real-time balancing mechanism

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A game theoretical analysis of the design options of the real-time electricity market

A game theoretical analysis of the design options of the real-time electricity market

This paper considers the economic consequences of penalizing imbalances in the real-time market by introducing a kind of balancing mechanism. Two market designs have been compared. In the first design real-time exchanges are valued using the same market price, the called real-time market. In the second, real-time imbalances are however penalized, yielding different imbalance prices regarding the nature of the market player –producer or reseller- and his real-time position compared to his forward exchanges, the so-called balancing mechanism. We have implemented a two-stage dynamic model to consider the interaction between the forward market and the real-time market where market players –two producers and one reseller- compete in a Nash manner and relying on supply/demand function oligopoly competition. Based on some numerical examples, the main finding of the studies are: Firstly, implementing a balancing mechanism would increase forward contracts while raising electricity prices. Indeed, the reseller behaves as a quantity sensitive players and would be pushed to buy more energy in the forward market to secure his demand. Producers however are price-sensitive and would require always high prices to accept exchanging more energy in this market. Secondly, implementing a balancing mechanism does not reduce the use of market power. Producers make the most of resellers’ need to cover themselves via the forward market by continuously manipulating the market prices.
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Load balancing mechanism for clustered PMIPv6 protocol

Load balancing mechanism for clustered PMIPv6 protocol

MAGs also sends a heartbeat message to the LMA, includ- ing their load status. The LMA stores the received loads in its BCE used to measure the overall system perfor- mance. The description of this is shown in Fig. 3. When the LMA load exceeds a specific threshold, a heartbeat message is sent by the LMA to the overloaded MAG. Then, the overloaded MAG performs a load balancing and chooses the MNs that have the option to change their point of attachment. The target MAG is selected by the serving MAG based on the received signal strength (RSS) and the load status reported from the MNs. The signaling process that is performed during the load bal- ancing action is presented in Fig. 4. This work restricts the procedure of choosing the handover MN (HMN) for the handover process by preventing the serving MAG to select the MNs that have a real-time session. Numerical and simulation analysis has been conducted by the authors to evaluate their proposed mechanism, and their result shows significantly enhanced performance over the orig- inal PMIPv6. The abovementioned mechanism forms the core of the proposed LB-CPMIPv6 mechanism. Further- more, all the paper variables and assumptions are also
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An Asymmetric Model for Real-Time and Load Balancing on Linux SMP

An Asymmetric Model for Real-Time and Load Balancing on Linux SMP

• An efficient load-balancing policy. It will allow to benefit from the full power of the SMP machine. Usually the load-balancing mechanism aims to move the running tasks across the CPUs in order to insure that no CPU is idle while some tasks are waiting to be scheduled on the other ones. Our case is more complicated because of the specificities of the ARTiS tasks. The RT0 tasks will never migrate, by definition. The RT1+ tasks should migrate quicker than Linux tasks to RT CPUs: The RT CPUs offer latency warranties that the NRT CPUs do not. To minimize the latency on RT CPUs and to provide the best performances to the global system, particular asymmetric load-balancing algorithms have been defined [17]. • Asymmetric communication mechanisms. On SMP machines, tasks exchange data by
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Research of Disk Migration Technology for Virtual Machine in Cloud Computing

Research of Disk Migration Technology for Virtual Machine in Cloud Computing

Fourthly, the disk migration technology based on real-time synchronization mechanism [8]: Through the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection, transmit the update data in real time from source server to destination server, thus make two-node disk data consistent and achieve disk migration. Afterwards, a method with cycled synchronization and redundant detection was proposed in document [9] to improve the above theory, this method can reduce the amount of redundant data. The disk migration technology based on real-time syn- chronization mechanism is similar to the whole-system migration technology; its synchronization cycle is equiv- alent to the whole-system migration’s pre-migration cycle, and its advantage is the synchronization cycle can be adjusted according to the I/O frequency. But, there are still a large number of redundant data to be synchronized.
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A novel Hybrid CDN-P2P mechanism For effective real-time media streaming

A novel Hybrid CDN-P2P mechanism For effective real-time media streaming

player can play out the first chunk. Furthermore, when a peer sends a request to other peers or to CDN server, it will receive (if possible) list of pieces responded randomly. For example, the peer named “A” need a list of piece {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18} to fill in the buffer, it sends this list to peers which have any of those piece. Because the bandwidth of a peer is limited; one peer can send only k pieces at one time then if k < size of list request, that peer would choose random k piece in his available response list to reply back to peer A. Hence, peer A will receive a chaotic response list from others peers. That is why, to fulfill all l chunk pieces of first chunk (from start point), it can take a longer
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Security Protection Mechanism for Social Networking Websites Based on Real-Time Proxy

