In this paper, we introduce an architecture for realtimecommunications over the web. Using various HTML5 features and APIs we have created cross-device web applications that can access the web-camera on client side, capture video and transmit it over the web using a WebSocket connection with an associated server. In this paper we present the generic architecture that enables such communications and demonstrate the two web applications we have developed for realtime communication over the web. The first one enables live video streaming over the web and the second the video chatting between two browser clients. Both solutions do not require the installation of any plug-in or the support of any session description protocol and have been successfully tested on several devices, mobile or desktop. The only requirement is for a browser compatible with HTML5 and WebSockets. So far, we are not aware of other similar implementations in scientific literacy apart from the sophisticated WebRTC. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: section 2 presents some related work, section 3 introduces to the proposed generic architecture for realtimecommunications over the web and section 4 demonstrates the two web applications we have developed for live video streaming and web video chatting. Finally section 5 concludes the paper.
Current differential protection has stringent real-timecommunications requirements and it is critical that protection traffic is transmitted securely, i.e., by using appropriate data authentication and encryption methods. This paper demonstrates that real-time encryption of protection traffic in IP/MPLS-based communications networks is possible with negligible impact on performance and system operation. It is also shown how the impact of jitter and asymmetrical delay in realcommunications networks can be eliminated. These results will provide confidence to power utilities that modern IP/MPLS infrastructure can securely and reliably cater for even the most demanding applications.
Computer security was one of the largest topic covered in this paper. FPGAs help to ensure the security of different systems with fault tolerance mechanism [14,1553,1554], single event upset recovery/ mitigation [1555,1556] and emulation [321,1488], side channel attacks protection [330–332,1557,1558] and detection [1559–1561], physical unclonable function implementations [339,1562,1563], triple modular redundancy [1564–1566] and intrusion detection [399,1567,1568]. The applications and systems protected by these security techniques in FPGAs includes military [326,1569], space [308,1492,1570,1571] and medical [314,1572,1573] systems. Similarly, FPGAs have had an important role in the diverse cryptography techniques implementations. Different techniques like AES, ECC, RSA, SHA and others have been implemented in FPGAs for high throughput encoding/decoding [407,1574–1576], reconfigurable cryptographic processors [1577–1579] and low power consumption implementations [470,472,1580,1581]. Machine learning techniques implementations in FPGAs include in this paper neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machine, spiking neural network and AdaBoost. These have been implemented for image processing [527,1582,1583], pattern recognition [476,1584], real-time processing [671,1477,1585], melanoma cancer detection [510,511,1586,1587], speech recognition [1587,1588] and so forth. Digital signal processing techniques implementations in FPGAs covers FFT [537,1589–1593], DWT [597,1594–1597], time-to-digital converters [1598–1602], DCT [580,1603–1605] and digital filters like FIR filter [56,612,1606–1608], Kalman filter [620,1609–1611], median filter [1612,1613], LMS [1614–1616] and others.
Since the TF0 flag is set whenever timer 0 overflows, the above code will toggle P3.0 every time timer 0 overflows. This accomplishes what we want, but is inefficient. The JNB instruction consumes 2 machine cycles to determine that the flag is not set and jump over the unnecessary code. In the event that timer 0 overflows, the CPL and CLR instruction require an additional 2 machine cycles to execute. To make the arithmetic easy, let us say that the rest of the code (until JMP TOP) in the program requires 98 machine cycles. Thus in total, our code consumes 100 machine cycles (98 instruction cycles plus the 2 that are executed at every iteration to determine whether or not timer 0 has overflowed). If we are in 16-bit timer mode, timer 0 will overflow every 65,536 machine cycles. In the time between overflows we would have performed 65536/100 or 655 JNB tests, consuming 1310 machine cycles plus another 2 machine cycles to perform the code when there is the overflow. So to achieve our goal, we have spent 1312 out of 65536 or 2% of the time just checking when to toggle P3.0. Moreover, we would not be reacting immediately to the overflow since we would only notice it when we come to the check instruction. And our code is not efficient because we have to make that check during every iteration of our main program loop.
To address the requirements of this GIS case study, im- provements to above layered architecture needed to be performed. First, a simulated communications coverage layer needed to be created within the layered architecture that included the capability to input radio antenna loca- tions, and radio transmission properties, antenna gain, and antenna height. This data was sufficient to support a simple communications propagation and attenuation al- gorithm, the Friis transmission equation, which calcu- lates signal strength at the receiving antenna . LOS needed for RF communications was implemented as a layer in the architecture using Global Position System (GPS) locations and sensor direction to calculate the signal trajectory. The resulting layer of signal trajectories were viewed as communication coverage maps through the existing interface that was modified to accommo- dated visualization of the added communications layer components. Controls added to the interface included antenna placement, antenna parameter and transmission power specification, and selection of RF model.
