactioncurve. In the chemical industry, for many
Various types of tuning techniques are followed and to expand a stability of this model. they techniques are: mathematically criteria, process reactioncurve Method, Trail and Error Method, Ziegler-Nichols Method and now a days the Soft-Computing techniques, being lesser prone to error when compared to conventional methods; like Fuzzy Logic, Genetic Algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization, Neuro-Fuzzy, Steel Annealing and Artificial Neural Networks, are also becoming dominant in research methodologies .
Gompertz curve was proposed in 1825 by B. Gompertz, a British statistician and mathematician. Gompertz curve is similar to Logistic curve. As a common S-curve, it is often used to describe growth of some plants and economic rules. The significant difference between Gompertz curve and Logistic curve lies in that Gompertz has inflection point but no centrosymmetric point. The growth in the main growth area of Gompertz curve is noticeably more than that of Logistic curve. Therefore, Gompertz curve is more suitable for simulating urbanization process. Mathematical expression of Gompertz curve is:
Moreover, zeolite L crystals that are clam and hockey-puck have been synthesized . When alkanolamine is added into starting sols, it led to clam shape . In addition Larlur et al.  reported the synthesis of columnar/cylindrical shape of zeolite L to observe optical properties of dye loaded zeolite L. The structural and chemical properties of zeolite L, as well as their sizes and morphologies play a significant role in the applications. For large crystals (1-3 µm) with cylindrical shapes , they are useful for studying the optical and photophysical properties of dye-composites on single crystals by means of optical microscopy method. A disc-shaped morphology is an important prerequisite for the preparation of oriented monolayer of zeolite L on the substrate use for optimizing the utilization of dye-zeolite composites as photonic antenna system. Small crystals (30-50 nm) are useful for photonic antenna materials . Recently, S. Trakarnroek et al.  studied the effects of catalyst prepared by loading Pt on different morphologies and channel lengths of the KL zeolite on the reaction of n-octane aromatization. They found that KL zeolite with cylindrical shape was an effective catalyst and the effectiveness strongly depended on the channel length of the zeolite L crystals. Moreover, zeolites are used as adsorbent for adsorption of ethylene and other gases . The important role of ethylene is to control the growth process associated with aging of plants. Ethylene causes many physical changes in the appearance of fruits and vegetables such as colour change in fruits and stem wilting in ﬂowers. Many researchers were trying to search for appropriate adsorbents for ethylene removal. Zeolites have been reported for ethylene adsorption [13, 14]. The ethylene adsorption isotherm of zeolite Y and modified zeolite Y by cationic surfactant were studied. The results shown that zeolite Y modified by PTAB can enhance the ethylene adsorption capacity up to 111.19 cm 3 g -1 . 13X
Revisiting “The Art and Science of Curve Building” 5/11 Let’s take a step back and analyze the two methods. In Figure 1a, we have plotted the one year implied forward rates. Let’s focus on the LSR curve. At the short-end of the curve, the forward rate profile looks fairly good. After 7 years we see a disturbing pattern of “overshoots” where high rates are followed by much lower rates. It is a fact that the LSR methodology can often lead to this type of nasty behavior. On the other hand, the CFR curve does not have any of these overshoots. We see a pleasant looking step function, which in our example, happens to be humped. This shape was chosen in order to illustrate the features of the different methods offered in FINCAD XL version 9. If we only had the choice between these two methods, we would certainly choose to use the CFR. On the other hand, the resulting CFR curve is not completely satisfying. In this case, it seems reasonable to expect that the actual forward rates would be a little smoother (at the very least our artistic side says so).
Decrease the volume of the reaction container. There are fewer moles of gaseous product than moles of gaseous reactants; therefore, an increase in pressure due to a decrease in volume would favor the formation of product. Lower the temperature. A lower temperature favors an exothermic reaction, leading to the conversion of reactants into product.
Salmonella serovars to circumvent the limitations of con- ventional serotyping. Among these, multiplex PCRs and quantitative PCRs have proved to be popular methods [10–21]. Other methods included the use of the Bio-Plex system and adapting the Luminex platform, a DNA sen- sor-based suspension array for the identification of eight common Salmonella serovars was developed with a total assay time of 3.5 h . A PCR-pyrosequencing assay has also been exploited as a rapid serotyping method for seven most common serovars in Canada . However, the application of these methods has a number of limita- tions, including the few number of serovars that could be identified simultaneously; the need for gel electrophore- sis; the reliance on expensive proprietary molecular biol- ogy equipment and analyzers; time consuming protocols such as the coupling of oligonucleotide probes to micro- sphere beads; the demand for sequence analysis knowl- edge and software. A high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) has also been described using arbitrary melting curve profiles found in several surrogate genomic mark- ers to index and differentiate Salmonella serovars . However, this methodology resulted in identical melting curve profiles found for different serovars and requires
We have described a new method for detection of infectivity by H. pylori in mice following oral inoculation. The PCR meth- odology is increasingly being utilized for detection of H. pylori in clinical studies (42, 43) due to its sensitivity and specificity. The primers we have designed were based on the 16S rRNA gene, as are the other primers recently described, due to the highly conserved nature of the gene within species. By selecting primers which had numerous base pair mismatches at the 3 9 end of our upstream primer, compared with the sequences of closely related Helicobacter and Campylobacter species, we have obtained primers that exhibit excellent specificity and no observable cross-reactivity. The PCR assay described is ex- tremely sensitive, able to detect a single copy of the 16S rRNA gene in DNA extracted from pure bacterial culture. There was only a 10-fold reduction in the sensitivity of the assay in the presence of DNA extracted from stomach mucosal tissue. Therefore, the PCR assay could detect as few as 2 organisms per reaction, corresponding to 100 organisms per whole stom- ach mucosa sample, when assayed in the presence of stomach mucosal DNA.