Security Protection Mechanism for Social Networking Websites Based on Real-Time Proxy

This paper declares that proposed application is divided into four modules namely Social networking application, SecurityModule, Sample Attacks,Proxy. Social networking application is a sample social networking application which includes the some basic functionality such as addfriends, remove friends, search friends etc.Security module uses the some security software’s and online security services to prevent and detect security threats. The module proxy is from where client side requests are diverted to the web server of requested website. Proxy server downloads the data of the requested website and analyses that data against the threats. And if the website was found as threaten then the warning message is sent to the client side. The next time whenever the client side request for the same website then the proxy send warning message to the client side directly instead of analyzing that website.
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A New Charge Balancing and Equalization Mechanism for Batteries

A New Charge Balancing and Equalization Mechanism for Batteries

During this experiment, battery pack consisting of four batteries with varied individual SOCs is subjected to balancing & equalization with algorithm-2. The process is continuously monitored and controlled by the microcontroller. Microcontroller ends the constant current step when the 1 st battery with highest 70% SOC reached to 80% level as described in the algorithm-2. Next, the system disconnects all the batteries and puts them individually to bulk charging again and now they are powered from auxiliary supply till the charging currents of all reduces to less than 3% of maximum charging current. This is indicated by serial number 3-6 in Table-6. This step is also named as bulk charging as the batteries draws more current due to their lower SOCs. Next, all the batteries were subjected to balancing and equalization and are indicated by serial numbers (7-13) in Table-6. The outcome this experiment is that the battery pack consisting of four batteries varied SOCs can also be balanced and equalized without wasting energy and time. Another advantage of this method is that the weakest battery can be easily identified by way continuous monitoring of its SOC. If there is no improvement on the SOC of the weakest battery/cell and recommendation can be made to replace the battery/cell in the pack. Thus the burden on the stronger battery can be eased and also the health of the battery pack can be maintained within safe operating area with extended life. The battery pack voltage verses time, and individual battery voltages verses time are plotted on graph shown in Fig.-18.
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Immediate feedback : a new mechanism for real time feedback on classroom teaching practice

Immediate feedback : a new mechanism for real time feedback on classroom teaching practice

The system works in the following way. Students would select the subject and lecture from a list in the via a web app. As the lecture progresses, the student uses the app on their internet con nected device to indicate that they are understanding or not comprehending the content. The app UI in this instance is as simple as having two large touch sensitive boxes, red and green. The data are collected by the server and the results are processed in real-time. The output is presented on the lecturer’s presentation machine, or possibly their own mobile device, as they are delivering the lecture, and is further captured on the server together with the details of the interaction in the lecture to which the output relates. The lecturer is therefore getting real-time feedback as to how their teaching is being understood by the students, and students can see the feedback if the slideshow is being projected. If necessary, the educator could explain further or change their style as they will get instant feedback via this system. At the end of the lecture, the lecturer could retrieve the whole dataset(statistics captured per presentation slide) and seek to make improvements of their lecture, e.g. try again with updated techniques or material next semester and compare the results.
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Distribution Systems Reconfiguration Using Pattern Recognizer Neural Networks

Distribution Systems Reconfiguration Using Pattern Recognizer Neural Networks

determined so that a well-defined objective function is optimized. Also its constraints must be satisfied. This is a nonlinear mixed-integer optimization problem and various methods have been suggested for solving it. Some of t his methods are: Mathematical Gradient, Numerical, Heuristic, Intelligent and Stochastic methods. Most of these methods are based on greedy search, which in most cases reaches to a local minimum rather than the global minimum. Extending the distribution network dimensions irritates this situation. In this paper, it will be more complicated because of having two objective functions. Another disadvantage of most of the optimization methods is time-consuming calculations. It hardens their on-line applications. Feeder reconfiguration is used in both design (determining optimal lines) and operation calculations.
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Vol 5, No 1 (2017)

Vol 5, No 1 (2017)

tollerance of failure issues of VSC based HVDC framework and the requirement for blame tolerant converters. The working standard and DC blame ride through capacity of as of late presented Alternate Arm Modular Multilevel Converter (AAMMC) has been talked about. The capacitor voltage adjusting issues of AAMMC is broke down and a novel plan for adjusting capacitor voltages of the wave molding circuit is displayed in this work. The voltage adjusting of capacitors of wave forming circuits in the arm is finished by presenting a cover period amid zero voltage period. Utilizing the proposed plot, the extent and course of the current amid the cover time frame can be controlled by fluctuating the exchanging design.. It helps in charging or releasing of the sub module capacitors to convey them to their reference esteem. Toward the finish of the cover time frame, the arm current is conveyed to zero preceding opening the chief change in order to keep away from the spike over the arm inductor. The proposed plan is executed by fuzzy controller to lessen the aggregate symphonious distortion. The adequacy of the proposed control plot has been approved utilizing simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK.
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Comparison Between Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA-Microarray in Detection and Identification of Mycobacterium Species