Cepstrum plots the gamnitude at the ordinate axis and the quefrency at the abscissa axis. Since families of side bands are periodic in the spectrum with constant bandwidth, the cepstrum will evidently contain peaks corresponding to the dominant side band spacing. The reciprocal of the quefrency (dimensions of time) associated with such peaks would give the corresponding side band spacing and thus the modulating frequency whereas the gamnitude would tell the relative strength of the peaks. For example, if there are two families of side bands in a spectrum with frequency differences of f 1 and
movement discovery that fuses a few imaginative instruments . In November 2015 Bhaskar Dey and Malay K. Kundu utilized the developing High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)  standard for video pressure, guarantees up to half piece rate investment funds thought about against the best of pressure plans accessible today. While the pressure productivity of HEVC offers a one of a kind chance to ease the transmission capacity crunch, new techniques for include extraction specifically from packed video must be figured into the outline of quicker calculations. Be that as it may, most best in class (SoA) calculations work on uncompressed pictures with an autonomous foundation display for every (pixel-based strategies). In this manner, packed recordings must experience computationally concentrated pre-preparing to be totally de- compacted, asserting critical time and memory before the use of such calculations. Ongoing exhibitions with precision tantamount to those of pixel-based techniques are focused on. At long last, pixel esteem is spread away from plain sight model of a neighboring pixel when the pixel is observed to be a piece of the foundation. By utilizing pseudo code and the parameter esteems, we depict our strategy in full subtle elements and contrast it with other foundation subtraction methods . Moving articles are portioned from the foundation by utilizing movement location calculation. To execute this, take a picture as foundation at the time t, signified by I(t) to look at with the foundation picture indicated by B. In this, we can section out the items just by utilizing picture subtraction strategy for every pixel in I(t), take the pixel esteem indicated by P[I(t)] and subtract it with the comparing pixels on the foundation picture signified as P[B].
When science is healthy, scientists are skeptical [106-108]. Just as there was room for T. H. Huxley to doubt Lord Kelvin’s theory of the age of the earth, there is room to questionthe relativity of time given by Albert Einstein’s Theories of Relativity. L. T. More , wrote“The chief incentive to the development of relativity is the desire to express all natural phenomena by a set of simple equations; and he[Magie] is right when he objects to making the demand for simplicity the chief purpose of a scientific theory. It is better to keep science in homely contact with our sensations at the expense of unity than to build a universe on a simplified scheme of abstract equations. And in the last analysis, a solution of our problems must be intelligible to the man of general intelligence as well as to the trained specialist. From the contradictory statements of the specialists themselves he might also include them in the class which finds the Principle of Relativity of dubious clarity.”
Initially the user has to register his details with the application for the first time. The user has to enter the first name, last name, gender, etc. he also has to enter the userID and password for login purpose. So, registered user can login directly to use this application by using userID and password. Once the user registers, then he can use his userID and password to login in future. If the login is successful then home screen gets open.
It is assumed that the nodes are deployed in a static sce- nario and in a uniform randomly distributed manner. All nodes are in the same spherical transmission range (Fig. 1) and are identical, and every node knows its own location. The location of each node is represented in a Cartesian coordinate system (X, Y , Z) which can be obtained from the GPS module. The GPS module calculates the posi- tion of each node, and it will be used only at the time of deployment; after that, it will be switched off to save energy . The goal of the proposed protocols is to min- imize the RF range based on the parent location. Figure 1 is a graphical vision of 3DPBARP scenario and shows the parent selecting in this protocol. After parent selection in PFR, the position of the parents is sent to its entire chil- dren. The PFR technique in 3DPBARP uses the position’s data to minimize the RF range. The RF range is calcu- lated in location management phase, and the transponder of the node sets the transponder power to cover only the
To evaluate the design and performance of a commu- nication system, it is desirable to evaluate it in realistic situations. The experiments can be performed directly in a vehicle, driving through diﬀerent environments. How- ever, this is a time-consuming and expensive task and it requires the presence of measurement equipments with proper calibrations. Moreover, the ﬁeld trials can be aﬀected by unintended uncontrollable circumstances. The inexpensive and ﬂexible option is to use a realtime chan- nel emulator and measure the performance in a laboratory environments as in [22-24]. The commercially available channel emulators available may not oﬀer the user enough ﬂexibility when conﬁguring the wireless channel param- eters to test the system under diﬀerent environmental conditions. Such simulators do not cover V2V scenarios under diﬀerent channel models like Hoyt, Rice Hoyt etc. A low cost channel simulator is therefore required that mod- els diﬀerent scenarios and at the same time provide the user ﬂexibility to measure the performance of the wireless transceiver under environmental conditions.
