Public health strategies have placed increasing emphasis on psychosocial and arts-based strategies for promoting wellbeing. This study presents preliminary findings for a specific literary-based intervention, Shared Reading, which provides community-based spaces in which individuals can relate with both literature and one another. A 12-week cross-over design was conducted with 16 participants to compare benefits associated with six sessions of Shared Reading versus a comparison social activity, Built Environment workshops. Data collected included self-report measures of wellbeing, as well as transcript analysis of session recordings and individual video-assisted interviews. Qualitative findings indicated five intrinsic benefits associated with Shared Reading: liveness, creative inarticulacy, the
24 Read more
This study provides the first step towards elucidation of the reading comprehension of health checkup reports in Japanese people. On the contrary, it has a number of potential limita- tions. First, the study subjects were selected from a nationwide panel of an online research company. Applicants for partici- pation in the survey were accepted in the order of receipt until the number of participants reached the quotas. Unfortunately, we have no information about the number of subjects who would participate in the survey if we had not set the quota. As described in the ‘‘Results’’ section, the study subjects included highly educated people twice as many as in the Japanese population. Those who were more interested in health and more familiar with health information were likely to agree to complete the survey. The distribution of HLS-14 scores in the study subjects is quite similar to that obtained from our pre- vious paper-based survey in a Japanese healthcare facility , but the selection bias may have influenced the results to some extent. Second, the web-based survey was self-administered, and thus the accuracy of responses must depend on their understanding of questions and their motivation to answer questions accurately. Although the understandability of wording were checked prior to the web-based survey, it is almost impossible to eliminate the information bias completely. Third, the method of assessing reading
12 Read more
large region of the Greater Toronto Area and manage not only those with severe disease but a wide range of nephrotic cases. This study was conducted in a region with publicly funded health care, which minimizes the bias from access to health care. This is also the first study to our knowledge that addresses parental health literacy in the context of childhood nephrotic syndrome, a disease requiring a high degree of parental involvement and self- management analogous to asthma. The study has some limitations. We did not assess health literacy for both parents because this would have been difficult to obtain for many families that have only 1 parent attend clinic visits. Thus, the parent that completed the health literacy assessment may not be the sole caregiver, but in general most were filled out by the primary caregiver who comes to clinic appointments. We also cannot discount the contribution adolescents or older children may make to their own care; however, given that the majority of the children are between ages 2 and 6 years, it is reasonable to consider the parent the primary person making adjustments in medications and checking urine dipsticks. Finally, the S-TOFHLA assesses only reading and numeracy skills and cannot evaluate other important domains of health literacy. However, it is important to highlight that assessing just 2 of the most basic health literacy skills identified a difference in outcomes. Further studies are needed to investigate how a more comprehensive assessment of parental health literacy will affect child health outcomes.
10 Read more
Functional health literacy is divided into three main domains. The first domain is social support. Association with social support in diabetes self-care and glycemic control has been reported with an indirect effect on health literacy. A study from USA reported that by enhancing social support in patients with limited health literacy can improve glycemic control and diabetes self-care (Osborn et al., 2010). The second domain is medication knowledge and adherence. Patients who possess basic understanding of socio-demographic factors and diseases knowledge usually adhere more to their medication. A study conducted in Palestine reported that health care costs can be minimized and better clinical outcomes can be achieved by improving medication adherence (Najjar et al., 2015). The third domain of functional health literacy is reading, oral communication, pronunciation and word recognition skills. REALM (Rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine) is a tool most widely used to measure functional health literacy for assessment of individual reading and oral communication skills to understand and use of health related material. A study reported reading fluency as more important variable than education while examining the association between socioeconomic status and health. Furthermore, inadequate health literacy measured by reading fluency was reported as important factor contributing to death and mortality among elderly cardiovascular patients in USA (Baker, 2006).
