Committed Towards long-term Research Activity) Integrated Research Programme is one of such projects intended to help with the transition towards future power systems, where more decentralized generation connected to distribution systems is expected along with an increased observability and control at the lower voltage levels . These characteristics encourage the search for novel architectures such as the Web of Cells (WoC) , shown in Fig.1, where novel frequency and voltage control concepts can be developed for future power systems due to its distribution of areas. As an example ELECTRA IRP is aiming for a more local control approach for resolving voltage and frequency contingencies with the help of the decentralized characteristic of future power systems. The increased complexity and variability of future electricity grids bring the opportunity for the development of distributed control approaches that can reduce the complexity of the system by solving issues in a local manner. In contrast with centralized control approaches less observability and communication is required (per controller) and also frequency and voltage control could be implemented on a smaller scale. The development of novel distributed grid intelligence concepts is a complex design task that requires coordination between different engineering domains such as control, power systems and data communication . Once the design
In our arrangement, the player begins the hunt by pressing the button to trigger one of two mutually exclusive tasks: setting a “fire” or “frost” trap. The next two steps always follow each other, applying a “hunter’s mark” to the target, followed by a concussive shot. These two actions will only be used once, at the beginning of combat; the sequence of arrows from one to the other reflects this. The next step is to select between another two mutually exclusive actions: applying a “scorpid sting” or “serpent sting”. Which is used depends on the particular prey being hunted; the respective buttons are laid out and labeled to reflect this choice. The final step is the use of the “arcane shot.” This action, in contrast to the others, will be done repeatedly for the remainder of the hunt. An arrow from the control and doubling back onto itself is drawn on the paper to illustrate this. 5.4 Discussion
In this paper, a simple flux-weakening control method is proposed. This method has several advantages over previously proposed flux-weakening methods -. For one thing, the parameters of the IPMSM are not required. Also, the computations for the flux-weakening control are very simple. For example, only square root, multiplication, and addition are used. In addition, to achieve fast responses and good load disturbance rejection capability from the low-speed range to high-speed range, a predictive controller is employed. In contrast to previous research on predictive control -, this paper proposes a multiple-loop predictive control motor drive system. The sampling interval of the current-loop is 100 , and the sampling interval of the speed-loop is 1 ms. Due to the quick current regulation, the proposed system has better performance than previous one-loop predictive control drive systems -. Unlike previous methods of flux-weakening control without using motor parameters , -, the proposed method provides a simple control algorithm for voltage regulation without an adaptive controller or PI controller. To the authors’ best knowledge, the proposed flux-weakening control method is a new idea. In addition, the idea of the predictive controller applied in the simplified flux-weakening control of an IPMSM is original.
SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory) is one of the many types of RAM, the synchronisation means that SDRAM needs to rely on the clock to coordinate the work and its internal instruction sending, data transmission need to clock synchronisation as a benchmark. SDRAM experienced DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate) and DDR2 SDRAM stage and now has developed to the DDR3 SDRAM phase. But DDR3 is more suitable for the advanced processing system and the cost is more expensive, in contrast, DDR2 storage capacity and read speed is more suitable for embedded systems.
Although elitism was used, the error of the best individuals of every generation is not always lower or even the same as the previous one, which in theoretical systems is impossible. In a real world system, small variations are expected when running an experiment a number of times, and that is the same for our GA fitness function. When evaluating the same individual in different generations slightly different fitness values are found. Table III shows the standard deviation for the best individuals of the three GA runs; when tested 40 times in the helicopter. This significant variability of the system can be seen graphically in Figure 4. This is the reason why Figure 3 does not show a monotonic behaviour of the error. Due to the natural uncertainties of our system, the GA cannot converge to an absolute optimal solution and therefore we have to determine what is the validity of the final solution presented by the algorithm and the validity of the fitness values.