Long-Term Evolution (LTE) was implemented to fulfill and satisfy users ’ needs as well as their demands for an improvised, fast and efficient Quality of service (QoS). A minimal aggregate of waiting time in return would give users a better Quality of experience (QoE). Real-time service packet scheduling is an important process in allocating resources to users. An efficient packet scheduling scheme will be able to cater fairly and efficiently to its users in the LTE network. Hence, studies are performed focusing on real-time traffic which includes video as well as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) transmissions. In this work, the existing exponential rule (EXP rule) is utilized to benchmark our proposed packet scheduling techniques so that we are able to further evaluate the scheduling performance. In response to the increasing likelihood of losing packets in the EXP rule ’ s algorithm and maximizing the throughput rate, several schemes have been experimented with. The proposed schemes include 1) simplified EXP rule (sEXP Rule), 2) modified EXP rule (mEXP Rule), 3) EXP rule with maximum throughput (MT) (EXP_MT Rule), and 4) enhanced EXP rule with MT (E2M). By adding MT as a weight to the EXP rule, the throughput is maximized, thus providing higher throughput rates for real-time and non-real-time traffic. The simulation results show that the sEXP rule has a better performance in throughput, packet loss rate (PLR), and spectral efficiency for video traffic. Aside from this, our proposed E2M rule performs better than the benchmark EXP rule and outperforms the other proposed schemes, as well. It is observed that the E2M rule has better QoS support for real-time transmission in terms of delay, packet loss, throughput and spectral efficiency, within the LTE network. Hence, our proposed E2M rule is an enhancement of the benchmark EXP rule, which is commonly used in LTE packet scheduling.
Next to the performance and energy consumption behavior of the radio, the medium access protocol has to be character- ized. We consider a centrally controlled protocol as depicted in Figure 2. Periodically, a cluster leader (CL) is elected to be responsible for the cluster scheduling. This CL commu- nicates with the other mobile users (MUs) every scheduling period. To minimize the cost of waking up the radio, all com- munications of a single MU should be grouped together in the scheduling period. Also, the total time needed for each communication should be known in advance, such that all other MUs can be put asleep during that time. Hence, be- fore each communication round, the schedule has to be de- termined that allocates to each MU a transmit opportunity TXOP (when to start transmitting and for how long). This optimal timeslot, however, varies with the current data re- quirements, distance and C im of each MU.
waveform assessment is indeed a challenging and time consuming task. It requires an appropriate method and tool especially if real-time processing is a big concern. There are quite a few methods of waveform parameters estimation but, arguably, one of the most popular tools is discrete Fourier transform (DFT), especially its fast algo- rithm version called fast Fourier transform (FFT). An ef- ficient FFT algorithm is implemented on the IED to meet the real-time challenges. Typical FFT algorithms assume complex input and output data. Most of the time domain data are real valued. A simple solution to this problem is to pad N-length zero-valued sequence as imaginary compo- nent with real-valued signal to make it a complex input to compute the FFT. However, this method is obviously in- efficient. The algorithm used in this application assumes N-point real sequence as N/2-point complex valued se- quence then it computes N/2-point complex FFT on the complex valued sequence. In the first step, only N/2 points of the N-point sequence are computed. Since the FFT of a real-sequence has symmetric properties, the re- maining N/2 points FFT are easy to compute with equa- tions. Complete description of the algorithm along with equations can be found in .
were initiated was set to “constant”, then all of the attackers’ applications were initiated at the start. If the parameter was set to “increasing,” then the attackers’ applications were gradually initiated. Through this differentiation, we aimed to test if our detection mechanism was able to identify the attack, even when the peak time of the attack was not visible. In the slow-rate attacks, the numbers of applications and slow-legitimate connections were integrated in the network traffic as part of its normal behaviour. The number of applications was differentiated from 20 to 40. Through slow legitimate connections, we could evaluate if the algorithm is able to identify malicious or normal activity. In real-traffic, not all connections are fast and completed at once, especially in a Smart Home IoT environment where there are various physical obstacles (e.g., walls). According to , there is 26% probability that a connection is slow in a typical home. Furthermore, the study indicates that the more connected devices a home has, the greater the probability there is for the consumers to experience a slow connection. In detail, they report a 47.5% probability of a slow-connection if seven or more nodes are connected to the Home Area Network.
Research on facial expression recognition uses an Enhanced Random Forest Conditional Convolutional Neural Network. By using various CK+ public datasets, JAFFE, BU-3DEF and LFW databases . In this study, how to use and implement the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) methods as classifiers of facial expressions in realtime.