Comparison Between Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA-Microarray in Detection and Identification of Mycobacterium Species

of about 1.35 Kb DNA fragment from the mycobacterial 16S rRNA genes, which are highly stable rather than insertion elements which are likely to undergo deletions Radhakrishnan, I (2001). The PCR result exhibited 96.3% sensitivity and 96.7% specificity, with three false negative and two false positive samples. The presence of false- negative results can be due to insufficient number of samples or the presence of inhibitors Barouni, AS (2004). Although the MTB-F and MTB-R primers did not show any DNA amplification for some Gram negative and positive bacteria, they produced two false positive results. This might be attributed to the specimen's contamination during the handling of samples. Richardson et al. (2009) used multiplex real-time PCR primers targeting the 16s rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITSs) for identification of 314 mucobacterial culture positive samples. Their results showed about 99% sensitivity and specificity for M. tuberculosis complex, M. avium complex, M. chelonae-M. abscessus-M. immunogenum group and M. mucogenicum. The same targets exhibited 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity for M. fortuitum group (MFG). Slightly lower sensitivity and specificity, reached 94.5% and 95.9% respectively, were obtained using another multiprimer depending on the IS6110 insertion element, the genus specific fragment (32kDa) and species-specific mtp40 gene (Barouni, A. S 2004)
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Hybrid Adaptive Call Admission Control Mechanism for Ensuring QoS in 3GPP: LTE Networks

Hybrid Adaptive Call Admission Control Mechanism for Ensuring QoS in 3GPP: LTE Networks

Thus, for the acceptance of a HC request, a degradation procedure is triggered to degrade the number of allocated RBs of some ongoing calls in the cell to attempt to allocate required RB (Rbreq) as follows. Calls with the largest allocated bandwidth greater than Rbmin and the lowest priority (i.e. carrying a non real time service) are degraded to have lower number of RBs not less than Rbmin. If one arrives at a level of degradation in which is found that the sum of the released RBs is higher than those required by the HC then this last will be accepted and will be allocated the requested resources blocks. If all above tests fail, then the dropping of the handoff call is done. But, to treat the requests for new connection on standby if the cell is overloaded, in the first time the call which does not exceed its maximum latency and which tolerates the minimum of remaining latency is selected. To accept this call, some calls in the course of communication which carrying applications with non real time service, its resources allocated blocks will be degraded up to the required level (Rbreq) to accommodate this NC. If all above tests is not complied with, then blocking of arrival call is done else the NC will be accepted and it will allocate their required RBs.
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Hybridization of Genetic Algorithm and Linear Programming for Solving Cell Formation Problem with Alternative Process Routings

Hybridization of Genetic Algorithm and Linear Programming for Solving Cell Formation Problem with Alternative Process Routings

In this paper, the cell formation problem in the presence of alternative process routings in which more than one process route for each part can be selected was considered. This problem was formulated as a mathematical model that determines machine cells and the production quantity of each part that will follow each alternative route such that total intercellular movements are minimized. The mathematical formulation of the problem involves both binary and continuous variables. Manufacturing cells were designed based on several real-life production factors, namely operation sequence, production volume, processing time, machine capacities, and cell size. Also, it was considered that the workload of machines should be balanced.
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Real Time Traffic Management System using Cloud Infrastructure with Edge Clustering Mechanism

Real Time Traffic Management System using Cloud Infrastructure with Edge Clustering Mechanism

Based in this challenges this research brings out the architecture, for the approach and the current implementation of an advanced Traffic Management System (TMS) can able to optimise traffic admissible speeds, signal positions and signal patterns. Contacts can be potential as possible which can be predicted in advance and solved in real-time,while managing the order of trains, or using alternative routes if possible, and by issuing proper speed recommendations to train drivers. In this way, the TMS prevents or limits the number of unplanned stops and the accompanying journey time loss.
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Network Congestion Management: Considerations and Techniques

Network Congestion Management: Considerations and Techniques

A congestion management solution must have visibility of which subscribers are attached to which access network resources at any particular point in time. Unlike fixed networks, where subscribers stay on the same access segment until they move residence or a service provider makes changes, mobile data networks are defined by subscribers who travel from one network access segment to another while accessing data. Subscriber mobility awareness is needed to maintain the correct association between a mobile subscriber and the access segment to which they are attached. Without it, policy
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Efficient VM Load Balancing Algorithm for Dynamic Allocation of Resources in Cloud Computing Environment

Efficient VM Load Balancing Algorithm for Dynamic Allocation of Resources in Cloud Computing Environment