In this paper, we present the real-time implementa- tion of a LQR-based feedback control for the stabiliza- tion about the upright position of the double inverted pendulum mounted on a cart. The apparatus of the DIP system, which was provided by Quanser Consulting Inc. (119 Spy Court, Markham, Ontariio, L3R 5H6, Canada), is depicted in Fig. 1. The DIP system consists of two aluminum rods; one seven inches long and the other 12 inches long. The aluminums are mounted on the linear servo base unit (IP02) consisting of a cart driven by a DC motor and two encoders. One encoder is used to measure the cart’s position while the other encoder is used to sense the short link angle. The longer link angle is measured by an encoder mounted on the pendulum itself. Based on these measurements of the cart position and the two pendulum angles, a voltage is computed using the LQR control theory to move the cart back and forth to balance the two pendulums in the upright, vertical position.
In 2000 when the city of New York went to upgrade their aging traffic control signals they made sure to protect the interests of the City over the long term. Having begun to upgrade their system in the past and stopped due to ballooning costs they knew not to repeat their mistakes. This time the vendor was required to provide the source code and a full development system. All equipment had to adopt the National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP) standards for actuated signal control, no "custom" (or semi-custom) implementations of NTCIP would be allowed. The City and subsequent third parties were allowed to make modifications to the software. Ownership of the software was left to the vendor; license rights allowed the City to deploy the software or derivative products at all intersections within the City. While making a significant push for openness in software, the solution fell short on adhering to a standard on the controller front. The city, “decided that the 2070 construct (with all internally interchangeable modules) was too expensive for the relatively simple intersections within the City.” (8) They mandated a functional and size compatible solution, but the internal construction, including the processor and memory, was left to the vendor.
a controller on a realtime simulator or a Rapid Control Proto- typing (RPC) unit, connected to a physical power network. This method offers easier debugging and implementation of controllers. Controller-Hardware-In-the-Loop (CHIL) refers to the connection of an actual controller to a simulated net- work . CHIL is used for controller testing at the early stag- es of design offering high experimental repeatability of events. Real-time simulation also has its limitations as the highly accurate simulation of the switching events of the con- verters, requires high frequency bandwidth. Increasing the frequency bandwidth leads to the implementation of smaller time-steps and more accurate models. Finally increasing the representation accuracy corresponds to an increase in compu- tational time .
Abstract: Objective: To study the imaging features of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in benign and malignant breast tumors, and explore its clinical value in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors. Method: From March 2012 to December 2015, 200 female patients with breast tumor aged from 20 to 65 years old were selected for this study. Definite diagnosis couldn’t be obtained by clinical conventional ultrasound technology, so CEUS was then used, and in addition, histopathological results of biopsy or surgical resection were obtained. In all, 200 tumor lesions were analyzed and Siemens Sonoline ultrasound machine was used with So- noVue as the ultrasonic contrast media. Real-time dual-frame contrast-enhanced ultrasound mode was selected in imaging; real-time dynamic image storage technology was uses in the whole process for whole recording; the images were played back after imaging for analysis frame by frame; the imaging features of CEUS were finally compared with histopathological results with the normal breast tissues surrounding lesions as reference samples. Results: In 200 cases of breast tumors, 80 cases of them were malignant tumors, and 120 cases of them were benign tumors. The imaging characteristics of malignant tumors such as the shape of lesions, vessels running, boundary of lesion, distribution of lesion contrast media and contrast media washout pattern, were compared with those of benign tumors, and the result showed significant differences between them (P<0.05), in addition, there was statistically significant difference in average maximum diameter of malignant tumor before and after the CEUS ((19.3±6.8) mm vs. (22.4±7.5) mm, P<0.05). Conclusions: The imaging of malignant breast tumors was character- ized by irregular shape and irregular vessel running, uneven distribution of contrast media within the lesions, fast clearance mode, and unclear lesion boundaries; in addition, the maximum diameter after CEUS was significantly larger than that before CEUS. These features are expected to provide the basis for distinguishing the difference of benign and malignant breast tumors.