Under the optimum experimental conditions, the assay of cefradine anhydrous, cefadroxil monohydrate, cefa- clor monohydrate, cefalexin anhydrous and cefixime was performed at different concentration levels for 17 min at intervals of 2 min starting from 1 min at room temperature (25 ± 5℃). The absorbance at 352 nm was then recorded at each time interval. The assay was car- ried out in presence of excess concentration of potassium iodate and potassium iodide. Therefore, a pseudo-zero order reaction condition was worked out with respect to the concentration of the reagent.
The thermal response of sample C is quite different from A and B. It has got two dips at 303 K and 313 K and a peak at 308 K. The negative slope is high from 298 K to 303 K and from 308 K to 313 K. The slope is very small from 303 to 308 K and beyond 313 K. The thermal response of C has got a horizontal shift of 5 K (phase difference of 5 K). The larger variation of thermal response of C indicates the occurrence of a comparatively strong photochemical reaction of the medicine in direct sunlight. The wavelike nature of thermal variation indicates the increased activity of the compound which is verified by the UV spectrum.
Upon further heating, this polymer network disrupts ge- nerating a large volume of gas, thereby producing tiny nanocrystalline YSZ particles. The endothermic peaks in the thermogram of FER of 0.75 also appeared in those of FER of 1.00 and 1.25 in a broad manner (Figures 1(d)-(e)). These peaks were accompanied by weight loss shown in the TGA curves. For FER of 1.00 and 1.25, the thermo- grams indicate that the vigorous exothermic reaction went in the temperature ranges of 273˚C - 275˚C for 14 s and 280˚C -282˚C for 11 s with highest displayed tem- peratures of 278˚C and 282˚C, respectively. The slow exothermic reaction went on in the temperature ranges of 226˚C - 292˚C for 405 s and 210˚C -285˚C for 450 s for FER of 1.00 and 1.25, respectively. It is observed that the duration for the extremely vigorous reaction decreases with the decrease in citric acid to nitrate molar (c/n molar ratio) ratio; this may be attributed to less amount of cit- rate complex with deceased amount of fuel. Using the law of fuel propellant chemistry, it can be concluded that the amount of citrate complex must be same for FER of 1.00 to 0.25. But practically it was observed by many au- thors reported that excess fuel is required for the forma- tion of citrate complex [21,22]. Purohit et al. (2006) has found that a satisfactory viscous gel cannot be obtained upto ZrO(NO 3 ) 2 to citric acid molar ratio of 1:1, whereas
comparison with non-ECC cryptography (with plain Galois fields as a basis) is the same level of security provided by keys of smaller size. Elliptic curves are applicable for encryption, digital signatures, pseudo-random generators and other tasks. They are also used in several integer factorization algorithms that have applications in cryptography, such as Lenstra elliptic curve factorization Public-key cryptography is based on the intractability of certain mathematical problems.
A possible alternative to examine the sperm function is evaluating the acrosome reaction (AR), which is an es- sential event for sperm fertilization. The acrosome is considered a large secretory granule that contains sev- eral enzymes including glycohydrolases, proteases, ester- ases, acid phosphatases, and aryl sulfatases. The release of these hydrolytic enzymes degrade the zona pellucida allowing the spermatozoa to penetrate it and join with the oocyte in a process called AR, which is dependent on calcium (Ca 2+ ); in human spermatozoa, the acrosome occupies 40 to 70% of the head . The AR can be in- duced in vitro using a calcium ionophore (i.e. A23187), progesterone, phorbol myristate esters, and follicular fluid [17–22]. Specifically, the calcium ionophore trans- ports extracellular Ca 2+ into the cells or releases the ion from intracellular storages . Ca 2+ plays a key role in the activation of signaling pathways of the sperm capaci- tation and posterior AR , for example, the entry of Ca 2+ induces the inactivation of the PI3 kinase, resulting in the activation of serine/threonine protein kinases and the sperm exocytosis . After the induction of the AR, the presence/loss of acrosome can be detected by the presence of proteins in the acrosome region, as the CD46 protein, which is exposed in the internal acrosome membrane once the proteolytic content is released . It has been reported that the in vitro AR evaluation might predict 30 to 50% of fertilization in patients under IVF [27–29]. On the other hand, it has been reported that some environmental-related factors, such as diet, physical activity, and exposure to environmental con- taminants like pesticides and metals alter the AR and therefore the sperm function [30–32].
Red curve shows the multiple Gaussian function ﬁtted to the dis- tribution. Green curves indicate the resulting ﬁtted components which are attributed to yields of the expected isotopes, in this case 12,13,14 C. Red dashed lines indicate the determined peak po- sitions of each isotope. Blue dashed lines indicate the limits of the gates deﬁned around each isotope.
in DMF, in which two well-defined redox waves are observed, are very similar to those reported previously in the same solvent [22-26]. Upon increasing the scan rates from 100 mV/s to 1000 mV/s, two reduction peaks I and III shifted to more negative potential, and the first oxidation peak II shifted to more positive potential, while the second oxidation peak IV did not shift. Also, an anodic wave V at about 2.4 V is noticeable. We recently presented the overall picture of reaction mechanism for the sulfur reduction in DMF and identified the CV peaks .