Health literacy is defined as “the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information needed to make appropriate health decisions (1). Health literacy con- sists of reading, writing, cultural and con- ceptual knowledge, the ability to apply numbers and decision making as needed to manage health situation (2-3). Recent stud- ies found that health literacy is an im- portant predictor of health behaviors, out-
In Microcontroller Based Health Care Monitoring System Using Sensor Network, Blood Presser reading, heart rate or body temperature exceeds the standard range for any patient, the system is able to notify using an alarming circuit. The whole system is controlled by microcontroller ATMEGA8L. Light signal is used in sensor network section of this embedded system as light does not have any harmful effect on human body when it works in continuous mode. Pulse rate calculation and body temperature determination is also embedded in this system using sensor network.In Development of a Non-invasive Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement and Monitoring System, it measures blood pressure using volume oscillometric method and photoplethysmography technique during a long time period continuously. The rate of change of blood volume in an organ suchas finger has a linear relationship with blood pressure. This rate of change of blood volume in finger is measured by an optical sensor network which estimates blood pressure.
There is an absence of cross- country studies of literacy challenges and potential solutions, both for conventional print and Internet-based material. There are a number of readability indices that are based around sentence length and number of syllables (e.g., Flesch – Kincaid grade level; Flesch reading ease index; The Fry Graph and SMOG readability indexl). However, these readability measures were designed for application to general text and not medical text, so there is a possibility that the use of such measures could be overestimating readability scores. In addition, there is a need for health information sources to be assessed for their suitability for the given target audience. An area for future consideration is the development of a suitable framework to assess content that considers the use of graphics, the reader’s level of prior knowledge and the implications of social and cultural appropriateness.
15 Read more
that the vast majority of textual information pa- tients typically encounter—from informed con- sents to patient education materials—surpass the reading ability of patients (Rudd, Moeykens, & Colton, 1999). Such discrepancies may have pro- found negative influences on patient health out- comes (Paasche-Orlow & Wolf, 2010). Indeed, Baker et al. (1998) found an independent associa- tion between low health literacy and increased hospital admission rates where patients with low literacy became hospitalized twice as often as more literate patients. Additionally, patients with high functional health literacy become more involved in their care, including exploring options beyond those presented by a doctor, whereas patients with low functional health literacy tend to limit deci- sions regarding their care to only those presented to them by doctors (Smith et al. 2009). With impli- cations for personal and community health, a study by Navarra et al. (2014) found that HIV-infected youth with below-grade-level reading skills did not completely adhere to their antiretroviral therapy.
subjects was 83. The questionnaire of Sharma Study Habit Inventory (PSSHI) was given to the subjects to be filled out carefully. Then the questionnaires were gathered and analyzed by descriptive statistical methods with SPSS.16 software. There is a significant relationship between note-taking and reading ability. There is also a significant relationship between note-taking and time management. Various parameters can help increase students’ success. An increase in motivation can increase their ability to take notes and to manage their time. All these factors improve the memory functions and will finally lead to students’ success.
10 Read more
acrobatics accompanied by lively music. This parade launches the bottle of drink into the world and there was evidence that this party-like narrative resonated with the younger learners, tapping into their current cultural affiliations with films which end in a celebratory style. In one Year 2 class, the whole class insisted that a boy who had missed viewing the advert whilst at a piano lesson should see it. At playtime, as they put on their coats, they discussed and planned to ‘play’ the advert outside. The younger children’s enthusiasm about the text also contributed to their reading of it. They paid attention, looked closely at details, listened attentively, asked for repeat viewings and were keen to share their responses with their peers. All of these actions are clearly useful approaches to reading and rereading a text, extending understanding and exploring personal response.