Proportional Integral Derivative controller is one of the earlier control algorithm and strategies. The PID controller was first introduced in 1940 and has most widely used in the industries. The PID controller used for industries application are used to control the variables like fluid flow, pressure, level, temperature, consistency, density. The controller maintains the process output level so that difference between the process variable and the set point is minimal. The realtime temperature control system design for PID controller using Zeigler Nichols method, Cohen Coon method and Wange method are detailed .The intelligent fuzzy PID controller for temperature is implemented  for different operating range. The temperature process is highly nonlinear and design of robust controllers for such nonlinear systems is a challenge. This paper proposes a novel intelligent method for the control of temperature process. The traditional PI controllers which are in practice produce high overshoot and the design procedure seems complex. The proposed intelligent controller offers better performance in terms of overshoot and settling time and thus increases the robustness of the system. Section II provides the description of temperature process system and its modeling. Section III provides the control strategies applied. Section IV provides the results and discussion.
DC Motor plays a crucial role in research, industry and laboratory experiments because of their simplicity and low cost. The speed of the motor can be controlled by three methods namely terminal voltage control, armature rheostat control method and flux control method. Here in this paper terminal voltage control method is employed. A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response. A controlled DC-motor is developed allowing Arduino hardware which acts as the interface between the computer (LabVIEW) and the outside world. It primarily functions as a device that digitizes incoming analog signals so that the LabVIEW can interpret them. The user interface was developed in an Arduino environment. The aim is to control the speed of the dc motor using the Low Cost data acquisition board i.e. the Arduino board interfaced with PID Controller in LabVIEW.
Consider the intersection of a busy highway with load sensors and traffic lights as shown in fig 1. The sensor detects the traffic on the highway and accordingly it generates output signal for the controller. Controller controls the traffic signals according to inputs given by the sensors Thus; optimization of traffic light switching increases road capacity and traffic flow, and can prevent traffic congestions. The performance of the realtime Traffic Light Controller is compared with the Fixed Mode Traffic Light Controller. It is observed that the proposed Traffic Light Controller is more efficient than the conventional controller in respect of less waiting time and more distance travelled by average vehicles. Moreover, the designed system has simple architecture, fast response time, user friendliness and scope for further expansion.
We investigate the performance and predictability for the PARSEC benchmark suite . The Parsec suite focuses on emerging workloads and is said to be representative of next-generation shared-memory programs for chip-multiprocessors. We have created a multi-task workload where one or more ‘memory attackers’ run in the background to assess their interference on memory latency for a foreground task similar to prior work , . E.g., if there are four tasks in the experiment, one of them (the foreground task) is a Parsec benchmark and the others (background) are memory attackers. Fig. 6.5 shows an average execution time of the Parsec task over ten runs along with error bars denoting the maximum and minimum execution time. Shared LLC+bank (worst case of buddy allocation) has the highest latency and maximum vari- ance as indicated by the error bars. For comparison, we have included the single run of a Parsec program (‘parsec without attackers’). It uses the general buddy allocator and does not have memory attackers in the background. We observe that fluidanimate has the highest gain due to coloring: shared LLC+bank (58 seconds, standard deviation 0.18) compared to LLC+bank coloring (6.5 seconds, standard deviation 0.01) i.e., a 88.79% improvement in execution time. Swaptions has the lowest gain due to coloring: shared LLC+bank (4.2 seconds, standard de- viation 0.04) compared to LLC+bank coloring (3.2 seconds, standard deviation 0.01), i.e., a 23.81% improvement in execution time. Our observation is, with LLC+bank aware allocation we can reduce the task execution time, achieve better system utilization, and provide tighter bounds/less variance on execution time.
Boost converter are the most popular dc converter widely used to step up a low voltage to high voltage level. Boost converter is also known as step up converter. The output voltage can be regulated within the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) switching signal. A basic structure of dc to dc boost converter consists of resistor, dc power supply, inductor, capacitor, diode and power switch. Numerous researches have been done on dc to dc boost converter which cover wide range of applications such as in Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS), Photovoltaic (PV) system(Jung et al., 2011), Electrical Vehicle (EV) system and grid connected (S. H. Hosseini, Haghighian, Danyali, & Aghazadeh, 2012). Several issues have been discussed in order to optimize the performance in terms of efficiency, response time, output voltage and current ripple, size and weight. Besides, numerous close loop techniques had been proposed for example PID controller, Fuzzy Logic, One Cycle Control (Smedley, 1995) and Artificial Neural Network. Apart from that, some researchers came out with new circuit configurations, soft- switching technique (Kazimierczuk, 1988), high frequency power switches design and robust controller (Buccella, Cecati, & Latafat, 2012).