A. Round Robin Load Balancer (RRLB): In this, the data centre controller allocates the requests to a VMs list on a rotating basis. The first request is assigned to a VM- picked arbitrarily from the group and then the Data Centre controller allocates the subsequent requests in a circular order. Once the VM is allocated the request, the VM is moved to the list end. In this RRLB; there is a better allocation idea called Weighted Round Robin Allocation in which one can allocate a weight to every VM so that if one VM is able of managing twice as much load as the other, the potential server achieves a weight of 2. In such situations, the Data Centre Controller will allocate two requests to the potential VM for every request allocated to a weaker one. The significant issue in this assignment is that it does not consider the modern load balancing needs i.e. processing times for every individual requests.[1]
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Bluetooth Cum Pc Controlled Solar Lawn Mower with Real Time Monitoring Mechanism

Bluetooth Cum Pc Controlled Solar Lawn Mower with Real Time Monitoring Mechanism

received from the Sun. It is one of the most abundant forms of non-conventional, renewable energy source found on the Earth. It is readily available, free of cost and is pollution free. Solar energy can be harnessed to be changed into electricity and power by the use of devices like solar panels which consists of photovoltaic cells. Photovoltaic cell is an electrical device which converts sun’s light into electricity by the property of photoelectric effect. By the use of solar panels we can harness sunlight to generate electricity free of cost. In this project we have used solar energy in the process of grass cutting of lawns, fields etc. The lawn mower is dual controlled first by the pc and other by the Bluetooth module. The pc controlling employs the real time monitoring system by the LabView software. LabView is used for the live coverage of the lawn / fields along with the values of voltages developed in the photovoltaic cell during the course of the day. This real time monitoring system would help to efficiently utilize the solar power developed in the system. The solar lawn mower when Bluetooth controlled can be operated from anywhere within the Bluetooth signal range by the mobile phone of the owner.
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Bufferbloat Mitigation for Real time Video Streaming using Adaptive Controlled Delay Mechanism

Bufferbloat Mitigation for Real time Video Streaming using Adaptive Controlled Delay Mechanism

This model suggests a buffer size of just 20 -50 packets. This rule assumes that throughput and link utilization could be sacri- ficed by 10 -15% This was basically designed for optical routers, where link is not a bottleneck but buffer is the bottle neck [9]. All the generic models discussed above have been designed con- sidering only data traffic which was dominant in the networks of second generation. 3G and 4G networks add some interest- ing challenges of its own, with its quickly varying link speeds and complexities added by packet aggregation. Large buffers in wireless networks are essential for the link layer in which packets experiencing channel errors are buffered. However, since the side-effects to TCP brought by over-buffering has not been well understood, the problem still prevails in todays cellular net- works. Haiqing Jiang and team from North Carolina State Uni- versity performed real-world tests to study the presence and ef- fects of bufferbloat in networks. The results revealed abnormal behavior of TCP in bufferbloated cellular networks, leading to a number of performance issues including long delays and sub- optimal throughput. In applications where fat TCP was observed, the buffer size was set using the BDP value [2]. In flat TCP, the parameter tcp rmem max plays a crucial role in suppress- ing packet loss and obtaining a flattened throughput. In small BDP networks, fat\ flat TCP develop unnecessarily long end-to- end latency due to excessive queuing. Flat TCP will suffer from significant throughput degradation in large BDP links. Figure 1 shows the presence of very large buffers in real-time networks in a study conducted by Kathleen Nichols and Van Jacobson
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Real Time Traffic Balancing in Cellular Network by Multi- Criteria Handoff Algorithm Using Fuzzy Logic

Real Time Traffic Balancing in Cellular Network by Multi- Criteria Handoff Algorithm Using Fuzzy Logic

Mobile station (MS), in the presence of these random networks with overlapping cellular coverage, can connect to any of these wireless access technologies. MS in the given wireless switches its current point of attachment to a new wireless network using a process called handoff [8]. To have global connectivity, Handoffs are extremely important cellular communication because of the cellular architecture employed to maximize spectrum utilization. When a mobile terminal moves away from a base station, the signal level drops and there is a need to switch the communications channel to another base station. That time there is a need for a handoff to be executed. Handoff is the process of changing the communications channel associated with the current ongoing connection while a call is in progress [3].
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Dynamic Service Selection Capability for Load Balancing in Enterprise Service Bus

Dynamic Service Selection Capability for Load Balancing in Enterprise Service Bus

In Fig. 6, we compare the average response values for the leastLoad strategy, when the threshold takes a value between 4 and 12. The results show that the response time was best when the threshold was 6 messages. Excluding when the threshold was 4 messages, the results show that the response time was better when the threshold was lower. This is because if the threshold is set high, then the same service must handle more messages before a message is sent to another service. This means that there are services that are not doing anything. It is obviously better if the messages are distributed, and of course this is the point of load balancing.
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