13 Read more
comprehension only after a few years of schooling. Initially beginning readers may understand text best when it is read by others. Oral reading then appears to become the better mode for comprehension and may continue as such into the latter half of elementary school. Future research with older participants will further assess this claim. (pp.13-14)
147 Read more
accumulated a lifetime of oral language experiences (Hoffman, 1978). Since 1980, some research has emerged indicating that struggling adult readers are actually weak in oral language skills. For example, Greenberg and colleagues (1997) found very low receptive vocabulary skills for adults reading from the third- through fifth-grade levels with age- based norms placing the adults at the first percentile rank. They also found that the adults reading at the third- and fourth-grade levels exhibited better vocabulary skills than reading-level-matched children. However, the vocabulary advantage for the adults disappeared when comparing the adults and children reading at the fifth-grade level. Greenberg and colleagues hypothesized that vocabulary growth at fifth grade and beyond may be greatly influenced by reading experiences; so, adults lacking reading skills may have deficits in vocabulary.
101 Read more
Again, because life circumstances were so different for youth in the 1930’s and the 1980’s, it is difficult to tell to what extent the declines in reading may be due to viewing television or to changes in other leisure time constraints and opportunities. Some early studies attempted to use experimental techniques to examine viewing and reading. Gadberry (1980) matched pairs (N=30) of middle-class 6-year-old children for sex, age, IQ and viewing amounts. Parents restricted the viewing time of one child in each pair to half the time he or she had been viewing before the study began. The other child had no parental restrictions placed on their viewing. For those in the restricted viewing condition reading time increased significantly. For girls’ the increase was about 12 minutes a day (from 1 to 1.2 hours) while the increase for boys was greater, about 24 minutes (from 0.6 to 1 hour). Reading times of children in the unrestricted viewing condition fell over the same period. Gadberry concluded that viewing time had been restricting reading time but she considered this conclusion tentative because the children were ‘middle-class’ and ‘highly motivated for intellectual accomplishment’ (p. 55). Reducing viewing times might not have increased reading times in less motivated children. In another carefully designed intervention study, 8- to 12-year-old children’s (N=5) viewing time was limited by giving children viewing tokens which could be exchanged for up to 10 hours viewing a week (Wolfe et al., 1984). All children reduced their pre-study viewing times to 10 hours or less during the 3-month intervention. In some cases this reduced the viewing time by more than half. All children increased their reading time, but never by the same length of time as the reduction in viewing. When the intervention ended, viewing time remained low. However, reading times decreased in 2 of the 3 children for whom data were available. In contrast to Gadberry’s study the families involved were considered working class. However, the small number of children studied (5) makes it difficult to know whether the findings can be generalised.These studies suggest that viewing may displace reading, however, both studies had small sample sizes.
245 Read more
The least commonly used point of view is second person, especially in academic writing, because most of the time you will not know your audience well enough to write directly to them. The exception is if you’re writing a letter or directing your writing to a very specific group whom you know well. (Notice that I’m using second person in this paragraph to directly address you. I feel okay about doing this because I want you to do specific things, and I have a pretty good idea who my audience is: reading and writing students.) The danger of using second person is that this point of view can implicate readers in your topic when you don’t mean to do that. If you’re talking about crime rates in your city, and you write something like, “When you break into someone’s house, this affects their property value,” you are literally saying that the reader breaks into people’s houses. Of course, that’s not what you mean. You didn’t intend to implicate the readers this way, but that’s one possible consequence of using second person. In other words, you might accidentally say that readers have done something that they haven’t or know, feel, or believe something that they don’t.