Statistical analysis was performed by using MedCalc (Version 188.8.131.52; MedCalc Software, Mariakerke, Belgium). Median (in- terquartile range [IQR]) contrast leakage, DCE contrast, and GRE hematoma volumes were calculated and compared between 70- and 80-kW power groups and between each burst-length category by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman correlation coeffi- cients were calculated for increasing burst length and GRE hema- toma and DCE volumes. Correlation among the rate of contrast leak, GRE hematoma volume, and mean arterial pressure ratio was assessed for each burst-length group. The association be- tween burst length and morphologic pattern of contrast leakage (CE versus PCL) was tested with the Fisher exact test. We com- pared the rate of leakage, hematoma, and DCE volumes between CE and PCL using the Mann-Whitney U test. P ⬍ .05 was consid- ered significant.
The Controller Area Network (CAN) convention is broadly utilized as a part of minimal effort installed frameworks. CAN utilizes "Non Return to Zero" (NRZ) coding and incorporates a bit-stuffing system. The CAN is equipped for giving rapid and high limit information for an extensive number of parameters with more effectiveness. Most network applications follow a layered approach to system implementation. This systematic approach enables interoperability between products from different manufacturers. A standard was created by the International Standards Organization (ISO) as a template to follow for this layered approach. It is called the ISO Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Network Layering Reference Model. The CAN protocol itself implements most of the lower
ABSTRACT: This Memory is an inevitable component of the electronic design. There has been dynamic progression in the design of electronic system. The growth in the technology externalizes the need for systems operating at high speed. Hence there has been sequential progression in the development of the memory designs form basic structure RAM, then to DRAM further SDRAM, the generation of memory devices DDR, DDR2 and lately DDR3 SDRAM. It mainly aims the interaction of memory and processor. The video application system requires large bandwidth. Live video transfer requires a system operating at very high bandwidth to capture the data from the camera and store it. The project is implemented with Xilinx ML605 Virtex-6 hardware platform. The reconfigurable attribute of FPGA is advantageous. The controller design features an economic memory design. This proposed design involves designing the memory controller for DDR3 SDRAM with IP and designed The DDR3 is 3rd generation DDR memory. It has 8n pre- fetch. It is implemented with shared DIMM namely SODIMM referred as (Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module) and the size smaller than DIMM. memory controller. The results can be are verified with simulation tool and realtime display of the stored data.
E. Existing DDR2 SDRAM memory controller design Figure presents the entire memory interface design for memory controller from user end to the DDR2 SDRAM. User interface connects the user design to memory controller through physical interface. Memory controller is mainly divided into two sections i.e. front end and back end of memory controller. Front end design provides a connection for reading and writing the data request by the user design and also provides a data transfer from user to the external memory. Back end design is employed at the physical interface end, which provides necessary signals and timings for clock, control, address, initialization, read and write of memory devices .
Abstract—In order to attain higher manufacturing efficiency, “dual (two) servo systems” are widely used in advanced Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machine tools. A well-known example is the linear motor driven gantry type of micro machine tools where dual servos are employed to drive the heavier gantry axis. I propose Sliding Mode controllers for the servo drive system. To get high performances, we have to control the input variable in uncertainties and disturbance. Two cases are discussed for each control scheme. Normal case, parameter variation case, and disturbance case are considered. When PI Controller is implemented in the system, its gives better performance compared to other controllers, but results are ineffective for disturbance case. Sliding mode control is then implemented. It is observed that system performance increases when compared to PI for parameter variation case and for disturbance case which shows the robustness of SMC.