233 Read more
reading fluency show that there is a powerful correlation between reading fluency and reading comprehension (e.g., Fuchs, Fuchs, & Maxwell, 1988; Hosp& Fuchs, 2005; Riedel, 2007; Shinn, Good, Knutson, Tilly, & Collins, 1992; Wiley & Deno, 2005). Reading fluency includes word reading fluency, reading rate and prosody (Torgesen, Rashotte, & Alexander, 2001). Phonological awareness is one of the most important components related to the decoding ability and predicts reading. Reading fluency is one of the important features of skilled readers (Kuhn & Stahl, 2000). Skilled readers recognize words automatically; decode unfamiliar words effortlessly and read words accurately and rapidly. Research studies show that oral reading fluency is often measured as the number of words read aloud correctly in one minute (Shinn, Good, Knutson, Tilly, & Collins, 1992; Fuchs & Fuchas, 1999; Torgesen, Rashotte, & Alexander, 2001). It develops steadily over the elementary years (Biemiller, 1977-1978; L. S. Fuchas & Deno, 1991). Further research suggests that the developmental aspect of oral reading fluency reaches its greatest growth in the primary grades (L. S. Fuchas, Fuchas, Hamlett, Walz, & Cerman, 1993), Studies in transparent orthographies, the development of oral reading fluency in Finnish children of 1 st and 2 nd graders, show high stability of reading fluency over four measurement sessions, a longitudinal assessment (sample size of 197), given short text to read as quickly as possible, 4 assessments were done, 2 assessments per year (Parrila et al., 2005) and another study done by de Jong and van der Leij (2002) on word reading fluency (number of correct words read in one minute) of Dutch children (sample size of 141) also show the same
then receives its full sense: for theoretical practice is indeed its own criterion, and contains in itself definite protocols with which to validate the quality of its product, i.e., the criteria of the scientificity of the products of scientific practice. This is exactly what happens in the real practice of the sciences: once they are truly constituted and developed they have no need for verification from external practices to declare the knowledges they produce to be 'true', i.e., to be knowledges.” Althusser, L. in Althusser, L and Balibar, E. Reading Capital. p.60
20 Read more
In addition to asking what narrative medicine can do for neurology, however, the inverse should also be asked. The field of neurology, with its his- toric interest in speech, language, emotion, and cog- nition and its new fMRI technology that can look at brain function and adaptation in real-time, is poised to take narrative medicine research in a new di- rection. Does reading literature or writing actu- ally change what parts of the brain are activated during encounters with patients? What areas in the patient’s brain are activated in response to perceived empathy? If one of the criticisms of nar- rative medicine is that its effects are too difficult to measure, the field of neurology has the oppor- tunity and resources to change that perception.
Reading literature with the aid of computational techniques is con- troversial. For some, digital approaches apparently fetishize the curation of textual archives, lack interpretative rigor (or even just interpretation), and are thoroughly ’neoliberal’ in their pursuit of Silicon Valley-esque software-tool production (Allington, Brouillette, and Golumbia; see “Editors’ Choice” for a good range of counter-responses). For others, the potential benefits of amplifying reading-labor-power through non- consumptive use of book corpora fulfills the dreams of early twentieth- century Russian formalism and yields new, distant ways in which we can consider textual pattern-making (Jockers; Moretti, Distant Reading; Moretti, Graphs). Indeed, there are many arguments to be made around the quantifying processes of computational stylometry that the humanities are – and should be – qualitative in their approaches. At the same time, we also know that the humanities do not hold a monopoly on aesthetics; mathematics, statistics, and computation have a beauty and intuition behind them that are as human as any works of art and need not demean the aesthetics of objects with which they have contact.
30 Read more
Teaching faces different challenges in this era of Information and Communications Technology ( ICT ). One of them is the necessity to meet the demands of the information society and the adaptation of learners to work in an ICT environment. This passes by the tasks of providing prompt and friendly access to information. For this purpose, going beyond the language classroom walls can be achieved with the implementation of innovative ICT proposals that promote learners’ reading competences and strategies. The sustained insertion of new technologies in the field of ELT has been documented by Lopera-Medina (2014). In addition, Clavijo Olarte, Hine, & Quintero (2008) suggest that Virtual Learning Objects ( VLO s) have proved to be dynamic, flexible, and cooperative and personalized vehicles to promote strategies for learning foreign languages in virtual environments, specifically reading strategies.
17 Read more
International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) students by using a survey research method. Data were gathered from the Bachelor of IT students from the Kulliyyah Information and Communication Technology (KICT) and the Bachelor of Art students from the Kulliyyah Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Science (IRKHS). This study can be seen as significant in providing useful information which can assist the university authority and library to provide more effective services and a better understanding on the concept of reading for these groups of students. In addition, this study is also significant, through its methodology, in extending future research such as exploring into a wider scope of the Malaysian university environments.